What are these people doing?Why are the protesting?Who might they be?
Ch 20 roaring 20's 3
America and the 1920’sU.S. History II HonorsBy Ms. White
Chapter 20 Politics of the 1920’s Chapter Objective: To trace the political and social changes after World War I and throughout the decade of the 1920’s.
1920’s Unit Principles Objective Evaluate the legacy of the 1920s in America. Essential Question What should historians call the 1920s?
Bellwork:What would you call the age in which we currently live?Recall some of the topics we’ve studied this year. Whatare some examples? Industrialization Immigration Urbanization Progressivism Imperialism World WarWhat should historians call the 1920’s?Create a name for the 1920’s
America in Context Many other events were going on around the world. Remember History does not happen in a vacuum! Each group will read a timeline of events for their assigned country. Identify 2-3 key events How might these events influence America? How might America have influenced these events? Be prepared to share with the class
America in Context: AsiaIn India, Mohandes Gandhibegins his resistance movementagainst British rule In China, the Chinese Civil War between Nationalists and Communists begins in 1924 and does not end until 1950 with a Communist victory
America in Context: Asia Turkish Revolution against the Allies is fought between 1919 and 1923 resulting in Turkish independence
America in Context: Europe Britain and France begin paying back war debt to the United States Ireland gains its independence from Britain in 1921
America in Context: Europe Amid economic troubles in Germany, a young war veteran named Adolf Hitler becomes Chairman of the Nazi Party in 1921. Three years later his party earns 6.5% of the popular vote in elections In Italy, fascist leader Benito Mussolini comes to power in 1922
America in Context: Europe In 1922 the Bolshevik faction of the Russian communist party consolidates its power and officially creates the USSR (Soviet Union) Two years later Vladimir Lenin, the founder of Russian communism dies resulting in a power struggle to replace him with Joseph Stalin eventually emerging on top
America in Context: Latin America The Mexican Civil War ends in 1920 Pancho Villa is assassinated in Mexico in 1923
America in Context: 1920s Births Che Guevara Martin Luther President Jimmy President King Jr. Carter George H. W. Malcolm X Senator Robert Bush Elie Wiesel Kennedy Margaret Jacqueline Stanley Kubrick Thatcher Kennedy Marlon Brando Fidel Castro Anne Frank Marilyn Monroe Ray Bradbury Helen Thomas Audrey Hepburn Pope John Paul II Queen Elizabeth II Kurt Vonnegut Maya Angelou
Understanding the 20s F. Scott Fitzgerald and the Age of Excess In groups of 3 or 4, read through the essay by former Cambridge professor Joshua Zeitz. Highlight key words or phrases that provide details about what life was like in the 1920’s Create a wordle using the words or phrases that you feel best captures life in the 1902’s
Exit Ticket What should historians call the 1920’s? Traditional vs. Modern values Middle Class Growth The age of big personalities The growth of media American anomaly The path to Depression Yolo!
People of the 1920s We will be using influential people in the 1920s to help us study important concepts We will study Sacco & Vanzetti Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover Henry Ford Al Capone John T. Scopes F. Scott Fitzgerald Zelda Fitzgerald Babe Ruth Charles Lindbergh
Chapter 20 Section 1“America Struggles with Postwar Issues” Learning Objective: Understand how fear and prejudice of radicals and foreigners led to persecution & injustice in American life. Be able to give an example of an injustice from the 1920’s. Main Idea: A desire for normality after the war and a fear of communism and foreigners led to postwar isolationism Why It Matters Now: Americans continue to debate today political isolationism and immigration policy. Terms, People, & Events: Nativism, communism, isolationism, anarchism, Sacco & Vanzetti, Quota System, Red Scare, Palmer Raids, KKK
Effects of WWI in Europe What are European countries like after World War I is over?
Effects of World War I in America What is America like after WWI?
Effects of WWI on African Americans After slavery was abolished by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 what types of jobs were available for African Americans? Where are those jobs located?
Effects of WWI on African Americans? How did WWI create new job opportunities for African Americans? Where were those jobs located?
The Great MigrationMovement of African Americans from Southern Farmsto Northern Cities.
Effects of WWI on WomenHow did WWIcreateopportunitiesfor women?
Effects of WWI on VeteransHow might WWIveterans feel when theyreturn from the war andare unable to findwork?Who might they directtheir anger andfrustration towards?
Effects of WWI on Immigrants Why did Americans turn against immigrants after World War I?
Effects of WWI in America Accelerated America’s emergence as the world’s greatest industrial power Contributed to the movement of African Americans from southern farms to northern cities called the Great Migration Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments among mainstream Americans Brought over 1 million women into the work force Hastened (Sped up) the passage of the 19th amendment women’s right to vote
Effects of WWI in America During WWI workers were not allowed to strike because the government would not let anything interfere with the war effort. Returning soldiers faced unemployment or replaced women and minorities. Cost of living doubled. Farmers and factory workers suffered from decreased production. After the war union membership increases, as did strikes for higher wages and better working conditions.
Post War Trends Fear of communism and foreigners leads to postwar isolation.
Nativism Prejudice against foreign born people.
Isolationism A policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs.
Think-Pair-Share What is anarchism? What is communism? What is socialism? Why is there opposition to these in the United States?
Anarchism What is the root of the word “anarchism”? What does anarchy mean? Anarchists (people who support anarchism) Don’t believe in any government Government should beoverthrown with violence
What is Communism? An economic and political theory based on single party rule by a dictatorship. Created by Karl Marx From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.” –Karl Marx The public ownership of property to create a completely equal society All the people/workers will own allof the ways of making money (the land, the machines, the stores, etc.)
Communism End to private businesses No way for one person to become very rich Political systems are progressing and communism is seen as the next and final step from capitalism and democracy Believed in the creation of an international communist society brought about by a revolutionary party
Communism To equalize wealth and power communist put an end to private property and replaced private ownership of business with government ownership of factories, railroads, and other businesses. Perceived as a threat to the American way of life
Why considered a threat toAmerica? The Declaration of Independence promises “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Communism guarantees economic equality American democracy advocates for the use of the vote to bring about change Communism advocates violent revolution American democracy advocates governance by the people and freedom of the people Communism is totalitarian and oppressive
Socialism An economic and political system. Government owns major: private businesses (banks) public services (hospitals &healthcare)
American Fears of Socialism Perceived as a threat to the American way of life because people believed it was on the way to communism and thus a threat to individual’s right to private wealth To equalize wealth and power the government would make wealthy people contribute more money to taxes so that there is not a huge difference between rich and poor.
Red Scare Symbolic red flag “Reds” Panic in the U.S. that began in 1919 after Revolutions in Russia overthrew the czarist regime. Vladimir Lenin and his followers “The Bolsheviks” established a new communist state. Cried out for a worldwide revolution to abolish capitalism everywhere
Communist Party in the U.S. 70,000 joined including some members of the IWW (International Workers of the World)
The Case Against the Reds Read the abbreviated primary source essay written by U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer & answer the following questions. What revolution is the author referring to? What will the revolution destroy? Who is spreading these ideas? What effect will this have on America? What does Palmer plan to do? What fears of the time are reflected in the document?
Palmer Raids Several dozen bombs were mailed to government & business owners the public feared that Communists were J Edgar taking over. Hoover U.S. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer took Mitchell actions to combat this Palmer “Red Scare” Palmer appointed J Edgar Hoover to hunt down suspected communists, socialists, and anarchists
Palmer Raids Trampled civil rights by invading homes & offices & jailing suspects without allowing them legal counsel Hundreds of foreigners were deported without trials Failed to turn up evidence of a revolutionary 10,000 people arrested conspiracy 556 people deported
Palmer Raids Who is the person in the middle? What does he appear to be doing? What is happening to the boat? What does it represent? What’s being thrown from the window? What are the people holding in their hands? What does it represent What event in U.S. history does this portray?
April 15, 1920Warm Up Braintree MA Should immigrants A security guard and a be looked at with paymaster transporting more suspicion than money for the Slater- American citizens by Morrill Shoe Company the American are shot & killed by government? Why or robbers why not? Robbers sped away but plenty of eye witnesses saw the commotion
Trial of Sacco and VanzettiAn Italian shoemaker and a fish peddler are arrested andcharged with robbery and murder of a factory paymasterand his guard in South Braintree, MassachusettsItalian immigrants, socialists, and anarchists
Trial of Sacco & VanzettiOn your packet is a blue letter. J means Jury P means Prosecution D means DefenseBreak down into groups according to your letterand review the evidence chart.Prosecution should pick the best arguments forSacco and Vanzetti’s guilt.Defense should pick the best defensearguments.
Trial of Sacco & Vanzetti Jury your job is to listen to all of the evidence and determine whether or not the accused suspects are guilty beyond a reasonable doubt (an abiding certainty, not no doubt, but a reasonable amount of doubt, confident you did the right thing) In groups, discuss your findings and come to a consensus on whether or not Sacco and Vanzetti are guilty of robbery and murder beyond a reasonable doubt.
Trial of Sacco & Vanzetti Prosecution for Sacco/Vanzetti present evidence to prove Sacco’s guilt Defense for Sacco/Vanzetti present evidence to prove Sacco’s innocence Cross examination Closing arguments
Did Sacco and Vanzetti get a fair trial? Asserted their innocence and provided alibis Circumstantial evidence Prejudicial judge Jury found them guilty and sentenced them to death Executed in 1927
What is happening in the photo?Where is the protest taking place?
What are these men doing? Who might they be?Why are they protesting? How can you tell?
What is the headline? Who published the newspaper? Based on all of these images, what can you conclude about the trial of Sacco & Vanzetti?
Limiting Immigration Wave of nativist sentiment “Keep American for Americans” became prevailing attitude Feared that immigrants would work for lower wages and take away jobs Fear of immigrants as anarchists, communists, or socialists Limited immigration from southern & eastern Europe (Catholics & Jews) Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set a limit on the number of immigrants who could enter the U.S. & prohibited Japanese immigration
1. Where are the people trying to get to?2. What is Uncle Sam doing?3. What is the caption?4. According to this cartoon what is the solution to the problem?
The Klan Rises Again Ku Klux Klan devoted to 100% Americanism White male native born Protestant Opposed: Blacks Jews Catholics foreigners Used violence 4-5 million members
Effects of WWI in America During WWI workers were not allowed to strike because the government would not let anything interfere with the war effort. Returning soldiers faced unemployment or took jobs away from women and minorities. Cost of living doubled. Farmers and factory workers suffered from decreased production. After the war union membership increases, as did strikes for higher wages and better working conditions.
Bellwork WWI is over, Americans are struggling to rebuild their broken lives, the voice of angry workers can be silenced no longer. Despite public criticism, many people risk loosing their jobs to strike and join unions. The streets became a battleground for fair pay and better working conditions. Would you strike and risk your families welfare? Do city workers have a responsibility not to go on strike? Should the government intervene in disputes between labor and business?
Labor Unrest During WWI government would not allow workers to strike because it would interfere with the war effort 1919 saw more then 3,000 strikes that included 4 million workers Employers didn’t want to give raises or have the employees join unions Newspapers labeled striking workers as Communist
Boston Police Strike Boston Police had not been given a raise since beginning of WWI & had been denied the right to unionize When workers asked for a raise they were fired Mass governor Calvin Coolidge called in the National Guard to put down the strike Strike ended and new policemen were hired People praised Coolidge for saving Boston & the nation from communism & anarchy In 1920 he became Warren Harding’s vice presidential running mate
Steel Mill Strike Steel mill workers wanted the right to negotiate for shorter working hours, higher wages, right to form a union U.S. Steel Corp refused to meet with workers reps 300,000 workers went on strike Strike breakers- employees who agree to work during a strike Workers were beaten by federal troops & state militia The Companies instituted a propaganda campaign to link the strikers with communism Won an 8 hour work day but did not get the right to form a union
Coal Miners Strike United Mine Workers of America led by John L. Lewis protested low wages and long workdays Attorney General Mitchell Palmer obtained a court order sending the miners back to work Strikes continued in defiance of the court order President Wilson hired an arbitrator to put an end to the dispute Coal miners received a 27% wage increase
Chapter 20 Section 2 “The Harding Presidency” Objective: Understand how political corruption and scandals resulted in distrust of the American government. Be able to provide an example of corruption and scandal and its effect. Main Idea: The Harding Administration appealed to America’s desire for calm & peace after war, but resulted in scandal. Why It Matters Now: The government must guard against scandal and corruption to merit public trust. Terms, People, & Events:Warren G. Harding, Charles Evan Hughes, Fordney-McCumber Tariff, Ohio gang, Teapot Dome Scandal, Albert B. Fall
The Scandalous Presidency What was President Harding’s administration accused of in the article, “Senate Demands Information on Teapot Dome 1922” ?
Warren G. Harding “looked like a president ought to look” “normalcy” simpler days before the Progressive Era and Great War Soothing speeches calmed the nation Favored a limited role for government in business affairs and social reform Died suddenly from a stroke/heart attack First presidential election since passage of 19th amendment
Washington Naval Conference Harding invited the major powers to a conference in Washington to discuss arms reduction Post WWI problems about arms control, war debts, and the reconstruction of war torn countries
Washington Naval Conference Russia was left out because it was communist Secretary of State Charles Evan Hughes recommended that the five major powers stop building warships for 10 years and scrap many of those already existing For the first time powerful nations agreed to disarm
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 fifteen nations signed a pact which renounced war as a national policy Pact was futile because it had no means of reinforcement
Kellogg-Briand PactWhich 15 countries signed the pact in 1928?
High Tariffs and Reparations Britain and France had to pay back the billions they borrowed from the U.S. Two ways to pay off war debt: 1. Sell goods to the U.S. 2. Collect reparations from Germany
Fordney-McCumber Tariff What is a tariff? Raised taxes on U.S. imports to 60% What does an Highest level ever increase in tariffs do Protected U.S. to the price of goods? businesses from Who benefits from foreign competition higher tariffs? Made it impossible for What group in society Britain and France to would not support sell enough goods to high tariffs? the U.S. to repay debt
Germany Experienced terrible inflation $10 and $20 bills were worth only nickels and dimes Defaulted (failed to make payments) to Allies France invaded Germany To avoid war U.S. banker Charles G. Dawes was sent to negotiate loans
According to this chart, what did Germany give to the Allies?According to this chart, what did the Allies give to the U.S.?What is the benefit of this system?What is the disadvantage of this system?
Dawes Plan American investors loaned Germany $2.5 billion to pay back Britain and France Britain and France then paid the U.S. The U.S. was repaid with its own money Britain and France disliked U.S. for not paying for its share of the war U.S. benefited from the defeat of Germany while other countries lost Charles G. Dawes millions of lives U.S. thought Britain and France were irresponsible financially
Ohio Gang President Harding’s poker playing cronies whom he elected to his cabinet Corrupt friends used their offices to become wealthy through graft.
Ohio Gang Charles R. Forbes, head of the Veterans Bureau, was caught illegally selling government and hospital supplies to private companies Colonel Thomas W. Miller, head of the Office of Alien Property, was caught accepting a bribe
Teapot Dome Scandal U.S. government set aside oil-rich public lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills California for use by the U.S. Navy U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, got the land transferred from the navy to his department Fall secretly leased the land to private oil companies He received more than $400,000 in loans, bonds, and cash He was found guilty of bribery and became he first person to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet post.
Harding’s Scandalous Presidency “I have no trouble with my enemies…But my…friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor nights!” Who might have said this quote? Why might he have said this? President Harding died in office in 1923 of a stroke. Many people speculate that the stresses of scandal are what killed him
Chapter 20 Section 3 “Business of America” Learning Objective:Understand the impact of the automobile in America and be able to describe how it led to changes in architecture, landscape, travel, business, labor, etc. Main Idea: Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920s as America’s standard of living soared. Why It Matters Now: Business, Technological & social developments of the 1920s launched the era of modern consumerism Terms & Names: Calvin Coolidge, urban sprawl, installment plan
Discussion Questions What products do we use to make our lives easier? What might life without basic electrical appliances such as, refrigerator, washing machine, cell phone, computers be like?
Calvin Coolidge Republican Party Pro-business- supports limited government intervention Keep taxes down and business profits up Give business more available credit in order to expand High tariffs on foreign imports helped U.S. manufacturers “the chief business of the American people is business…The man who builds a factory builds a temple-the man who works there worships there.”
1920’s American Dream What is the America Dream? Americans were buying more products and living better lives than ever before. Many Americans were able to buy cars. Henry Ford introduced the Model A in 1927. The automobile had a profound impact on American lives and the American landscape http://www.history.com/topics/model- t/videos#car-invented-world-drastically-changed What were some changes brought on by the automobile?
Ford 1927 the last Model T Ford rolled off the assembly line 1 million New Yorkers mobbed show rooms to view the new Model A.Difference between theModel T and the Model A Automobile became thewas that the T only came backbone of Americanin black while the new economy in the 1920’smodel came in NiagaraBlue and Arabian Sand
Impact of Automobile Helped the economy boom Led to the urban sprawl Spurred the paving of roadsReduced isolation of farm life Gave people more freedom to travel
Impact of Automobile Building of service stations, garages, motels,fast food restaurants, shopping centersGave Americans a Changed architectural styles-new status symbol driveways & garages
Airplane Industry Established new means of transportation for people and goods Gave people greater freedom to travel Charles Lindbergh- first transatlantic flight
Alternating Electrical Current Made it possible to distribute electric power over greater areas Led to the electrification of homes and widespread use of electrical appliances Made housewives work easier (?) freeing them for other activities Led to more uniform, conformist lifestyles Helped the economy to boom Refrigerators, toasters, cooking ranges http://www.history.com/videos/1920s- inventions#popularity-of-cb-radio
The Dawn of Modern Advertising Objective: Understand how 1920s advertisements launched the era of modern consumerism. Be able to create an advertisement for a new 1920s consumer product using advertising techniques. Agenda: Identify ad techniques used in 2012 Super Bowl commercials. Analyze a 1920’s advertisement. Create an advertisement for a consumer product from the 1920’s using the techniques we studied.
Modern Advertising Hired psychologists to study how to appeal to people’s desire for youthfulness, beauty, health, and wealth Created a greater demand for consumer goods Increased sales and profits Turned luxury items into necessities- mouthwash, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, toaster ovens, etc Helped the economy boom
Advertising Techniques Happy & attractive people Beautiful Popular music, songs or Famous jingles people/celebrities Sex appeal Macho Fear Femininity Symbols Repetition Humor Fitting in The good old days Cute Culture Testimonials Buy one get one free Free trial offers Flattery testimonial
Super Bowl Advertisements For each ad identify as Mr. Murphy & I will model identifying the advertisement many different techniques used in the first techniques being used to commercial as an example for sell you the product. you http://msn.foxsports.com/vide Record your responses o/shows/super-bowl- on your note taking commercials-2011 sheet. http://msn.foxsports.com/vide o/shows/super-bowl- Be prepared to share commercials- your responses with the 2012?vid=d2063583-f3cf- rest of the class. 49d3-8c57-e8252976dbd0
1920s Advertisement With a partner or a small group of 3 complete the print advertisement analysis worksheet for the 1920s advertisement you were given. Create an advertisement for this product using one or more of the advertising techniques we discussed.
Advertisement Sharing Share the advertisement you created with the rest of the class. Identify what advertisement technique you utilized and who is your target audience.
Installment Plan Helped the economy to boom Helped to create a false sense of prosperity Allowed people to buy goods over an extended period of time without having to put up much money at the time of purchase