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  2. 2. MEDICAL & SURGICAL ASEPSISTERMINOLOGY Acquired immunity-Host receives natural orartificial antibodies produced by anothersource. Active Immunity -Host produces antibodies inrepose to natural (infectious agents) or artificial(I.e. vaccines) antigens Antibodies- Immunoglobulin-defend againstinfections Antigens- Substance that induces a state ofsensitivity or immune responsiveness(immunity) Antiseptics - Inhibit the growth of
  3. 3.  Cross infection- infection transmitted betweenindividuals infected with different pathogenicorganisms. Carrier- A person who harbours pathogenicorganism of a disease in his body withoutshowing signs & symptoms of a disease. Droplet infection- It is the infection of individualby means of fine particles of saliva & mucousthat are expelled from the nose & mouth ofanother person during coughing, sneezing ortalking. Fomites – Objects which have been in contactwith a contagious disease are capable oftransmitting the
  4. 4.  Medical Asepsis- All practices intended toconfine, limit the growth, and transmission ofmicroorganisms; Clean technique Asepsis- Freedom from disease-causingmicroorganisms Soiled, contaminated -means likely to containmicroorganisms which may be capable ofproducing disease Surgical asepsis - Pracices that keep an areafree of all microorganisms Sepsis- State of infection Septicemia- Systemic infection with bacteria Acute infection - Appear suddenly, last a shorttime
  5. 5.  Disinfectants- Agents that destroy pathogensother than spores Infection- Invasion of body tissue bymicroorganisms & proliferation there Disease- Detectable alteration in normal tissuefunction Virulence - Refers to microorganisms ability toproduce disease Communicable disease - One that can betransmitted to an individual by direct or indirectcontact. Infection- Entry & Multiplication of diseasecausing organisms in the body. Fumigation – process of disinfection byexposure to the fumes of a vapourisedgermicide.
  6. 6.  Chronic infection- May occur slowly overa long period and may last months oryears Nosocomial infection- Infections developduring a clients stay in facility ormanifest right after discharge portal of entry -How microorganismsenter the body Bacteriostate – Agent that inhibit thegrowth of bacteria Bactericide – Agent that power to kill
  7. 7.  Fumigation- Process of disinfection by exposureto the vapuorised germicide. Isolation- Separation of infected persons fromthe non infected persons for the period ofcommunicability under conditions which willprevent transmission of infection to others. Sterilization- Destruction of all themicroorganisms pathogenic & nonpathogenicincluding their spores. Quarantine- Detention or isolation of wellpersons who have come in contact with aninfectious disease for a period of time equal tothe longest incubation period of that disease. Incubation period- Period between entry ofpathogen & occurrence of symptoms ofdisease.
  8. 8. MEDICAL ASEPSIS Medical asepsis, sometimes called cleantechnique, is based on maintainingcleanliness to prevent the spread ofinfectious diseases and to assure that theenvironment is as free of microorganismsas possible. Medical asepsis involvesconfining microorganisms to specificareas and making objects either clean
  9. 9. Cornerstones of Medical Asepsis * Know what is dirty * Know what is clean * Know what is sterile * Keep these conditions separate * Remedy contamination
  10. 10. PRINCIPLESThe basic principles of medical asepsis include: Cleanse hands frequently following CDC’s HandHygiene Guidelines. Keep soiled items and equipment from touchingclothing. Do not place soiled bed linens or other items onthe floor. Avoid having the patient cough, sneeze, orbreathe directly on others. Move equipment away from you whensweeping, dusting, or scrubbing articles. Clean the least soiled items first then the moresoiled
  11. 11.  Dispose off soiled or used items directlyinto the appropriate containers. Pour liquids that are to be discardeddirectly into the drain to avoid splatteringin the sink and onto you. Avoid leaning against sinks, supplies, andequipment. Avoid touching your eyes, face, andmouth. Use practices of personal grooming thathelp prevent spreading microorganisms. Follow your facility’s guidelines forisolation and barrier
  12. 12.  All body fluids from any patient isconsidered contaminated The healthcare team and theenvironment can be a source ofcontamination for the patient. Isolate the disease not the patient.Medical aseptic practices are involved inall nursing activities becausemicroorganisms are always present inthe
  13. 13.  Microorganism are located everywhere-a. in the airb. in the waterc. in foodd. in clothes Not all microorganisms are harmful. Some areused to make medications such as penicillin. Microorganisms can spread by:1.touching someone who has an infection.2.touching the linens or other belongings of aperson who has an infection.3.Sneezing or coughing4.Handling or consuming contaminated food,medications or
  14. 14. Essential components of maintainingmedical asepsis include:- 1. Hand washing 2. Utilizing gloves, gown and mask asindicated 3. Cleaning / Disinfection of equipment 4. Handling linens in ways that preventgerms from
  15. 15. SURGICAL ASEPSISSurgical asepsis, also called steriletechnique, is used in the operating roomdelivery room, during surgicalprocedures, catheterization, and duringdressing
  16. 16. PRINCIPLESBasic principles include: Only a sterile object can touch another sterileobject. Open sterile packages so that the first edge ofthe wrapper is directed away from the workerto avoid the possibility of a sterile wrappertouching non-sterile clothing. Avoid spilling any solution on a cloth or paperused as a field for sterile set up. Hold sterile objects above the waist level. Avoid talking, coughing, sneezing, and reachingover a sterile field or
  17. 17.  Never walk away from or turn your backon a sterile field. All items brought into contact withbroken skin or used to penetrate the skinin order to inject substances into thebody, or to enter normally sterile bodycavities, should be sterile Use dry, sterile forceps when necessary. Consider the edge (outer 1”) of a sterilefield to be contaminated. Consider an object contaminated if youhave any doubt as to its
  18. 18.  Remedy contamination immediately The patient should not be a source ofcontamination The OT Team should not be a source ofcontamination- no infection, properapparel, no jewelry, no long nails or nailpolish The surgical scrub must be donemeticulously The OT Technique of the surgeon is ofutmost importance Recognize potential environmentalcontamination- proper room cleaning,Doors kept
  19. 19.  Gowns are considered sterile in front fromchest height to the operative level Sterile persons should keep hands in sight andkeep them at or above waist level Contamination occurs when sterile gown anddrapes are permeated Tables are sterile only at the operative level All items used within the sterile field must besterile Sterile persons touch only sterile items orsterile areas Unsterile personnel stay beyond one foot of thesterile field When contamination occurs, take care of itimmediately Break in technique is pointed out and action istaken to change situation i.e. change
  20. 20.  Prevent excessive air currents around thesterile areas. (Moving fast, flapping of thecloths & drapes ) Keep the sterile field dry Each sterile supply should be clearlylabeled. Hold the transfer forceps pointingdownwards. Transfer forceps & the container shouldbe sterilized daily. Do not return the unused sterile objectsto the container , once they have beentaken
  22. 22. Standard precautions Standard (previously known as universal)precautions are the practices adopted byall healthcare workers when potentiallycoming into contact with any patient’sblood or body fluids. They are a set of principles designed tominimise exposure to and transmission ofa wide variety of micro-organisms. Since every patient is a potential infectionrisk, it is essential that you apply standardprecautions to all patients at all
  23. 23. Standard infection control precautionsinclude:- Hand hygiene Protective clothing and equipmentIsolation nursing (transmission-basedprecautions) The safe disposal of sharps Laundrymanagement A clean clinical environment Decontamination of equipment Management of exposure to blood andbody fluids Education of patients, carers andhealthcare
  24. 24. Standard precautions – Apply good basic hygiene practices with regularhand washing after touching body fluids &contaminated items. Cover existing wounds or skin lesions withwaterproof dressings. Avoid carrying out invasive procedures ifsuffering from chronic skin lesions on hands. Avoid contamination of clothes by usingappropriate personal protective equipment. Protect mucous membranes of eyes, mouth andnose from splashes of blood or blood-stainedfluids. Prevent puncture wounds, cuts and abrasionsin the presence of blood or blood-stained bodyfluids. Avoid using sharps wherever
  25. 25.  Use safe handling procedures for handling anddisposal of needles and other sharps. Use approved procedures for sterilisation anddisinfection of instruments and equipment. Clear spillages of blood and other body fluidspromptly and disinfect contaminated surfaces. Institute a procedure for safe disposal ofcontaminated waste Follow statutory requirements for the safedisposal of used and infected linen Make sure the environment of patients isvisibly clean and free from dust and dirt. Wear nonsterile gloves when touching bodyfluids & contaminated
  26. 26.  Ensure that reusable equipments is notused for the care another patient Handle & transport body fluids &contaminated items
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