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Standard precaution

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Standard Precaution
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Standard precaution

  1. 1. Infection Control Department
  2. 2. Standard Precaution Group of practices of infection prevention and control infectious agents, based on a principle that all blood, body fluids secretions, excretions (except sweat), non intact skin and mucous membranes may contain transmissible pathogen. It applies to all patients regardless of their diagnosis
  3. 3. Elements of Standard Precaution 1. Hand Hygiene 2. Gown 3. Mask 4. Face Protection 5. Gloves 6. Safe injection practices 7. Patient Care Equipment/ Devices 8. Environmental Control 9. Textile and laundry 10. Worker Safety 11. Patient Placement and Transport 12. Respiratory Hygiene / Cough Etiquette 13. Infection Control Practices for Lumbar Puncture
  4. 4. HandHygiene Types of Hand Hygiene Hand wash - 40-60 seconds Hand rub - 20-30 seconds Hand scrub - 5 minutes (first wash of the day); 2-3 minutes (in between operations)
  5. 5. “5 Moments for Hand Hygiene”
  6. 6. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) “A variety of barriers to protect HCW’s mucous membranes, airways, skin, and clothing (whenever blood/body fluids splashes are expected)”
  7. 7. PersonalProtectiveEquipment (PPE) • Gloves – Use when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, contaminated items; for touching mucus membranes and nonintact skin. • Gowns – Use during procedures and patient care activities when contact of clothing/ exposed skin with blood/body fluids, secretions, or excretions is anticipated. • Mask, goggles or face shield – Use during patient care activities likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions
  8. 8. Textile and Laundry Key principles for handling soiled laundry 1) not shaking the items 2) avoiding contact of one’s body and personal clothing 3) dispose soiled items water soluble bag 4) dispose non soiled items in blue bag
  9. 9. Safe Work Practices  Prevention of needle sticks and other sharps-related injuries  Precautions during aerosol-generating procedures  Prevention of mucous membrane contact
  10. 10. Safe Injection Practices Do not RE-CAP the needle!
  11. 11. Needles / Sharps : *Disposed immediately after use in puncture resistant container *Not placed on environmental surfaces *Not recapped if recapping is essential use one hand technique (scoop) *Close sharp container when ¾ full and 7 days maximum.
  12. 12. Never reuse needles, syringes, or lancets. Never administer medications from the same syringe to more than one patient, even if the needle is changed or you are injecting through an intervening length of IV tubing. Do not enter a medication vial, bag, or bottle with a used syringe or needle.
  13. 13.  Never use medications packaged as single-dose or single-use for more than one patient. This includes ampoules, bags, and bottles intravenous solutions. Always use aseptic technique when preparing and administering injections
  14. 14. Patient Placement and Transport Determine patient placement based on: • Route(s) of transmission of the known / suspected infectious agent ,Availability of single rooms and options for cohorting (patients with the same pathogen in the same room) • patients with higher risk for pathogen transmission are prioritize to be admitted in a single room (e.g., uncontained secretions, or wound drainage;) .
  15. 15. Patient Placement and Transport Healthcare worker transporting a patient with transmissible infection should contain the site of infection e.g. apply a dressing over a surgical site infection & offer a surgical mask for a coughing patient. Health care workers should not wear PPE in hospital corridors
  16. 16. Respiratory Hygiene / Cough Etiquette • A measures to contain respiratory secretions in patients and accompanying individuals who have signs and symptoms of a respiratory infection. Cover the mouths/noses when coughing or sneezing. Use and dispose of tissues. Perform hand hygiene if hands have been in contact with respiratory secretions.
  17. 17. RespiratoryHygiene/Cough Etiquette Elements:  Post signs at entrances and in strategic places (e.g., elevators, cafeterias) within ambulatory and inpatient settings with instructions to patients and other persons with symptoms of a respiratory infection  Provide tissues and no-touch receptacles (e.g., foot- pedal operated lid or open, plastic-lined waste basket) for disposal of tissues.  Provide resources and instructions for performing hand hygiene in or near waiting areas in ambulatory and inpatient settings; provide conveniently-located dispensers of alcohol- based hand rubs and, where sinks are available, supplies for hand washing.
  18. 18. Patient Care Equipment and instruments/devices  All patient care equipment that is soiled with blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions shall be handled in a manner that will prevent skin and mucous membrane exposures.  Wear PPE (e.g., gloves, gown), according to the level of anticipated contamination, when handling patient-care equipment and instruments/devices that is visibly soiled or may have been in contact with blood or body fluids. 19
  19. 19. Patient Care Equipment and instruments/devices-(cont’d)  Remove organic material from critical and semi-critical instrument/devices, using recommended cleaning agents before high level disinfection and sterilization to enable effective disinfection and sterilization processes.  Single use, disposable items must be disposed of properly.  Make sure that reusable equipment has been cleaned and reprocessed appropriately, prior to use on another patient. 20
  20. 20. Infection Control Practices for Special Lumbar Puncture Procedures Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommend that : individual placing a catheter or injecting material into the spinal or epidural should wear a face mask

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