Soft Skills --Leadership Lessons

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Leadership ideas for HR PROFESSIONALS .

In This presentations essential and vital leadership concepts are outlined.
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Leaders are readers and readers are only leaders.Therefore please read my latest e book in amazon.com.amazon.in.The Invisible hand -How to reward employees...

Leadership is not about leader it has followers' influence, and situations and leader's own personality.
how to grip these ? read here

A good leader must have courage ,conviction, and clarity of the vision besides sound knowledge, and wisdom.People rally around leaders because of trust

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  • In the first module we talked about the basics of leadership. From completely autocratic to democratic styles vary in range We also saw how personality factor affects the leadership In this module we will go a little more deeper to understand few of the outstanding research efforts in modeling the leadership concepts.
  • Leadership as a subject matter has been of interest for many behavioral researchers. It is relevant to understand the dynamics of being leader or being in the leadership role.
  • Many believe that there are some inborn traits that make one a leader, how much of that is true? There is this classic case of the perception people had about the president of USA. He has to be tall, good looking , well groomed etc. Galdwell the well known author of Blink speaks about waren harding the 29 th president who was compromise candidate. Traditionally, polls of historians and scholars have ranked Harding as one of the worst Presidents; primarily due to the multiple scandals in his administration caused by the "Ohio Gang"; Harding's cabinet and appointees who warranted federal corruption investigations, charges, and convictions. He was chosen accidentally to lead the country over many candidates for his external appearance We talked about emotional intelligence and extroversion. These are traits that influence leader behaviour
  • The next question is Do we need to be charismatic? Answer is yes and no. it surely helps in attracting followers.We are not talking of external appearance but how the person conducts IS THE VISION VALUE-BASED? WILL THE FOLLOWERS BECOME ENTHUSIASTIC? Charisma adds to effectiveness Did Gandhi have charisma? The question is not about charisma but DO THE PEOPLE BELIEVE in THE VISION leader creates and is that ATTAINABLE? ARE CHARISMATIC LEADERS “BORN” OR CAN THEY BE TAUGHT? Charisma is: CORRELATED WITH HIGH SATISFACTION AMONG FOLLOWERS EFFECTIVE WHEN THERE IS AN IDEOLOGICAL PART TO THE TASK, OR FACING STRESS & UNCERTAINTY CHARISMATIC LEADERS – DON’T TOLERATE CRITICISM, SURROUND THEMSELVES WITH “YES” PEOPLE A STUDY --- FOUND AN ABSENCE OF EGO-DRIVEN CHARISMATIC LEADERS
  • There is the higher form of transformational leadership- when the leader is required to shift the paardigms. Bring about dramatic changes. Let us know what transformational leaders do?
  • MANY think that power is what makes aleader effective. Let us look at various forms of power. Expert power is what commands respect. Who is ultimate leader? A true leader is one who makes “ mahajano yena gatah sa panthah—traverse the trail which the leader passed, Leaders are good only if they make followers willingly do what they want them to do. Power therefore comes not from vested authority but comes from with in
  • Let us understand few pioneering works which hold even today
  • Robert blake and james mouton modelled the two prime factors- Concern for people and concern for production 1-1 is low low 9-9 is high high Depending on the degree of orientation the style is defined
  • FIEDLER’S CONTRIBUTIONS LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IS SITUATIONAL TASK LEADERSHIP IS VALUABLE AND IMPORTANT MODIFY SITUATIONS TO FIT THE LEADER’S STYLE
  • MODIFY LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS SPEND MORE (OR LESS) TIME WITH SUBORDINATES ORGANIZE SOME OFF-WORK GROUP ACTIVITIES INCREASE (OR DECREASE) YOUR AVAILABILITY TO followers RAISE MORALE BY OBTAINING POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR SUBORDINATES TRANSFER SUBORDINATES INTO (OR OUT OF) YOUR UNIT REQUEST COMPATIBLE PEOPLE FOR WORK IN YOUR GROUP MODIFY TASK STRUCTURE ASK FOR TASKS WHICH ARE MORE STUCTURED LEARN ALL YOU CAN ABOUT THE TASK BREAK THE JOB DOWN INTO SMALLER SUB-TASKS LEAVE THE TASK IN RELATIVELY VAGUE FORM ENRICH JOBS THROUGH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EXPANSION MODIFY POSITION POWER SHOW SUBORDINATES WHO’ BOSS --- EXERCISE YOUR POWERS FULLY BECOME AN EXPERT ABOUT JOBS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE ALL INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES IS CHANNELED THROUGH YOU ASK MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AND PLANNING TRY TO BE “ONE OF THE GANG” --- DOWNPLAY YOUR POWER LET ASSISTANTS EXERCISE MORE FREDOM AND AUTONOMY ASK MANAGEMENT TO GIVE YOU MORE DISCRETION AND AUTONOMY
  • Theory X- Theory X and Theory Y represent two sets of assumptions about human nature and human behavior that are relevant to the practice of management. Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally dislike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do their jobs. Theory Y denotes a positive view of human nature and assumes individuals are generally industrious, creative, and able to assume responsibility and exercise self-control in their jobs. One would expect, then, that managers holding assumptions about human nature that are consistent with Theory X might exhibit a managerial style that is quite different than managers who hold assumptions consistent with Theory Y. . After the Hawthorne experiments and the subsequent behavioral research of the 1930s and 1940s, the human relations approach to management joined the classical perspective as a major school of management thought. Whereas the classical school as espoused by management pioneers such as Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol focused on principles of management, scientific selection and training, and worker compensation, the human relations approach emphasized behavioral issues such as job satisfaction, group norms, and supervisory style.
  • Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise-money, materials, equipment, and people in the interests of economic ends. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. The motivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, and readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people-management does not put them there. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts toward organizational objectives.
  • Thus, Theory Y has at its core the assumption that the physical and mental effort involved in work is natural and that individuals actively seek to engage in work. It also assumes that close supervision and the threat of punishment are not the only means or even the best means for inducing employees to exert productive effort. Instead, if given the opportunity, employees will display self-motivation to put forth the effort necessary to achieve the organization's goals. Thus, avoiding responsibility is not an inherent quality of human nature; individuals will actually seek it out under the proper conditions. Theory Y also assumes that the ability to be innovative and creative exists among a large, rather than a small segment of the population. Finally, it assumes that rather than valuing security above all other rewards associated with work, individuals desire rewards that satisfy their self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Remember we talked about role of self esteem and risk taking as factors that influence personality
  • Although McGregor did not believe that it was possible to create a completely Theory Y-type organization in the 1950s, he did believe that Theory Y assumptions would lead to more effective management. He identified several approaches to management that he felt were consistent with the precepts of Theory Y. These included decentralization of decision-making authority, delegation, job enlargement, and participative management. Job enrichment programs that began in the 1960s and 1970s also were consistent with the assumptions of Theory Y.
  • Us talk about factors affecting leadership style, types , change leadership. And few models based on sound research
  • Theory x-y models relate to autocratic and democratic styles . As two extreme form s.
  • From completely task oriented style democratic style is focused on relation ship based approach More of team consultative, participative styles
  • Laissex faire – this style is less of telling but more of participative styles
  • This style is becoming obsolete as modern organizations rely more on data based style than emotional engagement style
  • Turbulent times like recent economic uncertainty calls for change leadership. It is not easy to manage change as people go through all 5 stages – solution identification, selling the idea, resentment/resignation, acceptance, and internalization. Leadership needs to be strong in the resentment /resignation stages to make people appreciate manger’s decisions.
  • The single factor affecting change management is how the organizations and its managers are equipped to handle people. Therefore it is becoming important for employees aspiring to rise in organizations to learn people management techniques
  • Soft Skills --Leadership Lessons

    1. 1. Leadership lessons module – 2 Dr.Sarma
    2. 2. LEADERSHIP THEORIES TRAIT THEORY BASES OF INFLUENCE (POWER) BEHAVIORAL THEORIES CONTINGENCY THEORIES ROLE THEORIES
    3. 3. TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP LEADERS ARE “BORN,” NOT MADE • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS APPEARANCE, HEIGHT, AGE • PERSONALITY EXTROVERSION, PERSISTENCE, SELF-ASSURANCE, DECISIVENESS • INTELLIGENCE KNOWLEDGE, ABILITY, JUDGMENT • SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS TACT, DIPLOMACY, SOCIABILITY, FLUENCY .THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS EXTROVERSION (AMBITION, ENERGY) (remember people mgt module ?) CONSCIENTIOUSNESS OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE * EMOTIONAL STABILITY (SELF-CONFIDENCE) AGREEABLENESS
    4. 4. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP • VISION & ARTICULATION PROPOSES A BETTER FUTURE – AN OPTIMISTIC GOAL DELIVERED CLEARLY IN A CONVINCING FASHION • PERSONAL RISK WILLING TO TAKE RISKS & INCUR COSTS TO ACHIEVE THE VISION SELF-SACRIFICE WILL BE NECESSARY • ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY KNOWS WHETHER THE ENVIRONMENT WILL BE SUPPORTIVE KNOWS WHAT RESOURCES ARE NEEDED TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE • SENSITIVITY TO FOLLOWERS PERCEPTIVE OF OTHERS’ ABILITIES, NEEDS & FEELINGS TAPS INTO FOLLOWER EMOTIONS • UNCONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR MAY DO THINGS THAT ARE NOVEL, OR CONTRARY TO THE NORMS
    5. 5. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Saama-Confidential Page 5Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Transactional leader leads by doing these: • MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION (Watches for deviations) • KEEPS THE SYSTEM OPERATING SMOOTHLY o USES REWARD AND COERCIVE POWER o RECOGNIZES WHAT followers WANT & TRIES TO DELIVER IT o REWARDS ACCORDING TO significant contributions o RESPONSIVE TO people’s SELF-INTERESTS THE ENXT QUESTION IS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BUILT “ON TOP OF” TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP, OR IS IT JUST A SPECIAL CASE OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?
    6. 6. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP • INSPIRATIONAL, IDEA-ORIENTED, VISIONARY • DRAMATIC, AROUSES INTENSE FEELINGS • COMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS & A NEED FOR CHANGE • UNPREDICTABLE o RELIES ON REFERENT OR CHARISMATIC POWER o RAISES LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND COMMITMENT o GETS FOLLOWERS TO TRANSCEND THEIR SELF-INTERESTS o REQUIRES TRUST AND BELIEF IN THE VISION PRESENTED
    7. 7. SUMMARY OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP ASSUMPTION LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE! IMPLICATION WE MUST BE VERY CAREFUL IN HOW WE SELECT OUR LEADERS LIMITATIONS IT OVERLOOKS THE NEEDS OF FOLLOWERS IT IGNORES SITUATIONAL FACTORS CAUSE AND EFFECT ARE NOT CLEARLY DEFINED DO SELF-CONFIDENT LEADERS CAUSE FIRMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, OR DOES A SUCCESSFUL FIRM ALLOW A LEADER TO FEEL SELF-CONFIDENT?
    8. 8. BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCELEGITIMATE POWER Authority to command, based on the position REWARD POWER Able to award positive, desired outcomes COERCIVE POWER Able to threaten, punish or harm EXPERT POWER Influence based on knowledge and information REFERENT POWER Influence based on charisma, identification and trust
    9. 9. BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES OHIO STATE STUDIES Talked about STRUCTURE v. CONSIDERATION MICHIGAN STUDIES JOB-CENTERED v. EMPLOYEE-CENTERED THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON (64) CONCERN FOR PEOPLE CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION FIVE STYLES Impoverished, Authority/Obedience (Task), Middle of the Road, Country Club, Team The next question is IS THERE A THIRD DIMENSION---DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED BEHAVIOR?
    10. 10. THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON
    11. 11. SUMMARY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP ASSUMPTION Leaders are effective because of the actions they take IMPLICATION We can learn to become leaders by studying what effective leaders do LIMITATIONS Situational factors that influence success or failure are ignored Leaders need to be flexible…you can’t lead the same way all the time
    12. 12. LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVES APPROACH UNIVERSAL CONTINGENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TRAITS TRAIT FIEDLER’S THEORIES CONTINGENCY THEORY FOCUS ON - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - OHIO STATE PATH-GOAL MICH STUDIES VROOM-YETTON BEHAVIORS LEADER GRID LIFE-CYCLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    13. 13. CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP FIEDLER (65) LEADER CHARACTERISTICS (Least-Preferred Coworker Scale) HIGH LPC --- EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ORIENTED LOW LPC --- TASK ORIENTED SITUATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS TASK STRUCTURE LEADER POSITION POWER FAVORABLE LEADER SITUATIONS MOST FAVORABLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - LEAST FAVORABLE LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS G G G G N N N N TASK STRUCTURE G G N N G G N N LEADER POSITION POWER G N G N G N G N EFFECTIVE STYLE TASK EMPLOYEE TASK
    14. 14. MANIPULATING THE SITUATION MODIFY LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS SPEND MORE (OR LESS) TIME WITH SUBORDINATES ORGANIZE SOME OFF-WORK GROUP ACTIVITIES INCREASE (OR DECREASE) YOUR AVAILABILITY TO followers RAISE MORALE BY OBTAINING POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR SUBORDINATES TRANSFER SUBORDINATES INTO (OR OUT OF) YOUR UNIT REQUEST COMPATIBLE PEOPLE FOR WORK IN YOUR GROUP MODIFY TASK STRUCTURE ASK FOR TASKS WHICH ARE MORE STUCTURED LEARN ALL YOU CAN ABOUT THE TASK BREAK THE JOB DOWN INTO SMALLER SUB-TASKS LEAVE THE TASK IN RELATIVELY VAGUE FORM ENRICH JOBS THROUGH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EXPANSION MODIFY POSITION POWER SHOW SUBORDINATES WHO’ BOSS --- EXERCISE YOUR POWERS FULLY BECOME AN EXPERT ABOUT JOBS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE ALL INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES IS CHANNELED THROUGH YOU ASK MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AND PLANNING TRY TO BE “ONE OF THE GANG” --- DOWNPLAY YOUR POWER LET ASSISTANTS EXERCISE MORE POWER ASK MANAGEMENT TO GIVE YOU MORE DISCRETION AND AUTONOMY
    15. 15. LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY (SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY) HERSEY & BLANCHARD (77) LEADER BEHAVIORS NEED TO VARY, DEPENDING ON THE MATURITY OF THE followers DIRECTIVE STYLE (TELLING) GIVES CLEAR DIRECTION & INSTRUCTIONS TO IMMATURE EMPLOYEES FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE AND UNWILLING (INSECURE) COACHING STYLE (SELLING) EXPANDS TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION, HELPS MATURING EMPLOYEES BUILD CONFIDENCE AND MOTIVATION FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE, BUT WILLING TO TRY SUPPORTING STYLE (PARTICIPATING) EMPLOYEE FEEL COMPETENT, ACTIVE TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION STILL NEEDED FOR SHARED DECISIONS FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE BUT APPREHENSIVE AUTONOMOUS STYLE (DELEGATING) GIVES RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING TO HIGHLY MATURE EMPLOYEES FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE AND WILLING TASK BEHAVIORS START OUT HIGH, AND GRADUALLY DECLINE RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS START LOW, BUILD, THEN DECLINE AGAIN AN INTUITIVE THEORY, BUT EMPIRICAL SUPPORT HAS NOT BEEN STRONG
    16. 16. PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP HOUSE & MITCHELL (74) SITUATIONAL FACTORS CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBORDINATES LOCUS OF CONTROL EXPERIENCE PERCEIVED ABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT TASK STRUCTURE FORMAL AUTHORITY SYSTEM WORK GROUP LEADER STYLES DIRECTIVE SUPPORTIVE ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED PARTICIPATIVE THE LEADER COMPENSATES FOR THINGS LACKING IN EITHER THE EMPLOYEE OR THE WORK SETTING TO HELP THE follower PERFORM EFFECTIVELY
    17. 17. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE LETS SUBORDINATES KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED PLANS AND SCHEDULES WORK TO BE DONE GIVES SPECIFIC GUIDANCE -- WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AND HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE MAINTAINS CLEAR STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE SUPPORTIVE SHOWS CONCERN FOR WELL-BEING OF SUBORDINATES TREATS MEMBERS AS EQUALS DOES LITTLE THINGS TO MAKE THE WORK MORE PLEASANT IS FRIENDLY AND APPROACHABLE ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED SETS CHALLENGING GOALS EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL SEEKS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE, WHILE SHOWING CONFIDENCE IN followers PARTICIPATIVE CONSULTS WITH SUBORDINATES SOLICITS SUGGESTIONS TAKES SUGGESTIONS SERIOUSLY INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE MAKING DECISIONS
    18. 18. VERTICAL DYAD (EXCHANGE) MODEL (LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE MODEL) GRAEN (75) • LEADERS INVEST THEIR TIME & ATTENTION IN THOSE EXPECTED TO PERFORM BEST • LEADER CREATES AN “IN-GROUP” (THE “FAVORED FEW”) & AN “OUT-GROUP” • IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS MAY DEMONSTRATE THE “SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY” IN-GROUPS • RECEIVE SPECIAL DUTIES AND HAVE SPECIAL PRIVILEGES • ARE GIVEN MORE AUTONOMY AND RESPONSIBILITY • EXPERIENCE HIGHER SATISFACTION • ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE • ARE PART OF THE LEADER’S SUPPORT NETWORK OUT_GROUPS • ARE NOT TRUSTED • ARE NOT GIVEN DESIRABLE WORK ASSIGNMENTS • RECEIVE LESS LEADER TIME AND ATTENTION • “LIVE DOWN” TO LEADER EXPECTATIONS • ARE LESS LIKELY TO SUPPORT THE LEADER IN-GROUP MEMBERS SELECTED BASED ON: • COMPETENCE AND ABILITY • PERSONAL COMPATIBILITY WITH THE LEADER
    19. 19. SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP KERR & JERIMER (78) SUBSTITUTES ARE FACTORS THAT CAN NEUTRALIZE THE INFLUENCE OF LEADER BEHAVIOR LOOK FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF: THE SUBORDINATES THE TASK THE ORGANIZATION FOR INITIATING STRUCTURE ABILITY AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SUBORDINATES STANDARDIZED, UNAMBIGUOUS, ROUTINIZED TASKS DETAILED RULES & PROCEDURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION FOR CONSIDERATION INTRINSIC APPEAL OF THE TASK ITSELF ESTEEM OF PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES SUPPORTIVE AND COHESIVE WORK GROUP
    20. 20. SUMMARY OF CONTINGENCY THEORIES THE CONTINGENCY THEORY Fiedler (65) PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY Vroom & Yetton (73) PATH-GOAL THEORY House & Mitchell (74) VERTICAL DYAD (LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE) THEORY Graen (75) LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY Hersey & Blanchard (77) SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP Kerr & Jerimer (78) CONCLUSIONS RE: CONTINGENCY THEORIES THERE IS NO “ONE BEST WAY” TO LEAD LEADERS SHOULD KNOW THEIR OWN PREFERRED STYLE KNOW HOW TO CAREFULLY DIAGNOSE YOUR WORK SITUATION UNDERSTAND WHICH ACTIONS TO TAKE TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION
    21. 21. MANAGERIAL ROLES MINTZBERG (73) INTERPERSONAL ROLES • Figurehead (Ceremonial) • Leader (Supervisor) • Liaison (Linking-Pin) INFORMATIONAL ROLES • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson DECISIONAL ROLES • Innovator (Entrepreneur) • Disturbance Handler (Crisis) • Resource Allocator • Negotiator
    22. 22. LEADERSHIP AND TRUST AN EXPECTATION THAT THE LEADER WILL NOT TAKE UNFAIR ADVANTAGE OF ME IS MY LEADER TRUSTWORTHY? FIVE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST INTEGRITY -- honest and truthful COMPETENCE -- has good technical knowledge & interpersonal skills CONSISTENCY -- is reliable, predictable, and has good judgement LOYALTY -- will look out for me and protect me; won’t take advantage OPENNESS -- will talk to me and tell me the truth (what’s going on) DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST --WE CAN RETALIATE OR STRIKE BACK IF HARMED…DON’T REALLY HAVE A HISTORY KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST --CAN PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN BASED ON EXPERIENCE…GIVE A SECOND CHANCE? IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST --- KNOW EACH OTHER INTIMATELY, ACT FOR EACH OTHER BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRUST MISTRUST DRIVES OUT TRUST TRUST BEGETS TRUST GROWTH OFTEN MASKS DISTRUST DECLINE OR DOWNSIZING TESTS THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF TRUST TRUST INCREASES COHESION MISTRUSTING GROUPS SELF-DESTRUCT MISTRUST GENERALLY REDUCES PRODUCTIVITY
    23. 23. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN LEADERSHIP 1. DO MEN & WOMEN LEAD DIFFERENTLY? The similarities outweigh the differences A SLIGHT TENDENCY FOR WOMEN Lean toward participative, negotiable, information-sharing styles This tendency declines when women are in male-dominated jobs A SLIGHT TENDENCY FOR MEN To be more directive and rely on the formal authority of their position 1. TEAM LEADERSHIP Difficult for managers to switch from traditional roles LEARN TO BECOME: A Facilitator A Liaison A Troubleshooter A Conflict Manager A Coach 1. EMPOWERMENT Be careful about jumping on the bandwagon -- does it “fit?” IT ASSUMES A UNIVERSAL APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP DOES THE SITUATION CALL FOR MORE EMPOWERMENT?
    24. 24. 4. IMPORTANCE OF FOLLOWERS The qualities of effective followers: THEY MANAGE THEMSELVES WELL – CAN THINK, WORK INDEPENDENTLY THEY ARE COMMITTED TO THEIR WORK THEY ARE COMPETENT AND WORK TO HIGHER STANDARDS THAN THEIR JOB REQUIRES THEY ARE HONEST AND CREDIBLE 5. IMPACT OF NATIONAL CULTURE Culture is an important situational variable HIGHER POWER-DISTANCE – autocratic leadership style is preferred Arab, Far East, Latin countires LOWER POWER-DISTANCE – more success with the participative style USA Canada, Scandinavian countries 6. BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS ON LEADERSHIP Seratonin improves sociability and reduces aggression (PROZAC) Testosterone increases competitive drive and assertiveness Women in professional jobs have higher levels 7. MORAL DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP What sort of example does the leader set? IS THE LEADER A GOOD ROLE MODEL? CORRUPTION WITHIN THE FIRM OFTEN STARTS WITH BAD EXAMPLES AT THE TOP
    25. 25. Saama-Confidential Page 25Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 In this session we will learn What is leadership, People management philosophies and how it affects style of management leadership, And know what kind of leader behaviour can be effective. We laid the foundation in our managing people programme by learning about personality and behaviour
    26. 26. Saama-Confidential Page 26Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Let us talk about Theory X and theory Y belief And also about theory Z hard and soft style
    27. 27. Hard VS soft style • The hard style of management led to restriction of output, mutual distrust, unionism, and even sabotage. • McGregor called the second style of management "soft" and identified its methods as permissiveness and need satisfaction. • McGregor suggested that the soft style of management often led to managers' failure to perform their managerial role. He also pointed out that employees often take advantage of an overly permissive manager by demanding more but performing at lower levels.
    28. 28. A Leadership Story: • McGregor drew upon the work of Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) to explain why Theory X assumptions led to ineffective management. • Maslow had proposed that man's needs are arranged in levels, with physical and safety needs at the bottom of the needs hierarchy and social, ego, and self-actualization needs at upper levels of the hierarchy. • Maslow's basic point was that once a need is met, it no longer motivates behavior; thus, only unmet needs are motivational. McGregor argued that most employees already had their physical and safety needs met and that the motivational emphasis had shifted to the social, ego, and self- actualization needs. • Therefore, management had to provide opportunities for these upper-level needs to be met in the workplace, or employees would not be satisfied or motivated in their jobs.
    29. 29. Saama-Confidential Page 29Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Such opportunities could be provided by allowing employees to participate in decision making, by redesigning jobs to make them more challenging, or by emphasizing good work group relations, among other things. According to McGregor, neither the hard style of management based on the classical school nor the soft style of management inspired by the human relations movement were sufficient to motivate employees. Different sets of approaches are required in today’s context of managing intellectual property
    30. 30. Who is responsible for what? Saama-Confidential Page 30Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Organisational philosophy or faith that Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise- Belief that People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs drives the policies Believing that the motivation, potential for development, capacity for assuming responsibility, and readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people-
    31. 31. Saama-Confidential Page 31Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Management does not put them there. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts toward organizational objectives
    32. 32. Creating organizational style Saama-Confidential Page 32Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Is it possible to create a completely Theory Y-type organization ? Theory Y assumptions would lead to more effective management. ? decentralization of decision-making authority, delegation, job enlargement, and participative management. What impact they have? Job enrichment programs that began in the 1960s and 1970s also were consistent with the assumptions of Theory Y.
    33. 33. Leadership
    34. 34. Types of Leadership Style
    35. 35. Types of Leadership Style • Autocratic: o Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else o High degree of dependency on the leader o Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff o May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
    36. 36. Types of Leadership Style • Democratic: • Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasized throughout the organization o Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken o Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
    37. 37. Types of Leadership Style • Democratic: o May help motivation and involvement o followers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas o Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business o Can delay decision making
    38. 38. Types of Leadership Style • Laissez-Faire: o ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all o Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important o Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life o Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction o Relies on good team work o Relies on good interpersonal relations
    39. 39. Types of Leadership Style • Paternalistic: • Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ • Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult • Believes in the need to support staff
    40. 40. Change Leadership
    41. 41. Change Leadership • The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change • The business environment is subject to fast- paced economic and social change • Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive • Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management
    42. 42. Change Leadership Self-esteem Time 1. Immobilization – as rumors of the change circulate, the individual feels some sense of shock and possible disbelief – so much so that they deem it worthy of doing nothing. 1 2. Minimization: As the change becomes clearer, people try to fit in the change with their own personal position and may try to believe that it will not affect them. 2 3. Depression: as reality begins to dawn staff may feel alienated and angry, feelings of a lack of control of events overtake people and they feel depressed as they try to reconcile what is happening with their own personal situation. 3 4 4. Acceptance/letting go: The lowest point in self-esteem finally sees people starting to accept the inevitable. Fear of the future is a feature of this stage. 5 5. Testing out: Individuals begin to interact with the change, they start to ask questions to see how they might work with the change. 6 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to work with the change and see how they might be able to make the change work for them – self esteem begins to rise. 7 7. Internalization: the change is understood and adopted within the individual’s own understanding – they now know how to work with it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem.
    43. 43. Theories of Leadership
    44. 44. Theories of Leadership • Trait theories: • Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? o Personality? o Dominance and personal presence? o Charisma? o Self confidence? o Achievement? o Ability to formulate a clear vision?
    45. 45. Theories of Leadership • Behavioral: • Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things o Structure based behavioral theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task orientated o Relationship based behavioral theories – focus on the development and maintenance of relationships – process orientated
    46. 46. Theories of Leadership • Contingency Theories: • Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance. • Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts
    47. 47. Theories of Leadership • May depend on: o Type of staff o History of the business o Culture of the business o Quality of the relationships o Nature of the changes needed o Accepted norms within the institution
    48. 48. Theories of Leadership • Transformational: o Widespread changes to a business or organization • Requires: o Long term strategic planning o Clear objectives o Clear vision o Leading by example – walk the walk o Efficiency of systems and processes
    49. 49. Theories of Leadership • Trait theories: o Are such characteristics inherently gender biased? o Do such characteristics produce good leaders? o Is leadership more than just bringing about change? o Does this imply that leaders are born not bred?
    50. 50. Theories of Leadership • Invitational Leadership: o Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organization o Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the business both externally and, crucially, internally o Review internal processes to reduce these o Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organization – that gets communicated to customers, etc.
    51. 51. Theories of Leadership • Transactional Theories: o Focus on the management of the organization o Focus on procedures and efficiency o Focus on working to rules and contracts o Managing current issues and problems
    52. 52. Factors Affecting Style
    53. 53. Factors Affecting Style • Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: o Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved o Type of business – creative business or supply driven? o How important change is – change for change’s sake? o Organizational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change o Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?
    54. 54. Saama-Confidential Page 54Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 Theory Y was not always more effective than Theory X, but that the contingencies of each managerial situation determined which of the approaches was more appropriate. Still others suggested extensions to Theory Y. One of these, William Ouchy's Theory Z, attempted to combine the strength of American management philosophies based on Theory Y with Japanese management philosophies
    55. 55. Saama-Confidential Page 55Tuesday, October, 11, 2011 In summary we may state the foundation of leadership is based on Leader ‘s personality, His /her belief systems, The situations and the type of people the leader is engaged with.

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