Organisation Theory

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  • Organisation Theory

    1. 1. ORGANIZATION THEORY & BEHAVIOR
    2. 2. WORKSHOP SCHEDULE ORG TRENDS ORG DESIGN & STRUCTURE- wrt Individual/group & org dynamics CONFLICT MNGT & NEGOTIATION LEADERSHIP& TRUST STRATEGIES/ POWER & POLITICS/ INDIVIDUAL/ GROUP/ ORG COMMUNICATION GROUP BEHAVIOR & PROCESSES INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR & PROCESSES-Motivation INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR-Perception, values, attitudes, personality DYNAMICS OF ORG BEHAVIOR –structure, culture, change etc
    3. 3. FOUNDATION OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR <ul><li>DEFINITION OF AN ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>ASSUMPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS </li></ul>
    4. 4. ORGANIZATION???
    5. 5. DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>CONSCIOUSLY COORDINATED SOCIAL UNIT </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSED OF 2 0R MORE PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON GOAL </li></ul>
    6. 6. ORGANIZATION HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATION SETTINGS INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION INTERFACE ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT
    7. 7. ORGANIZATIONAL PARTICIPANTS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION OF REALITY HELPS GUIDE OB PARTICIPANTS CONTROL THEIR OWN BEHAVIOR TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY RELY ON COGNITIVE SUPPORTS & MANAGE RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL CUES & CONSEQUENCES MOST COMPLEX BEHAVIOR ACQUIRED BY DIRECTLY OBSERVING & IMITATING OTHERS IN SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT
    8. 8. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS INDIVIDUAL TASKS TEAM ROLES
    9. 9. ? ? ? ? <ul><li>Is ORGANIZATION nothing but an aggregate of individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>If so then – is ORGANIZATION behavior all about individual differences?- Differences in values, beliefs, perception, personality, motivation </li></ul><ul><li>What about differences in goals, strategies, systems , structure in an ORGANIZATION-do these bring about a distinctive ORGANIZATION behavior </li></ul>
    10. 10. AN ORGANIZATION WOULD THEREFORE HAVE <ul><li>A GOAL-OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE-BOUNDARIES & ROLE </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGIES & SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE, CUSTOMS, VALUES-DETERMINING BEHAVIOR </li></ul>
    11. 11. GOAL CULTURE SYSTEMS STRUCTURE STRATEGIES FUNCTIONS-TASKS/ACTIVITIES- WHAT & WHY? PROCEDURES- HOW? ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES WHO? CORE VALUES VISION -MISION
    12. 12. HOW ORGANIZATION ACHIEVES ITS GOAL? ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
    13. 13. MANAGEMENT FOR ORG EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS- Planning, Organizing, Leading & Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGERIAL ROLES-Interpersonal , Information, Decisional </li></ul><ul><li>MANGERIAL SKILLS-Technical, Human & Conceptual </li></ul>Org Effectiveness O B Generalization of human behavior Certain consistencies in human behavior
    14. 14. DEFINITION <ul><li>ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR CAN BE DEFINED AS A FIELD OF STUDY THAT INVESTIGATES THE IMPACT THAT INDIVIDUALS , GROUPS AND STRUCTURE HAVE ON BEHAVIOR WITHIN ORGANISATION, TO ENABLE APPLYING THIS KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul>
    15. 15. DEFINTION-OB <ul><li>STUDY OF BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS WITHIN WORKGROUPS , INCLUDING AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF GROUPS , THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURES BETWEEN AND WITHIN WORKGROUPS AND THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING CHANGE </li></ul>
    16. 16. DETERMINANTS OF OB <ul><li>INDIVIDUALS. </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPS. </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>OB APPLIES KNOWLEDGE GAINED ABOUT INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS & THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURE ON BEHAVIOR TO MAKE THE ORGANIZATION MORE EFFECTIVE . </li></ul>
    17. 17. SIGNIFICANCE OF OB <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR & PERFORMANCE AT WORK </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP WORKING-NORMS & BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGING CHANGE </li></ul>
    18. 18. OB EMPHASIS <ul><li>BEHAVIOR AS RELATED TO </li></ul><ul><li>JOBS & COMPETENCIES </li></ul><ul><li>WORK –JOB DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PERFORMANCE & PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>ABSENTEEISM </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYMENT TURNOVER </li></ul>
    19. 19. OB LINKAGES TO ORG GOAL <ul><li>PERSONALITY, PERCEPTION, SKILL & ATTITUDE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER BEHAVIOR & POWER </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP STRUCTURE & PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>WORK DESIGN, CONFLICTS & STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE PROCESSES </li></ul>
    20. 20. MANAGING FOR EFFECTIVENESS INDIVIDUAL LEVEL OUTCOMES ORG LEVEL OUTCOMES TEAM LEVEL OUTCOMES PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER ATTITUDES STRESS PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE NORMS COHESIVENESS PRODUCTIVITY ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE SURVIVAL CONSTITUENT SATISFACTION
    21. 21. TRACING HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH Strategy/Structure fit need to adapt to environmental changes Establish Strategy , then Structure is established ALFRED CHANDLER (1962) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Cohesiveness, Loyalty, commitment & Employer Management system Individual needs & importance of participative management DOUGLAS Mc GREGOR (1961) RENSIS LIKERT (19670 BEHAVIOR Fit between social & technological factors Social Systems view means that organization is an open system E L TRIST & K W BAMFORTH (1951) SOCIO-TECHNICAL Hierarchy o Goals , Effective use of resources Bounded Rationality Optimization of Goals HERBERT SIMON (1947) DECISION MAKING Paying attention to worker needs & satisfaction Psychological factors-Job Satisfaction, Team work ELTON MAYO (1933) HUMAN RELATIONS Order, Equity, Division of work, Discipline Management Principles Training in use of Principles HENRI FAYOL ( 1916-25) PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Maximize Cost , Task specialization, maximize output Time & Motion Studies. Finding most efficient way FREDERICK TAYLOR (1911) SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OB ATTRIBUTES PHILOSOPHY PIONEERS CONCEPT
    22. 22. TRACING HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH-Contd OB ATTRIBUTES PHILOSOPHY PIONEERS CONCEPT Responsiveness to change , Need for Social Support 1987 PROACTIVE PERFORMANCE 1984 ENPOWERNMENT Instill pride in quality’ Focus on customer satisfaction How to detect & eliminate defects DEMING(1971) & JURAN ( 1974) QUALITY Integration fit Structure firm to meet environmental demands P R LAWRENCE & J W LORSCH ( 1967) CONTINGENCY
    23. 23. EMERGING PERSPECTIVES IN OB <ul><li>SYSTEMS APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACTIONALISM </li></ul>
    24. 24. SYSTEMS APPROACH <ul><li>VIEWS ORGANIZATION AS A SET OF INTERRELATED ELEMENTS FUNCTIONING AS A WHOLE </li></ul>TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INPUTS- material, human, financial, international OUTPUTS Product/Service Profit/Losses Employee behavior FEEDBACK
    25. 25. CONTINGENCY APPROACH <ul><li>SUGGESTS THAT IN MOST ORGANIZATIONS SITUATIONS & OUTCOMES ARE CONTINGENT ON , OR INFLUENCED BY, OTHER VARIABLES </li></ul>ORG PROBLEMS/ SITUATIONS CONTINGENT WAYS OF RESPONDING ORG PROBLEMS EVALUATE IN TERMS OF THE SITUATION, WHICH THEN SUGGEST CAUSE & EFFECT WAY OF RESPONDING UNIVERSAL APPROACH CONTINGENCY APPROACH
    26. 26. INTERACTIONALISM <ul><li>INDIVIDUALS AND SITUATIONS INTERACT CONTINUOSLY TO DETERMINE INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIOR </li></ul>INDIVIDUALS SITUATIONS BEHAVIOR
    27. 27. POPULAR PRESS <ul><li>ARTICLES, RESEARCH WORKS & BOOKS GIVING NEW INSIGHTS. </li></ul><ul><li>THEORY Z, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, REENGINEERING, CORPORAT E CULTURES, IN SEARCH OF EXCELLENCE ETC. </li></ul>
    28. 28. OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS <ul><li>Paradigm shift------? </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBALISATION- Creating a global village </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION AGE-IT </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DIVERSITY & CULTURAL ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>REENGINEERING </li></ul>
    29. 29. OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS <ul><li>ENPOWERING EMPLOYEES- shift from </li></ul><ul><li>Management control </li></ul><ul><li>COPING WITH CHANGE & TEMPORARINESS-Stability of Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULATING INNOVATIVENESS & CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE VALUES & ETHICS </li></ul>
    30. 30. OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS <ul><li>STIMULATING INNOVATIVENESS & CHANGE. </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE VALUES & ETHICS. </li></ul><ul><li>WORK FORCE DEMOGRAPHICS-Age, Gender, Ethnic Composition. </li></ul><ul><li>WORK PLACE ISSUES- Employee Privacy, Employee rights, Unionization. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Employee Skills. </li></ul>
    31. 31. OB MODELS COGNITIVE, BEHAVIORISTIC & SOCIAL LEARNING THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS USED TO DEVELOP OB MODEL Self Actualization Moderate enthusiasm Status & Recognition Awakened drivers Security Passive cooperation Subsistence Minimum Employee need met Performance result Self Discipline Participation Dependence on Organization Dependence on Boss Employee psychological result Responsible Behavior Job Performance Security Benefits Obedience Employee Orientation Teamwork Support Money Authority Managerial orientation Partnership Leadership Economic Resources Power BASIS OF MODEL SUPERLATIVE (COLLEGIAL) SUPPORTIVE CUSTODIAL AUTOCRATIC
    32. 32. Basic framework for understanding organizational behavior <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes/Attitude formation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning /Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>ENHANCING INDIVIDUAL & INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Goal setting/Rewards Job Designation/Participation Performance Appraisal Stress Decision Making/ Creativity INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Group Dynamics Inter group dynamics Leadership/Influence Power/Politics/Conflict Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>INTEGRATING INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Change/development </li></ul><ul><li>International Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Career Dynamics </li></ul>ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES & CHARACTERISTICS Organization Structure Environment/technology Organization Design Organization Culture MANAGERIAL CONTEXT Managing People & Organizations ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

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