LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP    There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more    perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its succe...
THE DIFFERENT VIEWS OF LEADERSHIP    Trait definition of leadership   Process definition of leadership               Leade...
A LEADERSHIP STORY: “Management   is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter D...
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT VERSUSLEADERSHIP 1/2   Management produces                   Leadership produces    Order and Co...
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT VERSUSLEADERSHIP 2/2     Management                         Leadership     Controlling / Proble...
LEADERSHIP
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Autocratic:   Leader   makes decisions without reference to anyone    else   High degree of d...
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasi...
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE   Democratic:     May  help motivation and involvement     Workers feel ownership of the firm...
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE  Laissez-Faire:    ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities     are shared by all    Can...
CHANGE LEADERSHIP
CHANGE LEADERSHIP The most challenging aspect of business is leading  and managing change The business environment is su...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
TRAIT THEORIES                 Leadership Traits: :                   Leadership Traits                 • • Ambition and e...
TRAIT THEORIES   Limitations: :    Limitations   • • No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations.       ...
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES            • • Trait theory:                 Trait theory:                Leaders are born, not made. ...
OHIO STATE STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
PATH-GOAL THEORY
THE PATH-GOAL THEORY
CONTINGENCY APPROACH - FIEDLER (1967)Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that--...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Trait theories: Is there a set of characteristics  that determine a good leader?   Personality? ...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP   Trait theories:     Are  such characteristics      inherently gender biased?     Do such chara...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Behavioural: Implythat leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things   Structure bas...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Contingency   Theories: Leadership as being more flexible – different  leadership styles used at ...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP   May depend on:     Type of staff     History of the business     Culture of the business    ...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Transformational:   Widespread   changes    to a business or organisation Requires:   Long  ter...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Invitational   Leadership:   Improving   the atmosphere and message sent out by    the organisati...
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP   Transactional Theories:     Focus  on the management      of the organisation     Focus on pro...
FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE
FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE Leadership style may be dependent on various factors:   Risk - decision making and change initia...
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Leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP
  2. 2. LEADERSHIP There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli
  3. 3. THE DIFFERENT VIEWS OF LEADERSHIP Trait definition of leadership Process definition of leadership Leader Leader • HeightLeadership • Intelligence Leadership • Extroversion • Fluency Interaction • Other traits Followers Followers
  4. 4. A LEADERSHIP STORY: “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT VERSUSLEADERSHIP 1/2  Management produces  Leadership produces Order and Consistency Change and Movement  Planning / Budgeting  Establishing Direction  Establish agendas  Create a vision  Set time tables  Clarify big picture  Allocate resources  Set strategies  Organizing / Staffing  Aligning People  Provide structure  Communicate goals  Make job placements  Seek commitment  Establish rules and procedures  Build teams and coalitions
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT VERSUSLEADERSHIP 2/2  Management  Leadership  Controlling / Problem  Motivating and Inspiring Solving  Inspire and energize  Develop incentives  Empower subordinates  Generate creative solutions  Satisfy unmet needs  Take corrective action John P. Kotter 1990
  7. 7. LEADERSHIP
  8. 8. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE
  9. 9. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Autocratic:  Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else  High degree of dependency on the leader  Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff  May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
  10. 10. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation  Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken  Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
  11. 11. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE Democratic:  May help motivation and involvement  Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas  Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business  Can delay decision making
  12. 12. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE  Laissez-Faire:  ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all  Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important  Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life  Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction  Relies on good team work  Relies on good interpersonal relations
  13. 13. CHANGE LEADERSHIP
  14. 14. CHANGE LEADERSHIP The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change The business environment is subject to fast-paced economic and social change Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management Leaders need to be aware of how change impacts on workers
  15. 15. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
  16. 16. TRAIT THEORIES Leadership Traits: : Leadership Traits • • Ambition and energy Ambition and energy • • The desire to lead The desire to lead • • Honesty and integrity Honesty and integrity • • Self-confidence Self-confidence • • Intelligence Intelligence • • Job-relevant knowledge Job-relevant knowledge
  17. 17. TRAIT THEORIES Limitations: : Limitations • • No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. • • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. situations. • • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. leadership and traits. • • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
  18. 18. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES • • Trait theory: Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Leaders are born, not made. • • Behavioral theory: Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Leadership traits can be taught.
  19. 19. OHIO STATE STUDIES
  20. 20. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
  21. 21. PATH-GOAL THEORY
  22. 22. THE PATH-GOAL THEORY
  23. 23. CONTINGENCY APPROACH - FIEDLER (1967)Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that---> high task performance by group. ---> high task performance by group.Depends on Depends on  Respected leaders have to personal power. No need use position power (authority)preferred style of leaderpreferred style of leadergroup situation as much as leadergroup situation as much as leader  High structure? non- compliance? Easycontextual variablescontextual variables intervention. Unstructured, hard measure? Cannot easily enforce. Less power1. Quality of L-member relations 1. Quality of L-member relations2. Work structure (high to low) 2. Work structure (high to low)  extent of formal authority over rewards and sanctions Power3. Leader position power 3. Leader position power is not just dependent leader- follower relationships.
  24. 24. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Trait theories: Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader?  Personality?  Dominance and personal presence?  Charisma?  Selfconfidence?  Achievement?  Ability to formulate a clear vision?
  25. 25. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Trait theories:  Are such characteristics inherently gender biased?  Do such characteristics produce good leaders?  Is leadership more than just bringing about change?  Does this imply that leaders are born not bred?
  26. 26. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Behavioural: Implythat leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things  Structure based behavioural theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task orientated  Relationship based behavioural theories – focus on the development and maintenance of relationships – process orientated
  27. 27. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Contingency Theories: Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance. Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts
  28. 28. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP May depend on:  Type of staff  History of the business  Culture of the business  Quality of the relationships  Nature of the changes needed  Accepted norms within the institution
  29. 29. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Transformational:  Widespread changes to a business or organisation Requires:  Long term strategic planning  Clear objectives  Clear vision  Leading by example – walk the walk  Efficiency of systems and processes
  30. 30. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Invitational Leadership:  Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation  Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the business both externally and, crucially, internally  Review internal processes to reduce these  Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to customers, etc.
  31. 31. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Transactional Theories:  Focus on the management of the organisation  Focus on procedures and efficiency  Focus on working to rules and contracts  Managing current issues and problems
  32. 32. FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE
  33. 33. FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE Leadership style may be dependent on various factors:  Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved  Type of business – creative business or supply driven?  How important change is – change for change’s sake?  Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change  Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?

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