Leadership Theories
Visit my blog at http://leadershiptheories.blogspot.com/ for more content.
The followingmaterial isahi...
- The manager administers;the leaderinnovates.
- The manager isa copy; the leaderisan original.
- The manager maintains;th...
memberof the studygroupto emerge as a leader,she hadtorecognize the masculine demandsof the
situationandconformherbehavior...
 Mann, 1959 conductedsimilarstudywhichexamined1400 traits.He identifiedleadersashaving
strengthinthe following:Intelligen...
The trait approach focusesexclusivelyonthe leaderandnotthe followers.Itsuggeststhat
organizationswillworkbetterif people i...
The Skills Approach
o The skillsapproachemphasizesthe capabilitiesof the leader.
o The advantage of thisapproachis anyone ...
What are Schemas?
Northouse presentsthe conceptof the schema,buthe doesnotexplainitverycompletely.
Cognitive theoristshave...
Competencies
 Problemsolvingskills
 Abilitytosolve new,unusual,andill-definedproblems.Itincludesgatheringproblem
informa...
 Knowledgeable peopleare called"experts"andcanprocesscomplex informationof
the intricaciesof a particularfield.
Individua...
 Accordingto thistheory,leaderscandevelopandare not "bornleaders"
Environmental Influences
 Representfactorsoutside the ...
There are manyquestionnairestoassessindividual'sskills.Theyprovide auseful self-help,buttheyare
not usedinresearchbecause ...
 Production Orientation:Referstothe technical aspectof the job.Similarto"Initiating
Structure".Workersare meansto get the...

 Made up of two axis.Horizontal isleader'sconcernforresultsandvertical isleader'sconcern
for people.Ithasa 9 pointscale...
 Unconcernedwithbothtaskand relationships.
 Acts uninvolvedandwithdrawn.Little contactwithfollowers.
 The leadermaybe v...
It isnot a refinedtheorythathasorganizedsetof prescriptionsforeffective leadership.Itprovidesa
frameworkforassessingeffect...
TheSevenManagerial GridStyles:
9,1 – Controlling(Direct&dominant) I expectresultsandtake control byclearlystating
a course...
Leadership styles
 Directive Style:Assistgroupmembersaccomplishagoal throughgivingdirections,establishing
goals,settingti...
Development Levels
Thisis concernedwiththe developmentlevelsof subordinates.Thisistheirdegree of competenceand
commitmentt...
 D2 or R2
 Employeeshave some competence,butlow commitment.
 D3 or R3
 Employeeswhohave moderatetohighcompetence,butlo...
almostall typesof tasks,so there are a wide range of applicationsforit.Froma practical pointof viewit
isperhapsthe bestlea...
a clear picture of a manager'sleadershipstyle.A leadermayuse differentstyleswithdifferentfollowers,
or he or she mayhave a...
Situational variables
o Leadermemberrelations
i. Group atmosphere anddegree of confidence,loyaltyandattractionthatfollower...
noticedthatsome executives,whomaybe extremelysuccessful inone organization,canfail in another
organizationwithadifferentcu...
are calledsociometricquestions.Usinghisresults,Fiedlerwasable todeterminewhothe informal
leaderof the teamwas.At the endof...
Fiedlerinterpretedtheseresultstomeanthatthere was an optimumdistance thatneededtobe
maintainedbetweenaleaderandhis/herfoll...
those inoctant four.Fiedleractuallyhadnostudieswherethe conditionsfell intooctantsix whenhe
firstproposedthe contingencyth...
wouldendupinoctant 6. In thiscase we wouldexpectimprovedperformance fromhighLPCleaders
and reducedperformance fromlowLPCle...
and effort.Itisalsolikelythatorganizationscouldbenefitsubstantiallyfromdevotingmore attentionto
matchingthe styles of thei...
o if theythinktheyare capable of performingtheirwork
o if theybelievetheireffortswill resultinacertainoutcome
o if theybel...
Leader Behavior
 There are fourbehaviors,butthe theoryisleftopenforinclusionof additionalbehaviors.
 The following4behav...
 There may be instanceswhere aleadermayuse a blendof differentbehaviors.
 Leadershouldadapttheirbehaviortothe situationa...
o Participative
o Achievementoriented
o Work facilitation
o Group orienteddecisionprocess
o Work Group representationandne...
 It can be appliedatall levelswithinanorganization.
Strengths
 It providesauseful theoretical frameworkforunderstandingh...
 Subordinatesbecomeeitherpartof the in-groupor the out-groupbasedonhow well theywork
withthe leaderandhowthe leaderworksw...
Exchanges Low Quality MediumQuality HighQuality
Interests Self Self/Other Group
 Thisis a prescriptive approachtoleadersh...
o It describesleadership - Highlightsthe importance of recognizingthe existenceof in-
groupsand out-groups.
 The differen...
 Thishas beenthe focusof researchsince the 1980s.
 It isbasedon the "great man"theory,butdoesnot assume thatthe leadermu...
o Weberrecognizedthe importantrole playedbyfollowersin validatingcharisma.
o The personal characteristicsof a charismalead...
A model of Transformational Leadership - Bass
o (Bass,1985) providedamore expandedversionof the transformationalleadership...
 IdealizedInfluence
 Identifiesleaderswhoare charismaticandare strongrole models.
 Followersidentifywiththese leadersan...
Thisis the absence of leadership.
 Laissez-Faire
 Abdicatesresponsibility.
 Delaydecisions.
 Give no feedback.
 Makes...
 These leaderswere social architects of theirorganizations
 Communicate directionthattransformsthe valuesandnorms.
 The...
 Transformational Leadershipdoesnottell people whattodo,butprovidesabroad setof
generalizations.Itdoesnottell the leaderh...
o The study of groupsbeganin the 1920s and1930 (PorterandBeyerlein,2000) withfocuson
humanrelations.The focusshiftedto"gro...
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
Summary of leadership theories and management comparison
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Summary of leadership theories and management comparison

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Leadership theories and comparison with management

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Summary of leadership theories and management comparison

  1. 1. Leadership Theories Visit my blog at http://leadershiptheories.blogspot.com/ for more content. The followingmaterial isahighlevel summaryof twelve approaches/theoriesinleadership.Eachsection coversa theory/approachtoleadership.The sectionscoverthe basicassumptions,references,diagrams, leadershipinstruments,strengthsandweaknesses.Thissummaryisbasedon myreadingsfroma diversityof booksandexperience withleadership.Twobooksinparticular,Ihave foundto be indispensable andare a mustread.  LeadershipTheoryandPractice,PeterG.Northouse, Third Edition.  Managementof Organizational Behavior,Paul Hersey, Seventh Edition On Leadership In perusingthese materials,Ididnotfinda simple answerorrecipe forleadership.Assuspected, leadershipisapart of all us at home,inour business,andourcommunity.Whatwasextremely beneficial to me wasthat readingthroughthe varioustheories,andcase studies,Iwasable to identify withmanyof these examplesandsituations.Ithadenrichedme withaninsightaboutmyself andthose I interactwith.Frequently,afterreadingaparagraph,I would relate aparticularsituationormethodtoa behaviorthatI or someone Iknowwasengagedin. It isthat veryawarenessof bothmy personal andotherpeople'sbehaviorsthatmakesleadership possible.Iamthe firstto admitthat learningaboutall these approachestoleadershipdoesnot automaticallymake one agoodleader,buttheygive atremendousinsightandthe possibilitytobecome a betterone. My ownviewisthat"Leadership is a processto changeorcreate something fromwhatotherwisewould be chaos.Itmustbe highly flexible and demandsawareness,skills,and sensitivity.Itis highly dependent on situations.Leadership is being human."Inmyview,the combinationof the majorityof these approachesandtheoriesisthe true leadershiptheory.Theyare all equallyeye openingforeveryonein an organization. Management vs. Leadership There are of course distinctionsbetweenthe conceptsof ManagementandLeadership.Thisishowever anotherindepthdiscussion.Forthe sake of thissummary, theywill bothbe synonymousinthe upcomingsectionswiththe exceptionof the snippetbelow. The classical descriptionof managementworkcomesfromDrucker(1973). He has definedfive basic functionsof a managementjob.Theyare planning,organizing, controlling,motivatingandcoordinating. Thisis the basisfor manylaterrole definitions. Leadershave differentrolestoaccomplish.Maybe the bestknowndefinitioncomesfromBennis betweenaleaderanda manager.Inhisclassic“On becominga leader”(1989, 44-45) he has written aboutthe differencesof leadersandmanagersasfollows:
  2. 2. - The manager administers;the leaderinnovates. - The manager isa copy; the leaderisan original. - The manager maintains;the leaderdevelops. - The manager focusesonsystemsandstructure;the leaderfocusesonpeople. - The manager reliesoncontrol;the leaderinspirestrust. - The manager hasa short-range view;the leaderhasalong-range perspective. - The manager askshowand when;the leaderaskswhatand why. - The manager haseye alwaysonthe bottomline;the leaderhashiseye onthe horizon. - The manager imitates;the leaderoriginates. - The manager acceptsthe status quo;the leaderchallengesit. - The manager isthe classicgood soldier;the leaderishisownperson. - The manager doesthingsright;the leaderdoesthe rightthings. Leadership definitions It isclear that leadershipcanbe definedinmanydifferentways andthere are more subjective waysof definingitthanobjectiveones.Asyoureadabouttheoriesand researchonleadershipinlatersections, youwill recognize thatthe theoristsandresearcherseachhadhis/herowndefinitionsof leadership,and that theyfocuson somewhatdifferentaspectsof the jobrequirementsof aleader.Anexample of a theorythat isnot coveredinthe upcomingsections,butisworthnotingisthe decisiontree approach. The decisiontree approach presentedbyVictorVroomisfocusedentirelyonwhetherleaderchoosesto make a decisiononhis/herownorif the group shouldbe involvedinthe decision.Inthisapproach,you ask a seriesof yes/noquestionsandbasedonthe response toeachto each branch, the decisiontree takesyouto the nextquestionortoa final decision. The questionsof the decisiontree involve whetherthe leaderhasthe informationnecessarytomake the decision,whetherthe decisionhasqualityrequirements,whetherthe followershave the informationnecessary,whethertheyare likelytoacceptthe decisionif the leadermakesitalone,andso forth.The processis designedtohelpthe leadermake ordelegate the decision. Thisapproach clearlyfocusesonone aspectof leadership(decisionmaking) thisisanexampleof a contingencytheoryof leadership One distinctiontokeepinmindwhilereadingthe material isthe difference between emergentand assigned leadership.Manyof the approachesand theoriessetforthdeal withemergentleadershipand fewof themtalkabout the assignedleadershiproles. The self-monitoringscale The self-monitoringscale wasdesignedtomeasure the extenttowhichapersonissensitive tothe expectationsof othersinasocial situation.Italsomeasuresthe extenttowhichthe personisable to shape hisor her behaviortomatchthose expectations.Boththe malesandfemalesreceivedvarying scoreson the self-monitoringscale,butonlythe females'scoreswere relatedtothe numberof leadershipnominationstheyreceived.The explanationthatGaryOdouscame up withgoesas follows: The female studentswere adistinctminorityinthe class.Eachstudygroup had one or twofemales amongthe sevenoreightstudentsmakingupthe group.The classis offeredinthe collegeof business, where the majorityof the studentsare male.Asa result,we mightassume thatthe subjectmatterof the class--andindeedthe classitself--mightbe consideredamasculine-orientedactivity.Fora female
  3. 3. memberof the studygroupto emerge as a leader,she hadtorecognize the masculine demandsof the situationandconformherbehaviortothose demands.The womenwhohadhighself-monitoringscores were betterable todo thisthanthose withlow self-monitoringscores. The Trait Approach Firstsystematicwaystostudyleadershipinthe 20thcentury.Focusedonwhat made people "great leaders".Identifiedinnate characteristicsforthe "GreatMan" theoriessuchasLincoln,Gandhi,etc. Researchfocusedondeterminingthe traitsthatpeople are bornwith(Bass, 1990; Jago, 1982) Duringthe Mid-20th century,the theorywaschallenged(Stogdill, 1948) that "no consistentsetof traits differentiatedleadersfromnon-leaders."Anindividual whowasaleaderinone situationmightnothave beena leaderinanothersituation.Itwasre-conceptualizedasa relationshipbetweenpeople as opposedtoa set of traits(Stogdill,1948).  The trait approach emphasizesthe personalityof the leader.  In recentyears,there hasbeena renewedinterest.Bryman,1992; Lord DeVaderandAlliger1986 foundthat personalitytraitswere stronglyassociatedwithindividualsperceptionsof leadership.  Locke and Kirkpatrick1991, claimedthateffectiveleadersare actuallydistincttypesof peoplein several keyrespects.  It startedwitha focuson the traits,shiftedtofocuson situations,thenshiftedbacktotraits.  A goodoverviewwasfoundin 2surveys o Stogdill,1948 survey:Analyzed124 traits.An individual does notbecome aleadersolely basedon possessingthese traits.The traitsmustbe relevanttothe situationinwhichthe leaderisfunctioning.The surveyarguedthatleadershipwasdeterminedbythe situational factor.  The followingdifferentiatedaleader fromotherindividuals.  Intelligence  Alertness  Insight  Responsibility  Initiative  Persistence  Self confidence  Sociability o Stogdill,1974 survey:Analyzed163 traits.This surveywasmore balancedandarguedthat that bothPersonalityandSituational factors were equal determinantsof leadership.  The followingdifferentiatedaleaderfromotherindividuals.  Drive forresponsibilityandtaskcompletion.  Vigorand persistentpursuitof goals.  Willingnesstoadventure andoriginalityinproblemsolving.  Drive to exercise initiative insocial situations.  Self-confidenceandsense of personal identity.  Willingnesstoacceptconsequencesof decisionandaction.  Readinesstoabsorbinterpersonal stress.  Willingnesstotolerate frustrationanddelay.  Abilitytoinfluence otherpersons'behavior  Capacityto structure social interactionssystemstothe purpose oathand.
  4. 4.  Mann, 1959 conductedsimilarstudywhichexamined1400 traits.He identifiedleadersashaving strengthinthe following:Intelligence,Masculinity,Adjustment,Dominance,Extroversion,and conservatism.  Lord et al,1986 reassessedMannfindingsandusedthe meta-analysisprocedure.  Locke and Kirkpatrick,1991 contendedthat"Leadersare not like otherpeople".Theypostulated that leadersdifferfrom non-leadersin6 traitsincluding:Drive,desire tolead,honesty,integrity, self-confidence,cognitive ability,andknowledgeof the business.  The trait approach anda centuryof researchgivesthe would-beleadersasetof traits that they can develop. Stogdill (1948) Mann (1959) Stogdill (1974) Lord, DeVaderand Allinger(1986) Kirkpatrickand Locke (1991) Intelligence Alertness Responsibility Initiative Persistence Self-confidence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Adjustment Dominance Extroversion Conservatism Achievement Persistence Insight Initiative Self-confidence Responsibility Cooperativeness Tolerance Influence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Dominance Drive Motivation Integrity Confidence Cognitive ability Task knowledge  The traits that are central tothis listare: o Intelligence  Strongverbal ability,perceptual ability,andreasoning.Researchindicatesthata leader'sintellectual abilityshouldnotvarytoomuch fromthat of hissubordinates.In caseswhere there isa significantdifference,itcanbe counterproductive. o Self confidence  Abilitytobe certainaboutone'scompetenciesandskills.Itincludes self-esteem,self- assurance and belief thatone canmake a difference.Thisisveryimportantforability to influenceothers. o Determination  Desire toget the jobdone.It includesinitiative,persistence,dominance,anddrive. Leadersexhibitingthisare proactive,andhave the capacityto persevere against obstacles. o Integrity  Honestyandtrustworthiness.Adheretoa strongsetof principlesandtake responsibilityfortheiractions.Leaderswithintegrityinspire confidence inothers. Theydo whattheysay there are goingto do. Theyare dependable,loyal,andnot deceptive. o Sociability  Thisis leader'sinclinationtoseekoutpleasantsocial relationships.Friendly,outgoing, courteous,tactful,anddiplomatic.Theyare sensitive toothers'needs,show concern, and wellbeing. How does the trait approach work?
  5. 5. The trait approach focusesexclusivelyonthe leaderandnotthe followers.Itsuggeststhat organizationswillworkbetterif people inmanagerial positionshave designatedleadership profiles.Selectingthe "right"people will increase organizational effectiveness.Itisusedfor personal awarenessanddevelopment.Whenmanageranalyzetheirtraits,theygaininsightinto theirstrengthsandweaknesses.Itallowsleaderstogetanunderstandingandtake corrective actions. Strengths o It isintuitivelyappealing o It has a centuryof researchtoback it up o By focusingexclusivelyonleaderithasbeenable toprovide some deeperunderstandingon howLeader’spersonalityisrelatedtoleadershipprocess o It has givensome benchmarksforwhatwe needtolookfor,if we wantto be leaders. Weakness o The failure todelimitadefinitive listof leadershiptraits o It has failedtotake situationsintoaccount o The approach has resultedinhighlysubjectivedeterminationsof the "mostimportant" leadershiptraits o It can alsobe criticizedforfailingtolookat traitsinrelationshiptoleadershipoutcomes o It isnot a useful approachfortraininganddevelopmentof leadership.(The reasoninghere isthat traits are relativelyfixed psychological structuresthatlimitsthe valueof training.On the contrary, we couldchallenge thisassumptionconcerningatleastsome traits changeable.) Leadership Instrument There are manyinstrumentsthatare usedbyorganizations.Commonpersonalitytestsinclude MinnesotaMultiphase PersonalityInventoryorthe Myers-BriggsType indicator.The leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) assessesthe personalleadershipcharacteristics.
  6. 6. The Skills Approach o The skillsapproachemphasizesthe capabilitiesof the leader. o The advantage of thisapproachis anyone canbecome an effective leader. o Similartothe trait approach,the skillsapproachtakesa leader-centeredapproachexceptthatit focusesonthe skillsandabilitiesinsteadof the "Personality"traitswhichare usuallyinnate. o The original researchcame fromthe "Skillsof aneffective administrator"HarvardBusinessReview publishedin1955 by RobertKatz. o A multitude of researchedwasdone inthe 1990's by Mumford,Zaccaro, Harding,Jacobs& Fleishman. o Katz identified3basicskillsbasedonhisobservationof executivesinthe workplace.Katz emphasizedthatthe skillstell "Whatleaderscanaccomplish"asopposedtotraitwhich emphasized"Wholeadersare".The skillsapproachtheorizesthatleaderscanbe developedand trained.  Technical  Havingknowledge andbeingproficientinaspecifictype of workoractivity.  Technical skillsisnotimportantatlowerlevelsof managementandlessimportantat higherlevels.  Abilitytoworkwith things.  Human  Abilitytoworkwithpeople.  Beingaware of one'sown perspectiveonissuesandatthe same time beingaware of othersperspectives.  Leadersadapttheirownideaswiththose of others.ilityModel"  Create an atmosphere of trustwhere employeescanfeel comfortable,secure, encouragedtobe involvedinplanningthe thingsthataffectthem.  Conceptual  Abilitytoworkwithideasandconcepts.  Works easilywithabstractionsandhypothetical situations.  Creatingvisions,strategicplans.  Is mostimportantat top managementlevels.
  7. 7. What are Schemas? Northouse presentsthe conceptof the schema,buthe doesnotexplainitverycompletely. Cognitive theoristshave constructedthe conceptof a schemato helpexplainhow we think,learn, remember, andexperience the world.A schemaisessentiallyanetworkof ideassurroundinga specificconcept.Suchconceptscouldinclude mothers,fathers,bosses,AfricanAmericans, Hispanics,andevenyourself.Schemata(the pluralof schema) functioninawaythat organizesour experiencesandallowsourinformationprocessingtobe efficient.Theiraffectcanbe good or bad, dependingonthe circumstances. For example,suppose youmeetanew personat work.The personisAfricanAmerican.Because of your schemaaboutAfricanAmericanpersonsyouprobablyassume thatyoualreadyknow some thingsaboutthisperson.Youmight,dependingonthe nature of your schema,assume thathe or she has rhythm,or basketball-playingskills,orothercharacteristicsyouassociate withthe concept AfricanAmerican.Youmaylearnsome thingsaboutthispersonthat are not congruentwithyour existingschema.Youmayignore them, forgetthemorclassifythispersonasaspecial exceptionto the concept.All of these will contributetomaintainingthe existingschema. People have anatural tendencytoresistchangingourschemataon the basisof new information. For example,peoplewhoare highlyprejudicedagainstAfricanAmericansare likelytobe very resistanttochange in that schema.Althoughagoodleaderwill have alarge numberof schemata aboutdifferentpeople,hisorherschemataare more likelytobe flexible andreceptive tonew information. o SkillsModel - Mumfordand collegesidentifiedanew skillsbasedmodelof organizational leadership.  Startedinthe early199s withfundingfromthe DOD. Focusedon1800 armyofficers representing6gradeslevels.  Theyattemptedtoexplain"EffectivePerformance".  Theyuseda "CapabilityModel"toexplainthe relationshipbetweenaleader'sskillsand knowledge.  The skillsmodel doesNOTfocuson"whatleadersdo",buton the capabilities.  It iscomposedof 5 differentcomponents  Competencies  Individual attributes  Leadershipoutcomes  Careerexperiences  Environmental influences 
  8. 8. Competencies  Problemsolvingskills  Abilitytosolve new,unusual,andill-definedproblems.Itincludesgatheringproblem information;formulate new understandings,andgenerating prototypesplansfor solutions.These skillsdonotworkina vacuum, butin the organizational context. Leadersmustunderstandtheircapacitieswithinthe organization.  An example isbeingthe directorof HumanResourcesfora mediumsizedcompany tryingto developaplantoreduce the costs of healthcare costs.  First- identifyfull ramificationsforemployeeschangingbenefits.  Second - gatherinformationabouthow benefitscanbe scaledback.  Third- Finda way to teachand informemployeesabout the change.  Fourth- Create scenariosforhow the changescan be instituted.  Fifth- Look closelyatthe solutionitself.How will thischange affectcompany's mission?Careers?  Last - Are there issuesinthe organizationthatinfringeonthe implementationof these changes?  Social Judgmentskills  Capacityto understandpeopleandsocial systems.  Workingwithotherstosolve problemsandmarshal supporttoimplementchanges. SimilartoKatz' views,butdelineatedintothe following:  Perspectivetaking  Understandthe attitudesothershave towardsaparticularproblem.  Thisis empathyappliedtothe problemsolving.Beingsensitivetoother people perspective andgoals.  Anothertemforthisis "Social Intelligence"  Social Perceptiveness  Havinginsightintohow otherswithinthe organizationfunction.  What isimportantto others?What motivatesthem?  A leaderwiththese skillshasakeensense of how employeeswill respond to any proposedchange.  Reactingto otherswithflexibility.Thisisthe abilitytochange one's behaviorinlightof anunderstandingof othersperspectivesinthe organization.  Beingopenandnon-dogmatic  Social Performance  Includesawide setof skills.  Leadersshouldeffectivelybe able tocommunicate theirownvisionto others.  Skillsof persuasionare essential.  Functionasmediators.  Knowledge  Referstothe accumulationof knowledge andthe mental structuresusedtoorganize information.ThisiscalledSchema(summary,diagrammaticrepresentationoroutline)  Organizedinformation(schemata) becomemore meaningful thanthe bitsthat comprisesit.
  9. 9.  Knowledgeable peopleare called"experts"andcanprocesscomplex informationof the intricaciesof a particularfield. Individual attributes  General cognitive ability  Simplysaid,thisisa person'sintelligence (fluidintelligence) whichincludesperceptual processing,informationprocessing,general reasoning,creative anddivergentthinking capabilities,andmemoryskills.  Thisis linkedtoBiologyandnotto experience.  Crystallizedcognitive ability  Learnedandacquiredintellectual abilitythroughexperience.  Grows continuouslyanddoesnotfall off winadulthood.  Motivation  Model suggeststhree typesof motivation. a. Leadersmustbe willingandmotivatedtotackle complexorganizational problems.A personmustbe willingtolead. b. Leadersmustbe willingtoexpressdominance. c. Leadersmustbe committedtothe social goodof the organization.  Personality  A wide range of traitsthat can influence leadershipsuchasOpenness,tolerance for ambiguity,andcuriosity.  Skillsmodel theorizesthataleaders'personalitycharacteristicshelpspeoplecope withcomplex organizational situations. Leadership outcomes These outcomesare stronglyinfluencedbyleader'scompetencies.Whenleadersexhibitthese competencies,theyincreasethe chance of problemsolvingandoverall performance.  Effective ProblemSolving  Thisis the keystone inthe skillsapproach.  In volescreatingsolutionsthatare logical,effective,andunique.  Performance  Thisrefersto howwell aleaderdidtheirjob.  Standardsexternal criteriaare usedtomeasure goodperformance suchasmerit increases,recognitions,etc. Career experiences  Careerexperienceshave aneffectona leader'sabilitytosolve problems.  Researchconducted byMumford,Hardinget al.in 2000 suggeststhatleaderscanbe helpedby  Challengingjobassignments.  Mentoring.  Appropriate training.  Hands-onexperience.  Careerexperiencescanalsopositivelyaffectanindividualcharacteristics(enhance intellectual capabilitiesormotivation)  Leaderslearnanddevelophigherlevelsof conceptual capacityif the kindsof problems theyconfrontare progressivelymore complex.
  10. 10.  Accordingto thistheory,leaderscandevelopandare not "bornleaders" Environmental Influences  Representfactorsoutside the leaders'competencies,characteristics,andexperiences.  Examplesincludelackingtechnology,agingfactory,subordinatesskills,etc. How does the skill approach work? The skillsapproachisdescriptive,describingleadershipfromaskillsperspective.Itprovidesstructurefor effectiveleadership. The 3 skillsapproachsuggeststhe importance of certainleadershipskillsdependingonwhere the leader are inthe hierarchy. Mumfordand colleaguesprovide asimilar butmore complex picture of skillsneededforeffective leadership.The model contendsthatleadershipoutcomesare the directresultsof aleader's competenciesinproblemsolving,social judgment,andknowledge.Eachcontainalarge repertoire of abilities.Environmental influencesandcareerexperiencesplayadirector indirectrole inleadership performance. The skillsapproachprovidesamapfor how to reach effectiveleadershipinorganizations. Strengths  It isa leadercentricmodel thatstressesonthe developmentof some skills.Itconceptualize and createsa structure of the process.  It isintuitivelyappealing.Itmakesleadershipavailable toeveryone.  It incorporatesanexpansiveview of leadershipthatincorporatesawide varietyof components such as problemsolving,knowledge,social skills,etc.  It capture the intricaciesinvolvedinleadershipbecauseithasmanyvariables.  Providesastructure that isconsistentwiththe curriculaof mostleadershipeducationprograms. Weakness  The breadthsof the approachextendbeyondthe boundariesof the leadership(suchas motivation,personality,critical thinking,etc.) Thismakesitmore general andlessprecise.  It has a weakpredictive value.Itdoesnotexplainhow variationscanaffectperformance.  It claimsNOTto be a trait model,butmajorcomponentsof the model include trait-like attributes like personalityvariables.  It may notbe suitablyorappropriatelyappliedtoothercontexts.The model wasconstructedby usinga large sample fromthe military.Canitbe generalized? The approach isrelativelynew andhasnotbeenwidelyusedinappliedleadershipsettings.Despite the lack of trainingonthe skillsapproach,the scoresallow individualstoleanaboutareastheycan seek trainingin. Leadership Instrument
  11. 11. There are manyquestionnairestoassessindividual'sskills.Theyprovide auseful self-help,buttheyare not usedinresearchbecause theyhave notbeentestedforreliabilityandvalidity.A typical questionnaire isthe "SkillsInventory". Style Approach The Style approachemphasizesthe behaviorof the leader.Itfocusesonwhatleadersdoandhow theyact. Researchersdeterminedthatthere are twotypesof behaviors.The central purpose isto explainhowthe leaders combine these twokindsof behaviortoinfluence the subordinatestoreach a goal. 1. Task behavior:Facilitatesgoal accomplishment. 2. Relationshipbehavior:Helpsubordinatesfeelcomfortable withthemselves,withother and withthe situation.  There are manystudiesthathave beenconductedtoinvestigate the style approach.  Some studieswere conductedatOhioState Universityinthe 1940s basedon Stogdill'sfindings.  Some studieswere conductedatUniversityof Michiganinthe 1940s to understandhow leadership functioninsmall groups.  Otherresearchwasconductedby Moutonand Blake inthe early1960s to understandhow managersusedTask/Relationshipinorganizational settings. The OhioState University studies  The analyticswere conducted byhavinga numberof subordinate’s complete questionnaires abouttheirleadersandhowmanytimestheyengagedina certaintype of behavior.  The original questionnaire(LBDQ) thatwasusedhad 1800 describingdifferentbehaviors.  A simplifiedformof 150 questionswasgiventohundredsof individualsinMilitary, educational andindustrial settings.Itshowedthatcertainbehaviorswere typical of leaders.  Stogdill publishedashorthandversionin1963 calledLBDQ-VXII  Researchersfoundthatthatthere are 2 typesof behaviorsforleaders:  Initiatingstructure: This isessentiallytaskbehaviorsuchasorganizingwork,giving structure,definingroles,scheduling,etc.  Considerationstructure: Thisisessentiallyrelationshipbehaviorssuchasbuilding camaraderie,respect,trust,etc.  The studiesshowedthatthese 2behaviorswere distinct,independent,andona different continuum.A Leadercan be highor low oneitherandthe degree withwhichaleader exhibitedacertainbehaviorwasnotrelatedtothe other.  Otherstudieswere conductedtodetermine whichone makesamore effectiveformof leadership.Insome contexts,highconsiderationwasfoundeffective,inothercontexts, initiatingstructure wasmore effective.Otherresearchshowedthathighon bothwas optimum. The University of Michiganstudies  Focusedonimpactof leadersforsmall groups.  Identified2typesof leadershipbehaviors:  Employee orientation:Describesleaders behaviorwhoemphasizesthe humanside, take an interestinindividualsashumanbeings,individuality,andpersonal needs.Thisis similarto"considerationbehavior"
  12. 12.  Production Orientation:Referstothe technical aspectof the job.Similarto"Initiating Structure".Workersare meansto get the jobdone.  Unlike the OhioState research,thisstudyconceptualizedthatthe twobehaviorswere opposite endsof the same continuum.Thissuggestedthatleaderswhowere oriented towardsone endwere lessorientedtowardsthe other.  Afteradditional studies,itwasconceptualizedthatthe twobehaviorswere independentof each othersimilartothe OhioState studies.(Kahn,1956)  Additional studieswere made duringthe 1950s and 60s tryingto finda universal theory.The resultswere contradictoryandunclear(Yulk,1994).  Some of thisresearchpointedoutthat leaderswhoare hightaskand highrelationshipwas mosteffective.However,itwasinconclusive. Blake and MoutonManagerial/LeadershipGrid  Appearedin1960s and wasrevisedmanytimesin1964, 78, 85, 91.  Usedin consultingfororganizationaldevelopmentthroughoutthe world.  It has beenusedextensivelyinorganizationaltraininganddevelopment.  The Grid is tryingto explainhow managers/leadersinorganizationsare tryingtoreachtheir purposesthroughconcernforpeople andconcernforproduction.  Concernfor production:Achievementsandtasks.  Concernfor people:how a leaderattendstopeople,HR,trust,relationships,etc.
  13. 13.   Made up of two axis.Horizontal isleader'sconcernforresultsandvertical isleader'sconcern for people.Ithasa 9 pointscale.1 representsthe minimum.Itportrays5 majorleadership stylesandtwoadditional styles. Authority-Compliance(9,1)  Heavyemphasisontaskand jobrequirements.  Lessemphasisonpeople exceptthatpeople are toolstogetthe jobdone.  Subordinate communicationisnotemphasizedexceptforthe purpose of giving instructions.Resultsdriven.  The leaderinthiscategory is seenascontrolling,demanding,hard-driving,and overpowering. CountyClubManagement(1,9)  Low concernfor taskaccomplishmentcoupledwithhighconcernfor interpersonalrelationships.  The leaderstryto create positive climate bybeingagreeable,eagertohelp, confronting,anduncontroversial.Theymake sure people needsare met. ImpoverishedManagement(1,1)
  14. 14.  Unconcernedwithbothtaskand relationships.  Acts uninvolvedandwithdrawn.Little contactwithfollowers.  The leadermaybe viewedasindifferent,noncommittal,resigned,andapathetic. Middleofthe roadmanagement(5,5)  Describesleaderswhoare compromisers.  Intermediateconcernforbothtaskand relationships.  A leadermaybe describedasexpedient,middle groundpreference,softpedals disagreement,andswallowsconvictionsinthe interestof progress. TeamManagement(9,9)  Strongemphasisonbothtask and relationships.  Promoteshighdegree of participationandteamwork.  A leaderinthiscategorycan be viewedasstimulatingparticipation,acting determinedgetsissuesintothe open,makesprioritiesclear,followsthrough, behavesopenmindedly,andenjoysworking. Paternalism/Maternalism  Leaderswhouse (9,1) and (1,9),but doesNOTintegrate the two.Thisisthe benevolentdictator.  Theyact graciousforthe purpose of goal accomplishmentonly.  Theytreat people asthoughtheywere disassociatedwiththe task. Opportunism  A leaderwhousesanycombinationof the basicfive stylesforthe purpose of personal advancement.  Thisleaderusuallyhasadominantgridstyle anda backup style thattheyreferto whenunderstress.Blake &Mouton (1985) How does the style approach work?
  15. 15. It isnot a refinedtheorythathasorganizedsetof prescriptionsforeffective leadership.Itprovidesa frameworkforassessingeffective leadership.Itworkbydescribingtoleadersthe major componentsof theirbehaviorandNOTbytellingthemhow tobehave.  It remindsleadersthattheiractionstowardsothersare bothat the task andrelationship levels.  In some situationstaskbehaviorismore appropriate,inothersrelationshipismore suitable.  Similarly,some subordinatesneedleaderswhoprovide alotof direction.Othersneedalotof supportand nurturance. The style approachcan be easilyappliedin organizations. Itprovidesamirrorfor managersthat helpsthemunderstand,howtheyare performingasa manager.Leadership(Managerial)Gridhas beenwidelyusedinpractice inthe past.Today itis commonlyseenasanold-fashionedapproachby managementdevelopmentprofessionals. Strengths  It broadenedthe scope of leadershipresearchtoinclude the behaviorsof leadersandwhat they do invarioussituations  A wide range of studiesonleadershipstylevalidatesandgivescredibilityto the basictenets of thisapproach  The style approachhas ascertainedthata leader’sstyle iscomposedof primarilytwomajor typesof behavior:taskandrelationship  The style approachis heuristic:itprovidesusabroadconceptual mapthat is worthusingin our attemptstounderstandthe complexityof leadership. Weakness  The research on styles has not adequately shown, how leaders´ styles are associated withperformance outcomes(Bryman1992; Yukl 1994)  It has failed to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation  It implies that the most effective leadership style is the high task and high relationship style (Blake and McCanse 1991) when the research findings provide only limited support for a universal high-highstyle(Yukl 1994). Leadership Instrument Many instrumentsare availabletoassessthe leader'sstyle,butthe twomostcommonlyusedones are LBDQ (Stogdill,1963) and leadershipGrid(Blake &McCanse,1991). This isdesignedtobe completedbythe observers.The leadersthemselvescomplete the LOQ(LeaderOpinion Questionnaire). Initially,asresearchersanalyzedthe resultsof bothsurveys,theyfound thatthe initiatingstructure scoresand considerationscoreswere relativelyindependentof one another.However,whenthey testedthe questionnairesinfurtherresearch,theydiscoveredthatonlythe LBDQresultsseemedto be predictive of workgroupoutcomes.Apparently,leadersexpressedopinionsonthe LOQ that theirsubordinatesdidnotobserveorreporton the LBDQ. Asa result,onlythe LBDQcontinuedon as a tool forleadershipstyle research.
  16. 16. TheSevenManagerial GridStyles: 9,1 – Controlling(Direct&dominant) I expectresultsandtake control byclearlystating a course of action.I enforce rulesthatsustainhigh resultsanddo notpermitdeviation. 1,9 – Accommodating(Yield&Comply) I supportresultsthatestablishandreinforce harmony.I generate enthusiasmbyfocusingon positive andpleasingaspectsof work. 5,5 StatusQuo (Balance & Compromise) I endorse resultsthatare popularbutcaution againsttakingunnecessaryrisk.Itestmyopinions withothersinvolvedtoassure ongoing acceptability. 1,1 – Indifferent(Evade &Elude) I distance myself fromtakingactive responsibility for resultstoavoidgettingentangledinproblems. If forced,I take a passive orsupportive position. PAT Paternalistic(Prescribe &Guide) I provide leadershipbydefininginitiativesfor myself andothers.Iofferpraise andappreciation for support,anddiscourage challengestomy thinking. OPPOpportunistic(Exploit&Manipulate) I persuade otherstosupportresultsthatofferme private benefit.If theyalsobenefit,that’seven betteringainingsupport.Irelyonwhatever approach isneededtosecure anadvantage. 9,9 - Sound(Contribute &Commit) I initiate teamactionina waythat invites involvementandcommitment.Iexplore all facts and alternative viewstoreacha shared understandingof the bestsolution. The Situational Approach  Thisis one of the mostwidelyrecognizedandusedapproaches.  It was developedbyBlanchardandHerseyin1969  Basedon Reddin's 3-Dmanagementstyle theory.  It was revisedanumberof timessince inception,1993, 1985, 1977, and1988  It has beenusedextensivelyinorganizationsfortraininganddevelopment.  The basic premise isthatdifferentsituationsdemanddifferentkindsof leadership.A leaderneeds to adapt hisor herstyle to the situation.  It iscomposedof two dimensions:  Supportive dimension  Directive dimension  To assesswhattype of leadershipisneeded,aleadermustevaluatethe employeesandassess howcompetentandhowcommittedtheyare to performagiventask.  Because employees’ skillsandmotivationvaryovertime,the theorysuggeststhatleadersshould change the degree towhichtheyare directive orsupportivetomeetthose needs.  A leadermustmatchtheirstyle tothe competence andcommitmentof the subordinates.
  17. 17. Leadership styles  Directive Style:Assistgroupmembersaccomplishagoal throughgivingdirections,establishing goals,settingtimelines,schedules,definingroles.Itisaone way communication.  Supportive style:Helpgroupmembersfeelcomfortableaboutthemselves,theirco-workers,and the situation.Itinvolvestwo-waycommunication.Examplesincludeaskingforinput,problem solving,praising,andsharinginformation. There are fourdistinctcategories: S1 -Directing- High Directive,Low Supportive  Leaderfocusesongoal achievementcommunicationandlessfocusonsupport.Leadergives instructionsonhowgoalsare to be achievedandsupervisesthemcarefully S2 - Coaching- High Directive,High Supportive  Leaderfocusesonbothgoal achievementandsupportivecommunication.Leadergives instructionsonhowgoalsare to be achievedandsupervisesthemcarefully.Leaderstill ownsthe final decisions. S3 - Supporting- High supportive,Low Directive  Leaderdoesnotfocus exclusivelyongoals,butusessupportivebehaviorthatbringsoutthe employeesskillsaroundthe task.The style includeslistening,praising,askingforinput,and givingfeedback.Itgivesthe subordinatethe decisionsmakingona dayto day basis. S4 - Delegating- Low supportive,Low Directive  The leaderofferslesstaskinputandlesssocial support.Theyfacilitate employees confidence andmotivation.Theylessentheirinvolvementinplanning,control of details, and goal clarification.Subordinatestake responsibilityforgettingthe jobdone astheysee fit.
  18. 18. Development Levels Thisis concernedwiththe developmentlevelsof subordinates.Thisistheirdegree of competenceand commitmenttoaccomplishingatask.Employeesare atthe highdevelopmentlevel if theypossessthe skillsandthe confidence togetatask done.Alternatively,theyare ata low developmentlevel if they lack the skills,butpossessthe confidence todoa particular task. On a particulartask,an employee canbe classifiedinto4categories:  D1 or R1  Employeesare newtoa task or do notknow how to do it,but theyare excitedaboutthe challenge init.
  19. 19.  D2 or R2  Employeeshave some competence,butlow commitment.  D3 or R3  Employeeswhohave moderatetohighcompetence,butlow commitment.  D4 or R4  Employeeswhohave bothahighcompetence anda highdegree of commitment. How does the situational approach work? The approach iscentered onthe ideathat employeesmove forwardandbackwardalongadevelopment continuum.Forleaderstobe effective,theyneedtodiagnose where subordinatesare onthe continuum and adapttheirstyle toit. Leaderscan beginbyaskingquestions:  What isthe taskthat needstobe accomplished?  How complicatedisthe task?  Are subordinatessufficientlyskilledtodothe task?  Do theyhave the desire togetthe taskdone? There isa 1-1 relationshipbetweenthe Leaderstylesandthe developmentlevels.Because subordinates move back andforth,it isimperative thatleadersadjusttheirstyle.Subordinatesmaymove between levelseitherquicklyorslowly. The bell curve superimposeduponthe largerbox isthe keytoimplementingthe situational leadership model. Inthismodel,itisthe situation,orthe readinessanddevelopmentlevel of the followersthat determinesthe appropriate leaderstyle.Byerectingaperpendicularline fromanypointonthe developmentorreadinessscale,we candetermine the appropriateamountof directiveandsupportive behavioratthe pointwhere the line intersectsthe bell curve.If,forexample,we were todraw a perpendicularline directlyupfromthe D1 label inthe developmentbox tothe bell curve,itwould intersectthe curve rightaboutwhere the "C" indirectingislocated.Fromthispositiononthe grid,we see that the amountof directive behaviornecessaryisatabout80 percentof the maximum, while supportive behaviorisatabout35 percentof the maximum.If we follow the same procedure forthe D2 pointon the developmentscale,we will intersectthe curve ata pointjustto the leftof the initial Cin coaching.In thiscase,directive behaviorneededisatabout 60 percentof the maximumandthe supportive behaviorneededisnearthe maximumatabout90 percent.Atthe D3 level,directive behaviorisstill substantial atabout40 percent,while supportive behaviorisat90 percent.Finally,the highestlevelof development,D4,requiresonly25percentsupportive behaviorand25 percentdirective behavior.The curve demonstratesthatasfollowersmove fromthe lowestlevel of developmenttoward higherlevels,the amountof supportivebehaviorthatleadersshouldexhibitfirstincreasesata fairly dramaticrate and then beginstodecrease atabout the same rate.Directive behavior,onthe otherhand shouldconstantlydecrease atasteadyrate. One of the strengthsof the situational leadershipmodel isthatitmakesthe leaderresponsiblefor helpingfollowersmove to higherdevelopmentallevels.Butleadersmustalsobe aware thattheirwork situationchangesasfollowersmove tohigherdevelopmental levels.Inordertocontinue tobe effective, leadersmustlearntomodifytheirownbehaviorasthe situationchanges The situational leadershipmodel iswidelyusedintraininganddevelopmentof leaders,because itis easyto conceptualize andalsoeasy toapply.The straightforwardnature of situational leadership makes it practical for managerstouse. It is applicable invirtuallyanytype of organization,atany level,for
  20. 20. almostall typesof tasks,so there are a wide range of applicationsforit.Froma practical pointof viewit isperhapsthe bestleadershipmodel sofar.Butit isalso a productof itsown time, 1960´and 1970´s, in whichleadershipisperceivedasbeingaone-to-one relationship. Strengths  It iswell knownandfrequentlyused;ithasstoodthe testinthe marketplace 400/500 fortune 500 companies  Intuitivelysimple.  It isverypractical,but still basedonsoundtheories  It isprescriptive:ittellsyouwhattodoand not to doin variouscontexts  It emphasizesthe conceptof leaderflexibility  It reminds us to treat each subordinate differently based on the task at hand and to seek opportunities todevelopsubordinates. Weakness  There have beenonlyafewresearchstudiesconductedtojustifythe basicassumptionsbehind thisapproach.Doesit reallyimprove performance?  The concept of the subordinates´ readiness or development level is rather ambiguous (Graeff 1997; Yukl 1998)  Alsohowthe commitmentisconceptualizediscriticized(Graeff 1997)  The match of the leaderstyle andthe followers´readinesslevel isalsoquestioned.Twostudies conducted(300 highschool teachers,Universityemployees).Performance of mature teacherswas unrelatedtothe style exhibitedbyprinciples.  Doesnot addressdemographicvariations.  Education,Experience,age,andgender.  StudiesconductedbyVecchio&Boatwrightin2002 showedthatlevelsof educationwere inverselyrelatedtothe directive styleandnotrelatedtothe supportive style.  Age was positivelyrelatedtothe desire forstructure.  Female employeesexpresseddesireformore supportivestyle.  It does not fully address the issue of one-to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting.Example:Woulda20 employeesmatchtheirstyle toeachindividual orto the overall developmentlevel of the group?  The leadershipquestionnairesthataccompanythe model have alsobeencriticized.Theyare bias because the answershave beenpredetermined. Leadership Instrument Many similarinstrumentsare available.Theyprovide12-20 situationswherethe respo0ndantsselect the preferredstyle. In theirworkwithleaders,HerseyandBlanchardhave determinedthatmostleadershave some flexibilityinthe styleof leadershiptheyemploy.Tomeasure leadershipstyle,HerseyandBlanchard developedatool theycalled LEAD.Thistool hastwo parts.The firstiscalledthe LEAD self,inwhichthe leaderhimself respondstoa varietyof hypothetical situations.The secondpart,the LEAD other,asks co- workerstodescribe the behaviorof one of theircolleagues.The twoparts of the LEAD tool helptopaint
  21. 21. a clear picture of a manager'sleadershipstyle.A leadermayuse differentstyleswithdifferentfollowers, or he or she mayhave a mainstyle anda backup style thatcomesintoplaywhenthe mainstyle doesn't seemtobe working.Still,otherleadersseemonlytohave one mainstyle.HerseyandBlanchard's researchfocusedonleaderswhousedtwostyles.Bycreatingastyle profile foraleader,trainersusing the situational leadershipapproachare able topinpointsituationsinwhichaleadermayhave some difficultyandcanprepare themtodeal withthose situations. For example,aleaderwithanS1,S3 profile workswithahighdirective,low supportivestyle orahigh supportive,lowdirective style.Suchaleaderwouldhave difficultyinworkingwithagroupof followers where manyare changingdevelopmentallevelsbymovingfromD1 to D2. Thisleadermighteither continue touse the now inappropriate S1style,ormove directlytothe alsoinappropriateS3style. A leaderwithanS1, S4 profile seemstojudge everythingoncompetence.If workersdon'thave itand S1, S4 leaderwill "ride"the followersandcloselysupervise theiractivities.Once afollowershowsjob competence,the S1,S4 leaderpullsbackshowingneitherdirectivenorsupportivebehavior.AnS2,S3 leaderisable tovary the amountof directive behavior,butmaintainsahighlevel of supportive behavior.AnS1,S2 leaderisable tovary the amountof supportive behaviorshown,butmaintainsa highlevel of directive behavior.AnS2,S4 profile leadershowsbehaviorwhichiseitherhighinboth directive andsupportivebehaviororislow inboth.Finally,anS3, S4 leaderischaracterizedbynever showingahighlevel of directivebehaviorbutvarying hissupportive behaviorfromhightolow. The Contingency Theory o The theoryis concernedwithstylesandsituations. o Many approachescan be calledcontingency,butthe mostwidelyrecognizedisFiedler'sin1964, 1967. FredFiedlerfromUniversityof Illinoisdevelopedit. o Thisis a leader-matchtheorywhichtriestomatchthe rightleaderforthe situation. o The approach was developedbystudyingthe stylesof manydifferentleaderswhoworkedin differentcontexts,primarilymilitary. o Hundredsof leaderswere analyzedwhowere goodandbad. o The LPC (LeastPreferredcoworker) wasdevelopedtomeasure the leader’sstyles.Leaderswho score highor Loware task motivated.The LPCiscloselyrelatedtothe "Semanticdifferential scales"(The measurementof meaning,book). o The LPC scale.Fiedlerthoughtthathow a leaderfeelsaboutpeople he orshe workswithmight be a goodindicatorof whetherhe orshe wouldbe effectiveindealingwiththem.Inhisearliest workFiedleractuallyusedtwoscales.He askedhisrespondentstodescribe bothhisorherleast preferredcoworkerandhisorher mostpreferredcoworker.Fiedlerthencalculatedthe difference betweenthe evaluationof the mostpreferredcoworkerandthatof the leastpreferred coworker.He chose to call the resultingscore the AssumedSimilarityof Opposites(ASO)score. Fiedlerlaterdiscoveredthatthere wasverylittle variationinthe waythe mostpreferred coworkerwasdescribedbymostpeople.Onthe otherhand,the evaluationsof leastpreferred coworkersvariedquite widely.Asaresult,the onlythingthatwas contributingtothe resultswas the leastpreferredcoworkerscore. Leader Styles Task motivated:concernedwithreachingagoal Relationshipmotivated:concernedwithdeveloping close relationships.
  22. 22. Situational variables o Leadermemberrelations i. Group atmosphere anddegree of confidence,loyaltyandattractionthatfollowersfeel abouttheirleader. o Task Structure i. The degree towhichthe requirementsof ataskis clearand well defined. ii. Well-structured tasksgive more control tothe leader. iii. Vague anduncleartasks give lesscontrol andinfluence. iv. A taskis consideredstructuredwhen 1. The requirementsof the taskare clearlystatedandstructured. 2. The path to accomplishingthe task hasfew alternatives. 3. The completionof the taskcan be clearlydemonstrated. 4. Limitednumberof correctsolutionstothe taskexist. v. An example of astructure taskis "Cleaningthe milkmachine atMcDonald's" vi. An example of anunstructuredtasksistorun a fundraiserfor an organization. o PositionPower i. The amount of authoritya leaderhasto rewardor punishemployees.  The 3 situational factorsdetermine the favorablenessof the situations.  The most favorable situationsare definedbyhavingagoodleader-followerrelation,defined tasks,and strongleaderpositionpower.  The leastfavorable situationsare definedbyhavingapoorleader-followerrelation,unstructured tasks,and weakleaderpositionpower.  The theorypositsthat certain stylesbe more effectiveincertainsituations.  Task motivatedindividualsare more effective inVeryfavorable &veryunfavorable situations.  Relationshipmotivatedindividualsare more effectiveinmoderatelyfavorablesituations. How does the Contingency Theory work? By measuringthe LPCscore and the three variables,one canpredictwhetheraleaderwill be effectivein a particularsituation.Once the nature of situationisdetermined,the fitbetweenthe leaderand the situationcanbe evaluated.Leaderswill notbe effectiveinall situations. Contingency theory represents a major shift in leadership research from focusing only on the leaderto consideringthe situationalcontext. Itslessonhasbeen toemphasize the importance of matchinga leader’sstyle withthe demands of asituationandwidercontext. Ineverydaylife we have
  23. 23. noticedthatsome executives,whomaybe extremelysuccessful inone organization,canfail in another organizationwithadifferentculture,valuesandwayof operation. The contingencytheoryhasmanyapplicationsinthe real world.Itcan explainforexample whyan individualiseffective orineffective in acertainsituationbasedonthe variousvariables.Itcanalso predictwhetheranindividual waseffective inacertainpositioncanbe effective inanother. Strengths  It issupportedbya great deal of empirical research  It has forcedusto considerthe impactof situationsonleaders  It ispredictive andprovidesusefulinformationregardingthe type of leadershipthatwillmost likelybe effective incertaincontexts  It is realistic in saying that leaders should not expect to be able to lead effectively in everysituation  It providesdataonleaders´styles thatcouldbe useful toorganizationsindevelopingleadership profiles. Weakness  It failstoexplainfully,whyindividualswithcertainleadershipstylesare more effective insome situationsthaninothers.Fiedlercallsthisa"BlackBox".The theory explainsthatthe low LPCsare effectiveinextreme situationsisthattheyfeel more certainwhere theyhave control.  The leadershipscale,whichthe model uses,isoftencriticized.Itdoesnotseemvalidonthe surface.  It isdifficulttoapplyinpractice.Itrequiresanalyzingthe leaderstyleandthree relativelycomplex situational variables.  It failstoexplainadequatelywhatorganizationsshoulddowhenthere isamismatchbetween the leaderandthe situationinthe workplace. Leadership Instrument The LPC scale is usedinthe contingencytheory.Itmeasuresyourstyle byhavingyoudescribe a coworkerwithwhomyouhave difficultycompletingajob.The scores are indicatedbythree categories (LowLPC, Middle LPC,andHigh LPC).Low LPCsare task motivated.HighLPCsare relationship motivated,andMiddle LPCsare socio-independent. Historical overview of the leadership theory Basketball teamsandsurveyingteams.Basedonhisstudyof the literature onleadership,Fiedler predictedthatpeople whodescribe theirleastpreferredcoworkerinpositive termswouldmake better leaders.Suchpeople,he theorizedwouldbe able togetalongwitha widervarietyof people.Totest thisideahe decidedtomeasure the LPCof some leadersandcorrelate theirscoreswiththe successof the group.For thispurpose he neededgroupsforwhichaclear indicationof successwaspossible.He chose boys'highschool basketball teamsinthe state of Illinois.Atthe beginningof the seasonhe went to a numberof teamsand had each teammembercomplete the LPCscale.He alsoaskedeachboyto nominate those onthe teamtheyliked,those theylookedupto,those theyhungoutwith,etc.These
  24. 24. are calledsociometricquestions.Usinghisresults,Fiedlerwasable todeterminewhothe informal leaderof the teamwas.At the endof the seasonhe correlatedthe informal leader'sLPCscore withthe team'swinningpercentage andfoundaresultthatsurprisedhim.There wasaquite substantial and statisticallysignificantnegative correlation.The leaderswithlow LPCscorestendedtobe onwinning teams.Since he hadmade the opposite prediction,he feltitwasnecessarytoreplicate those results before publishingthe results.Withanothersetof highschool basketball teamshe foundthe same results.He replicatedthe researchwiththree-personsurveyingteamsfromengineeringclasses,using the instructor'sgrade on theirpractice surveysashis measure of success.Againhe foundthatlowLPC informal leadershadmore successfulteams. Bombercrewsare notbasketball teams.Convincedthathe hadfoundan importantfactorinvolvedin leadership,Fiedlerexpandedhishorizons.He obtainedaresearchgrantto studyleadership effectivenessinAirForce bombercrews.Using verysimilartechniquestothose he hadusedwiththe basketball teamshe obtainedLPCscoresandbombingrunscoresfor a substantial numberof bomber crews.He testedall crewmembers,butcorrelatedthe planecaptain'sLPCscore withthe crew's bombingrunscores.To hisshock anddismay,the correlationwasnotsignificant.Determinedto understandwhathadhappenedhe triedtodeterminewhatdifferencesexistedbetweenthe bomber crewsand the basketball teams.He thoughthatone importantdifference mightbe thatinthe basketball teamsthe leaderswere emergent,nominatedbythe teammembers,while the plane captainswere assigned.Goingbacktohisdata he determinedthatmostplane captainswouldqualifyas informal leadersusingthe same criteriahe usedwiththe basketball teams.He thendroppedthe captainswhodidnot qualifyasinformal leadersandrecalculatedthe correlation.Withthisselectedsub sample the correlationwasnowsignificantlynegative,thatisthe low LPC captainstendedtohave crews withhigherbombingrunscores.The correlation,however,wassubstantiallylowerthanthose he had foundinhispreviousstudies.Sohe begansearchingforanotherdifference betweenbombercrewsand basketball teamsandfoundone.Whileall the playersonabasketball teammustworkhardand play togethertowingames,the same was nottrue of bombercrews,at leastnoton practice bombingruns. He determinedthatona bombingrunthere isone keymemberof the team whose actionsdetermine howhighthe score will be.Ondaylightbombingrunsthiswasthe bombardier,onnighttime runsitwas the radar operator. The firstcontingency.ArmedwiththisinformationFiedlerbegantolookat how the dynamicsof the relationshipbetweenthe captainand hiskeyman mightbe involvedinthe failure tofindstrongsupport for the relationshipof lowLPCwitheffective leadership.Since Fiedlerhadobtainedsociometric nominationsfromthe bombercrews,he wasable todeterminehow eachcaptainfeltabouthiskey man.Some plane captainshad nameda keymanas someone theylikedtoworkwithandsome plan captainshad notnameda keymanas someone theylikedtoworkwith.Fiedlerthendividedthe sample up intothose captainswhofeltpositivelytowardakeyman andthose whodidnot. He thencorrelated the captains' LPCscores withthe bombingrunscoreswithineachof those twogroups.The resultswere striking.Inthe groupof crewswhere the captainfeltpositivelyaboutthe keyman,the correlationwas substantial,significantandnegative.Aswiththe basketball teams,planecaptainsinthatsubsample withlowLPC scoreshad highbombingrunscoresandthose withhighLPC scoreshad low bombingrun scores.Surprisingly,inthe subsampleof crewswhere the plane captainhadnotvoicedpositive feelings for the keyman,the correlationwassignificant,substantialandpositive.Inthatsubsample,plane captainswithhighLPC scoreshad highbombingrunscoresand captainswithlow LPCscoreshad low bombingrunscores.In the bombercrewsthe relationshipbetweenleader'sLPCscore and teamsuccess was contingentonthe kindof relationshipbetweenthe captainandthe keymanon the team.
  25. 25. Fiedlerinterpretedtheseresultstomeanthatthere was an optimumdistance thatneededtobe maintainedbetweenaleaderandhis/herfollowers.He feltthatlow LPCleaderstendtobe somewhat distantbecause of theirbasicleadershipstyle.He alsoproposedthatwhenaleadernominatedakey man as someone he likedto workwith,thatleadertendedtohave a more close relationshipwiththat man.On the other hand,whenthe leaderdidnotfeel thatthe keymanwas someone he likedtowork with,thatleadertendedtohave a more distantrelationshipwiththatman.The explanationwentas follows.A lowLPCleadertendstobe somewhatdistantbynature.Whenthislow LPCleaderchooses the keyman as someone he likestoworkwith,the distance isnotincreasedandtheyworkproductively together.Whenthe lowLPCleaderdoesnotlike toworkwiththe keyman,the distance isfurther increasedtoa level toogreatfora productive workingrelationship. A highLPC leader,onthe otherhand,tendstomaintainquite close relationshipswithpeople becauseof hisbasic nature.Whenthe highLPC leaderchoosesthe keymanassomeone he likestoworkwith,the naturallyclose relationshipbecomesperhapseven closer,tooclose foragoodleader-follower interaction.Inthese conditionsthe leadermayfail tobe as critical and demandingasa leaderneedsto be in orderto getthe bestproductivityfromafollower.WhenahighLPC leaderdoesnotmeetakey man withwhomhe likestowork,he createsenoughdistance tomaintainaproductive working relationship.Thisconclusionsuggestsaninterestingapplication.If youare a highLPC person(thatis you describe yourleastpreferredcoworkerinverypositive terms) thenyoushouldtrytoworkwithpeople youdon't particularlylike if youwanttobe productive.Onthe otherhandif you are a low LPC person (youdescribe yourleastpreferredcoworkerinquite negativeterms) thenyoushouldtrytowork with people youlike andrespect.Fiedlerabandonedthissocial distance interpretationwhenhe developed the full contingencytheory. The contingencytheory.FiedlerandhisassociatesconductedmanyresearchstudiesonLPCand leader effectivenessoverthe next several years.Inthatperiodhe discoveredtwoothercontingenciesthathad a moderatingeffectonthe relationshipbetweenLPCandleadereffectiveness.Eventuallyhe arranged the three contingencieshe hadfoundinthe mannershowninfigure 6.1 on page 111 of the textbook.By dichotomizingeachof the contingencies,he producedeightcombinationsarrangedinthe ordershown. As the textbookauthorpointsout,the contingencycombinationsgoingfromlefttorightare considered alsoto be from mostfavorable toleastfavorable forthe leader.Thuswe cansee that the most importantcontingencyisleader-memberrelations,because asituationwithgoodleader-member relationsisalwaysconsideredbetterthanasituationwithpoorleader-memberrelationsregardlessof the nature of the othercontingencies.We canalso see thattask structure ismore importantthan leaderpositionpower,since ahighstructure situationisalwaysbetterthana low structure situation regardlessof the amountof positionpower. Fiedlerthensurveyedthe researchthathadbeendone tothat time usingLPC andplacedeach study intoa category basedonleader-memberrelations,taskstructure,andpositionpowerof the leader.In sevenof the eightcategoriesthere wereatleasta few studiesrelatingleaderLPCtoperformance of the group.In the three mostfavorable categoriesonthe left(octants1,2 and 3) the average relationship was quite substantiallynegative andalmostall the studiesproducedanegative relationshipbetween leaderLPCscoresand performance.Surprisingly,inoctant4 (goodleader-memberrelations,low structure and weakpositionpower) the relationshipshiftedinthe opposite direction.Inoctant4 the average relationshipbetweenLPCandperformance was substantiallypositive,meaningthatinthese conditionshighLPCleaderstendedtohave groupswithhighperformance andlow LPCleaderstended to have groupswithlowperformance.Nearlyall the studiesthatfellintooctantfourproducedpositive relationshipsbetweenLPCandgroupperformance.The studiesinoctantfive producedresultssimilarto
  26. 26. those inoctant four.Fiedleractuallyhadnostudieswherethe conditionsfell intooctantsix whenhe firstproposedthe contingencytheoryin1964. In octantseventhe average relationshipbetweenLPC and performance waspositivebutlow.Inoctanteightthe average swungquite sharplyagain.Inthe conditionsof octanteight,where none of the contingencieswere favorable forthe leader,the average relationshipwassubstantiallynegative andalmostall of the studiesproducedanegative relationship.In these worstconditionsforaleader,lowLPCleaderswere againclearlymore effectiveinproducing results.Subsequentresearchpredictswhichkindof leaderislikelytobe more effectiveforeachoctant. There isstill some doubt,however,whetheraclearpredictioncanbe made for octantseven. Fiedler'sinterpretationof the theory.Inhismanypublicationsonthe model,Fiedlerproposesthatthe low LPC leaderwhoiseffective inpromotingproductivityinboththe three mostfavorable contingency situations(octants1,2 and 3) andthe mostunfavorable situation(octant8) doesnotbehave the same inthe favorable andunfavorablecircumstances.He has suggestedthatall leadersprioritizewhatthey try to accomplish.Fora lowLPC leader,the mainfocusisgoal achievementandtaskaccomplishment and the secondaryfocusisbuildinggoodrelationshipsanddevelopingfollowers.The reverseistrue of the highLPC leader.Hisor hermaingoal isbuildinggoodrelationshipswiththe secondarygoal of task accomplishment.Insituationswhichare moderatelytoverydifficultforthe leader,mostof hisorher effortsgointopromotingthe maingoal--taskaccomplishmentforthe low LPCleader,andrelationship buildingforthe highLPCleader.Accordingtocontingencytheory,inthe worstconditionsforaleader (octant8), workingfortask accomplishmentatall costs isapparentlythe bestthingtodo.In this unfavorable situation,the low LPCleadershines.Inmoderatelydifficultsituations(octants4,5 and 6), it appearsthat a strong,drivingtaskorientationonthe partof the leaderdoesnotworkverywell.In those moderatelydifficultsituations,the highLPCleaderismore successful. In the three mostfavorable contingencysituations(octants1,2 and 3), the leaderhasthe luxuryof takingit easyonhis/hermaingoal and puttingeffortintothe secondarygoal.The highLPCleadermay pressharderfor task accomplishmentinthese situationsfeelingthatthe goal of relationship developmentdoesnotrequire somuchattention.The low LPCleaderonthe otherhand,backs off from so muchpressure ontask accomplishmentandputsmore effortintorelationshipbuilding.Fiedlerhas indicatedthathe has evidencethatlowLPCleadersengage inmore relationshipbehaviorsthanhigh LPC leadersinthese situationsthatare favorable forthe leader. The effectsof trainingandexperience onleadereffectiveness.Some of the mostinterestingand provocative aspectsof contingencytheoryinvolve ideasaboutthe effectof trainingandexperience on leadereffectiveness.Accordingtocontingencytheory,trainingandexperience allowsthe leadertogive more structure to hisor herworksituation.Inotherwords,if a leaderisworkingina situationwhere the task has lowstructure,suchas octants 3 and 4 and octants7 and 8, as he or she gainsexperience or isgivengoodtrainingthe taskbecomesmore structured.Thusa leaderina situationlike octant4,with goodleader-followerrelations,low structure andweakpower,wouldwithtrainingandexperience change to a situationlike octant2, withgoodleader-followerrelations,highstructure andweakpower. At firstglance,thisshouldbe agood thing,transformingamoderatelydifficultsituationintoone thatis much more favorable forthe leader.Butwait.If the leaderinquestionishighLPC,he orshe was likely quite effective workinginthe octant4 situation.Shiftingthisleadertooctant2, accordingto contingencytheory,wouldresultinloweredeffectiveness.However,if the leaderwere low LPCthe shift fromoctant 4 to octant 2 shouldincrease effectiveness. In anotherexample,if the leader startsinoctant 8, withpoor leader-followerrelations,low structure and weakpower,andisable throughtrainingandexperience tobringstructure tothe task, he or she
  27. 27. wouldendupinoctant 6. In thiscase we wouldexpectimprovedperformance fromhighLPCleaders and reducedperformance fromlowLPCleaders.Inotherwordsthe effectivenessof trainingand experience inimprovingleaderperformance dependsonthe LPCscoresof the leadersyoutrainand the contingencysituationinwhichtheyare now working.Thisconclusionsuggeststhatinsome situationsa little (ora lot) of trainingcan be a dangerousthing.Fiedlerhasevensuggestedthatsome leadersbe rotatedback intomore unfavorable circumstanceswhentheirexperience hasallowedthemtoimprove the situationbyimposinggreaterstructure. Martin Chemers,atthe Universityof Utah,conducteda fascinatingstudythatdemonstratedthe differentialeffectof trainingbasedonthe LPCof the leaderandthe contingenciesof the situation.The studywas conductedatthe heightof the VietNamwar.At that time studentsatmostuniversities, includingthe Universityof Utah,feltquite negativelyaboutthe government,the military,andthe war. ChemersusedArmyROTCcadetsfrom the universityashisleaders.The studywasconductedondays whentheywouldbe wearingtheiruniforms.The otherstudentsinthe groupswere notROTCcadets, creatingconditionswhere the leaderfollowerrelationswouldlikelynotbe verygood.The taskthe groupswere givenwasto decode messages.The groupswere notgivenanytrainingorinstructionin howto go about breakingthese codes,guaranteeingthatthe taskwasquite unstructured.Since these groupsmetin a lab as volunteersfora psychologyexperimentandwere givencreditforjustshowing up,the leadershadnopositionpoweroverthe othergroupmembers.The situationwassetupto be an octant 8 combinationof contingencies.Half of the ROTCstudentleaderswere highLPCbasedonan earliertest,andhalf were lowLPC.Finally,half of the ROTCstudentleaderswere givenashorttraining sessionpriortothe group meetingonhow togo about breakingcodes,andhalf were givennotraining at all. Ordinarily,we wouldexpectall groupswhose leadershadbeengiventraininginhow tobreakcodesto do betterthanall groupswhose leadershadnotbeengivenanytraining.Onthe otherhand, contingencytheorysaysthatinthe worst situationfora leader,octant8, low LPCleadersshouldhave groupsthat performbetterthanthose of low LPC leaders.If the trainingchangedthe situationtooctant 6, we wouldexpectthe trainedhighLPCleaderstodobetterthanthe trainedlow LPCleaders.Thiswas exactlywhathappened.The groupswithtrained,low LPCleaderssolvedfewercodesthanthe groups withuntrained,lowLPCleaders.The groupswithtrained,highLPCleadersperformedbetterthanthe groupswithuntrained,highLPCleaders.Inotherwords,the traininghelpedthe leaderbe more effectiveif he washighLPC,but made hisperformance worse if he waslow LPC. Where doescontingencytheory fit? The situational leadershiphaspassedthe testof the market.It isverypopularwithorganizationsbut has verylittle researchvalidation.Contingencytheory haspassedthe testof research.Itliterallygrew out of researchrelatingleadershipstyle withfollowerproductivity.The contingencymodel is reproducedineveryorganizational andindustrial psychologytextbook,buthasmade verylittle impact on the leadershiptrainingof businessorganizations.Fiedler,Chemers,andothershave attemptedto applythe theorythroughtheirLeaderMatch trainingprograms,butthese have notbeenverypopular. The problemseemstobe withthe basicideaof how muchleaderscan change theirbehavior. Situational leadershipseemstomake the assumptionthatanintelligentpersoncaneasilychange hisor herbehaviortomatch the demandsof the situation.All theyhave tolearnishow to diagnose the developmentlevel of theirfollowers.Contingencytheoryseemstoargue thatleaderscan'treally change.Theyare effective orineffective dependingonthe situationtheyare inandwhetheritmatches theirownnature.The truth of the matterislikelysomewhere inbetween.Leadersmaybe able tomake some changesintheirbehavior,butthese changeswillbe difficult,andrequire considerabletraining
  28. 28. and effort.Itisalsolikelythatorganizationscouldbenefitsubstantiallyfromdevotingmore attentionto matchingthe styles of theirleaderstothe demandsof the situationandmovingleadersaroundto enhance the match. The Expectancy Theory Thisis nota leadershiptheory,butIcoveredithere because the path-goal theorywasbasedonit.The Expectancytheorywasdesigned toexplainwhythere isnotaveryhighrelationshipbetweenthe offer of incentivesinaworkplace andan increase inthe effortputforthbythe workersthere.Expectancy theoryexplainsthe manyplaceswhere the connectionmaybe broken. a. The nature of the incentive.Whatisofferedmustbe valuedbythe personforwhomitissupposed to have incentive value.Forexample,workersmaybe toldthatif theyworkhard and performwell theywill be promotedtoa supervisoryposition.Some individualsinthe workgroupmayplace highpersonal value onsucha promotion.Othershowever,maynotwantthe added responsibilities.So,the firstprincipleof expectancytheoryisthatthe incentive orrewardmustbe valuedbythe individualoritwill not resultingreaterworkeffort. b. Self-confidence.The workermustbelieve thatif he or she putsforthincreasedeffort,thiswill resultinthe level of performance specifiedasnecessarytoearnthe incentive.Manyworkersare not sure that if theywork evenharder,theycanperformat the specifiedlevel. c. Level of uncertaintyaboutthe reward.Manyincentivesare offeredonavague or uncertainbasis. Workersmay be toldthat if theirperformance isupto certainstandardstheywill become eligible for promotion,forraisesinpayor bonuses.There are usuallynotenoughpromotionssothat everyone whoisperformingwell canbe promoted.Oftenworkersdonothave faiththat effort and performance level isthe primarydeterminantof whogetspromoted.Raisesandbonusesare dependenttosome degree onhow well the companyisdoingeconomically,andnotjuston how well employeesare performing.Asaresult,the uncertaintyaboutactuallyreceivingthe reward may cause some workerstofeel thatpurringforthextraeffortisnot justifiedbythe probabilityof receivingthe reward. The bottom line isthata personislikelytoputforthextraeffortas the resultof an offeredincentive onlyif that personvaluesthe rewardhighlyandhasa highdegree of expectationthatsuchincreased effortwill resultinactuallyresultinreceivingthe reward.Path-goal theoryisdesignedtohelpleaders understandthe variousthingsthatmaypreventaworkerfrom believingthe goal canbe reached.The leader'sbehaviorisdesignedtohelpworkersbelieve theycanperformwell andthatperformance will yieldmanyvaluedrewards. Path-Goal Theory  Thistheoryisabout howleadersmotivate subordinatestoaccomplishgoals.  It focusesonenhancing employee’s performancebyfocusingon employee’s motivation.  It firstappearedinthe 1970s heavilydrawingfromresearchonmotivationbasedonthe worksof (Evans,1970), (House,1971),(House & Dessler,1974).  The path-goal theoryemphasisthe relationshipbetweenthe leader'sstyleandthe characteristicsof the subordinatesandworksetting.  Basedon the expectancytheory,the Path-Goal theory,assumesthatsubordinateswillbe motivated
  29. 29. o if theythinktheyare capable of performingtheirwork o if theybelievetheireffortswill resultinacertainoutcome o if theybelievethatthe payoffsfortheirworkare worthwhile  Effective leadershipwill selectthe style thatmeetsthe subordinatesneeds o Choose behaviorthatsupplementorcomplementwhatismissinginthe worksetting. o Leadersinformationorrewardstosubordinatestoenhance goal attainment(Indvik,1986)  Leadershipmotivateswhenitmakesthe pathtothe goal clear,easyto reach,provide coaching, removesobstacles,andmake the workitselfpersonallysatisfying.(House &Mitchell,1974)  Whenleadersselectthe properstyle,theyincreasethe subordinate’s chance forsuccessand satisfaction.  Path-Goal theoryiscomplex. ThebasicprinciplebehindPath-Goal theory Themajorcomponentsofthe Path-Goal theory
  30. 30. Leader Behavior  There are fourbehaviors,butthe theoryisleftopenforinclusionof additionalbehaviors.  The following4behaviorswere examined o Directive  Similarto"InitiatingStructure"or"Telling"style insituationalleadership  A leaderwhogivesinstructionsaboutatask,how is itdone,expectations,andthe timeline? o Supportive  Resembles"ConsiderationBehavior".  Beingfriendlyandapproachableasa leader,attendingtothe wellbeingandhuman needsof subordinates.  Supportive leadersgooutof theirway tomake workpleasantforemployees,treat themas equal. o Participative  Referstoleaderswhoinvite subordinatestoshare indecisionmaking. o Achievement-Oriented  Characterizedbya leaderwhochallengessubordinatestoperformworkatthe highestlevelpossible.  Thisestablishesahigherstandardof excellence andseekscontinuousimprovement.  These leadersshowahighdegree of confidence thatsubordinatesare capable of accomplishingthe work.  House & Mitchel suggestedthatleadersmayexhibitanyorall of these behaviorswithvarious subordinatesandindifferentsituations.The leaderisNOTlockedintoa specificstyle.
  31. 31.  There may be instanceswhere aleadermayuse a blendof differentbehaviors.  Leadershouldadapttheirbehaviortothe situationandthe motivationof the subordinates.  The leaderbehavioritself iscontingentonthe othertwo componentsof the Path-Goal theory (Characteristicsof the subordinateandcharacteristicsof the task) Subordinates Characteristics  Determineshowthe leaderbehaviorwillbe interpretedbysubordinatesinagivenworkcontext.  Researchhasfocusedon subordinate needsforaffiliation,preferencesforstructure,desire for control,and self-perceivedlevelsof taskability.  Affiliation o The theorypredictsthatsubordinateswhohave astrong "Affiliation"needsprefer supportivestyle.Friendlyandconcernedleadershipisasource of satisfaction. o The theorypredictsthatsubordinateswho are "DogmaticandAuthoritarian"prefer Directive style.Thisprovidespsychological structure andtaskclarity.These subordinates feel more comfortable whenaleaderprovideasense of certaintyinthe worksetting.  Desire for control o Subordinateswithinternal locus of control believe theyare incharge of the thingsthat occur in theirlife.  Participative styleismostsatisfying.Itallowssubordinatestofeel incharge andbe a part of the decisionmaking. o Subordinateswithexternallocus of control believethatchance,fate andoutside forcesare the determinantsof lifeevents.  Directive leadershipisbestbecause itparallelsthe subordinatefeelingsthat outside forcesare incontrol.  Motivation o As subordinatesconfidence of theirownabilitiesgoup,the needfordirective leadership goesdown. Task Characteristics  Task characteristicshave a majorimpacton the way a leader'sbehaviorinfluencessubordinates.  The characteristics include o Designof the subordinate task o Formal authoritysystemof the organization o primaryworkgroup of subordinates  These characteristicscancollectivelyprovide motivatingforthe subordinates.  An example iswhenasituationprovidesastructuredtask,stronggroup norms,andan establishedauthoritysystem, the employeeswill feel asif theycanaccomplishthe taskon their own.Leadership inthese contextscanbe seenasunnecessary,un-empathetic,andexcessively controlling.  Otherexamplesthatneedleadershipincludetasksthatare repetitive,soleadershipcankeepthe employeesmotivated,orambiguoustasksthatmay needleadershiptoclarifythem.  A special focusof the path-goal theoryisforleaderstohelpremove obstacles.Thisincreasesthe oddsof the successfullycompletingthe tasksandincreasesthe employeesconfidence.  in1996, House publishedanadditional 8classesof behaviorsforthe Path-Goal theory o Directive o Supportive
  32. 32. o Participative o Achievementoriented o Work facilitation o Group orienteddecisionprocess o Work Group representationandnetworking o Valuerbasedleaderbehavior  The revisedtheoryassertsthateffective leadershipneedtohelpsubordinatesbygivingthem whatis missingintheirenvironmentandbyhelpingthemcompensate fordeficienciesintheir abilities. Leader Behavior Group Members Task Characteristics Directive Leadership Providesguidance andpsychological structure Dogmatic Authoritarian Ambiguous Unclearrules Complex Supportive Leadership Providesnurturance Unsatisfied Needaffiliation Needhumantouch Repetitive Unchallenging Mundane and Mechanical Participative ProvidesInvolvement Autonomous Needforcontrol Needforclarity Ambiguous Unclear Unstructured Achievement Oriented ProvidesChallenges Highexpectations Needtoexcel Ambiguous Challenging Complex How does the Path-Goal theory work?  The Path-Goal theoryiscomplex,butpragmatic.  It providesasetof assumptionsabouthow leadershipstyleswillinteractwithcharacteristicsof subordinatesandtasksandhowit affectsmotivation.  The theoryprovidesdirectionabouthow leaderscanhelpsubordinatestoaccomplishtasks.  For tasksthat are structured,unsatisfying,andfrustrating,the theorysuggeststhe supportive style.  The theorysuggeststhatthe directive styleisbestforthe tasksthat are ambiguous,unclear organizational rules,dogmatic,andauthoritarianemployees.  Participative leadershipisalsosuggestedforambiguoustasksbecause itbringsclarity.  Achievementorientedleadershipismosteffectiveinsettingswhere subordinatesare requiredto performambiguoustasks.  Although the path- goal theory is not applied in many management training programs, it bringsmany interestingperspectivestoleadershipthinking.Itwasone of the firsttheoriestospecifyfour conceptuallydistinctvarieties of leadership;notonlytask-orientedandrelationshiporiented leadership.It was also one of the first theories to explain how task and subordinate characteristicsaffectthe impactof leadershiponsubordinate performance.
  33. 33.  It can be appliedatall levelswithinanorganization. Strengths  It providesauseful theoretical frameworkforunderstandinghow variousleadershipbehaviors affectthe satisfactionof the subordinatesandtheirperformance.  It attemptstointegrate the motivationprinciplesof the expectancytheoryintoatheoryof leadership.Itisthe onlytheorythatdealswithmotivation.  It providesamodel thatina certainwayis verypractical.  It remindsleadersof theirpurposewhichistoguide andcoach employeesasthey move along the path to achieve agoal. Weaknesses  It isquite complex andtriestoincorporate manydifferentaspectsof leadershipthatmake ita little confusing.  It has receivedonlypartial supportfromthe manyempirical studies  It failstoexplainadequatelythe relationshipbetweenleadershipbehaviorandworker motivation  The approach treatsleadershipasaone-wayeventw1here the leaderaffectsthe subordinate.It placesa great deal of responsibilityonthe leaderandless onthe subordinateswhichcanmake themtoo dependentonthe leader. Leadership instrument The path-goal questionnaire isthe preferredinstrument.The scoresrepresentthe fourtypesof behaviorandtellsthe leaderwhichstyletheyuse more dominantly. Leader-MemberExchange (LMX) theory  While mosttheorieshave emphasizedthe pointof viewof the leader,the LMXtheory conceptualize leadershipasa processthat iscentered onthe interaction betweenleadersand followers.  LMX theorymakesa dyadicrelationship betweenleadersandfollowersasthe focal pointof the process.  It was firstdescribedin1975 by Dansereau,Graen,andHaga. It had undergone several revisions since.  Priorto LMX, researcherstreatedleadershipassomethingleaders didtowardsfollowersand assumedleaderstreatedfollowers inacollective wayasa groupusingan average leadership style. Early Studies  Thisis basedonthe vertical dyadlinkage (VDLtheory).The focuswasoneach of the VDLs that are formedbetweenthe leaderandeachof the followers.  It was determinedthere are twodyads: o in-groups(extraroles) o out-groups(definedroles)
  34. 34.  Subordinatesbecomeeitherpartof the in-groupor the out-groupbasedonhow well theywork withthe leaderandhowthe leaderworkswiththem.Personalityandothercharacteristicsare relatedtothisprocess.  Becomingpartof the in-groupsinvolvessubordinates negotiatingwiththe leaderaboutwhat theyare willingtodoto become part of the group. The activitiesinvolvegoingbeyondtheir formal jobdescriptionsandthe leaderinturndoesmore forthese subordinates.  Subordinatesthatare notinterestedintakingdifferentjobresponsibilitiesbecome partof the out-group.  Subordinatesinthe in-groupreceivesmore information,influence,confidence, andconcernfrom the leaders.Theyare alsomore dependable,highlyinvolved,andmore communicative.  Subordinatesinthe out-groupare lessinvolvedandreceivelessattentionandperksfromthe leader.Theyjustcome towork,do theirjoband go home. Later Studies  A shiftinfocustookplace.Early studiesfocusonin-groupsandout-groups.Laterstudiesfocused on howthe LMX theoryisrelatedtothe organizational effectiveness.  Researchdeterminedthathigh-qualityLeader-Memberexchangesproduced o Lessemployee turnover o More positive performance evaluations o Higherfrequencyof promotions o Greaterorganizational commitment o More desirable workassignments o Betterjobattitudes o More attentionandsupportfromleaders o Great participation o Fastercareer progressover25 years  OrganizationsprosperfromhighqualityL-Mexchanges Leadership Making Stranger Acquaintance Partner Roles Scripted Tested Negotiated Influence One Way Mixed Reciprocal
  35. 35. Exchanges Low Quality MediumQuality HighQuality Interests Self Self/Other Group  Thisis a prescriptive approachtoleadership.Itemphasizesthata leadershoulddevelophigh- qualityexchangeswithall of theirsubordinatesratherthanjusta few.Itattemptstomake every employeepartof the in-group.  Leadershipmakingsuggeststhatleadercreate partnerships throughoutthe organizationwhich benefitsthe organizationatlargeraswell astheirowncareer.  Graen andUhl-Bien(1991) suggeststhatleadershipmakingdevelopsovertime in3phases o The stranger phase  Interactionsare rule bound.  Reliesheavilyoncontractual relationships  Leader-Memberrelaytoeachotherwithinthe describedorganizationroles  Lowerqualityexchangessimilartothe out-groups  Subordinate complieswiththe formal leaderwhohashierarchical statusforthe purpose of achievingeconomicrewards.  The motivesare directedtowardsself interestratherthanthe goodof the group. o The acquaintance phase  Beginsbyan offerfromthe leaderorthe subordinate forimprovedcareeroriented social changes.  It involvessharingmore resourcesandpersonal information.  It isa testingperiodforbothleaderandemployee.  Dyadsshiftfromaway fromthe prescribedjobdescriptionandthe definedroles.  Leader-Memberexchange isimproved.  They tendto focuslesson self-interestandmore onthe goals of the group. o The mature partnershipphase  Thisis a partnership.  Highqualityleader-memberexchanges.  Highdegree of mutual trust.  Respectandobligationtowardeachother.  Leadersandsubordinatesare tiedtogetherinaproductive waythatgoesbeyond traditional hierarchy.  Schriesheim,Castro,Zhou,andYammarino(2001) foundthat goodleader-member relationswere more egalitarianandinfluence andcontrol were equallybalanced. How does the Leader-Member Exchange theory work?  As a whole,itisa veryinterestingapproachtothe leadershipprocess,anditoffersusa lotof ideastounderstandbetterthe relationshipbetweenaleaderandafollower.  Although,this theoryhasnotbeenpackagedtobe usedintrainingand development,itoffer much insightthatmanagerscan use to improve theirleadershipbehavior.  The ideassetforthby the LMX theorycan be usedat all levelsof the organization.  The ideasalsoapply to creatingnetworkswithinanorganizationandcallinguponthisnetworkto helpsolve problemsoradvance careergoals.  The theorytellsusto be fair to all employees,andtobe sensitive.  It worksin 2 ways:
  36. 36. o It describesleadership - Highlightsthe importance of recognizingthe existenceof in- groupsand out-groups.  The differencesonhow goalsare accomplishedusingthe in-groupsorout-groupsare substantial.  In-groupmembers domore thatjobdescriptionrequiresandlookforinnovative waysto advance the group. Inresponse,leadersgive themmore responsibilitiesand more opportunities.Leadersalsogive themmore timeandsupport.  Out-groupmembersoperate strictlywithintheirprescribedorganizational roles. Theydo whatis requiredof them, but nothingmore.Leaderstreatthemfairlyand accordingto the formal contract,but do notgive themspecial attention.Theyget standardbenefits. o It prescribesleadership -  The authors advocate that leadersshouldtrytocreate special relationshipswith all subordinates.  Leadersshouldoffereachsubordinatethe opportunitytotake new rolesand responsibilities.  Leadersshouldnurture high-qualityexchangeswiththeirsubordinates. Strengths  It isa strongdescriptive theorythatmakesintuitivelysense.  We maynot like itbecause itisunfair,butit isa realitythatthe theorydescribes.  It isthe onlyleadershiptheorythatmakesthe conceptof the dyadicrelationshipthe centerpiece of the leadershipprocess.  It directsourattentiontothe importance of communicationinleadership.  There isalso a large bodyof researchthatsubstantiateshow the practice of the LMX theoryis relatedtopositive organizationaloutcomes.Itisrelatedtoperformance,organizational commitment,jobclimate,innovation,organizationalcitizenshipbehavior,empowerment, procedural,distributivejustice,andcareerprogress. Weaknesses  On the surface itruns counterto the basic humanvalue of fairness.  The existence of in-groupsandout-groupsmayhave undesirableeffectsonthe groupas a whole. Our culture repelsthe discriminationof age,gender,etcandthistheoryawakensthe discriminationfactors.  Questionshave beenraisedregardingthe measurementof leader-memberexchangesinthis theory.The measurementscale lackscontentvalidity.  The basic ideasof the theoryhave notbeenfullydeveloped.Itdoesnotexplainhow the high- qualityleader-memberexchangesare created.Itmentionedthatpersonalitycompatibilitiesare keyto these high-qualityexchanges,butneverwentindepthaboutthe details. Leadership instrument The LMX-7 providesareliable andvalidmeasureof the qualityof leader-memberexchanges.Itis designedtomeasure respect, trust,andobligation. Transformational Leadership (TL)
  37. 37.  Thishas beenthe focusof researchsince the 1980s.  It isbasedon the "great man"theory,butdoesnot assume thatthe leadermusthave all of the characteristicsof the great manin orderto be an effective leader.  Part of the "NewLeadership"paradigm.  The transformational leaderseesthe needforchange,expansion,orcomplete transformationin orderto take the organizationtowardgoalsthatothersmaynot have evenimagined.The transformational leadermusthave vision,problem-solvingskills,andthe abilitytoinspire followerstogo beyondtheircurrentrequirements,be creative,andchange the waytheythink abouttheirjobs.Basedon these assumptions,manylarge companiesattemptto identify potential transformationalleadersearlyintheircareersandprovide themwithavarietyof assignmentsthatwill developaverybroadperspective.Althoughthe conceptof transformational leadershipisdifficulttodefine,the potentialgainsforthe organizationare worththe effort.  Givesmore attentiontocharismaticandaffective elementsof leadership.  A thirdof the leadershipresearchtodayisabout"Transformational Leadership"(Lowe& Gardner,2001)  It isa processthatchangesand transformsindividuals.  It isconcernedwithemotions,values,ethics,standards,long-termgoals.  It includesassessingfollowersmotives,satisfyingtheirneeds,andtreatingthemashuman beings.  It worksto influencefollowersona1:1 level,wholeorganizations,andentire cultures.  Both followersandleadersare boundtogetherinthe transformational process.  The term wascoinedbyDownton(1973), butthe emergence of the theorywasthroughJames MacGregor Burnsin1978. o Leadersare those whotap the motivesof the followersinordertobetterreachthe goals of the leadersandfollowers.  Burns distinguishedbetweentwotypesof leadership o Transactional  Thisis the bulkof leadershipmodelswhichfocusesonexchangesbetween leaders/followers.  Examplesincludepoliticianswhowinvotesbypromisinglesstaxesormanagerswho offerpromotionstoemployeeswhosurpasstheirgoals. o Transformational  Referstothe processwhere an individual engageswithothersandcreatesa connectionthatraisesthe level of motivationandmoralityinbothleaderand follower.  Thistype of leadershiphelpsfollowersreachtheirfull potential.  ExamplesincludeMohandasGandhi ora managerwhoattemptstochange their company'scorporate valuestoreflecta more humanstandardof fairnessandjustice. Transformational Leadership and Charisma - House o House publishedthe charismaticLeadershipin1976. o Burns publishedabookin1976 about the Transformational Leadershiptheory.Itreceivedagreat deal of attention. o The concept of "Charisma"wasfirstusedto describe aspecial giftthatselectindividualspossess. It givesthemextraordinarypowers.Itgivesthemsuperhumanexceptional powers.(Weber, 1947)
  38. 38. o Weberrecognizedthe importantrole playedbyfollowersin validatingcharisma. o The personal characteristicsof a charismaleaderinclude o Beingdominant o Havingstrong desire toinfluence o Self-confident o Strongsense of one'sownvalues o Charismaticleadersalso  Strongrole modelsforthe beliefsandvaluesthey wanttheirfollowerstoadopt.  Theyappearcompetent.  Theyarticulate ideological goalsthathave moral overtones(example:MartinLutherKing)  Communicate highexpectationstofollowers  Theyexhibitconfidence in follower’s abilitiestomeetexpectations. Thisincreasesthe follower’s senseof competenceandself-efficacy.  Arouse taskrelevantmotivesinfollowersincludingaffiliation,power, andesteem. (Example:JFK,appealingtovaluesof the Americanpeople, asknotwhatyourcountry can do foryou,but ask whatyou can do foryour country.) o Effectsof charismaticrelationshipaccordingtoHouse.These mostlyoccurinstressful situations.  Follower'strustinthe leader'sideology.  Similaritybetweenfollower'sandleader'sbeliefs.  Unquestionedacceptance of the leader.  Expressionof warmthtowardsthe leader.  Followerobedience.  Identificationwiththe leader.  Emotional involvementinthe leader'sgoals.  Heightenedgoalsforthe followers.  Follower'sconfidence ingoal achievement. Personality Characteristics Behaviors Effects on followers Dominant Setsstrongrole model Trust inLeader'sideology Desire toinfluence ShowsCompetence Belief similaritybetweenleaderand follower Confident ArticulatesGoals Unquestioningacceptance StrongValues CommunicatesHigh Expectations Affectiontowardleader ExpressesConfidence Obedience ArousesMotives IdentificationwithLeader Emotional involvement HeightenedGoals Increasedconfidence House - Personal Characteristics for Charismatic Leaders.
  39. 39. A model of Transformational Leadership - Bass o (Bass,1985) providedamore expandedversionof the transformationalleadership. o Bass extendedBurn'stheorybyfocusingmore onfollowersratherthan leaders'needs.  SuggestedthatTL couldapplyto situationstowhichthe outcomeswere notpositive.  Contendedthattransactional andtransformational leadershipwereonasingle continuum. o Bass extendedHouse'stheorybygivingmore attentiontothe emotionalelementsandoriginsof charisma.  He suggestedthatcharismais necessary, butnotsufficientfortransformationalleadership. o Bass suggestedthatTransformational leadershipmotivatesfollowersby:  Raisingfollower’s consciousnessaboutthe importanceandvalue of idealizedgoals.  Gettingfollowerstotranscendtheirown self-interestforthe sake of the organization.  Movingfollowerstoaddresshigherlevelneeds. Transformational Leadership factors o TL isconcernedwithperformance of the followersanddevelopingthemtotheirfullestpotential (Avolio,1999; Bass & Avolio,1990).IndividualswhoexhibitTLoftenhave astrong setof internal valuesandideals,theyare effectiveatmotivatingfollowerstoactin waysthat supportte greater goodrather than theirownself-interest(Kuhnert,1994). o There are 7 factors that are includedinthe transactional/transformational model.  Transformational Leadership  Factor #1 - Idealizedinfluence/Charisma  Factor #2 - Inspirational Motivation  Factor #3 - Intellectual Stimulation  Factor #4 - IndividualizedConsideration  Transactional Leadership  Factor #5 - ContingentReward,Constructivetransactions  Factor #6 - Managementbyexception,Active andPassivecorrective Transactions.  Laissez-Faire Leadership  Factor #7 - Laissez-Fairenon-transactional Transformational Leadership Factors (Very Effective) Generallyspeaking,transactional leadershipresultsinexpectedoutcome while transformational leadershipresultsgobeyondthe expectations.
  40. 40.  IdealizedInfluence  Identifiesleaderswhoare charismaticandare strongrole models.  Followersidentifywiththese leadersandwanttoemulate them.  Leaderusuallyhave veryhighstandardsandethical conduct.  Leadershere can be countedonto do the right thing.  They are deeplyrespectedbyfollowers.  Followersplace agreatdeal of trust inthem.  These leadersprovidefollowerswithvisionandasense of mission.  Example:NelsonMandela- Transformedandentire nation.  Inspirational Motivation  Thisis descriptiveof leaderswhocommunicate highexpectationstofollowersand inspiringthemthroughmotivationtobecome committed.  These leadersuse symbolsandemotionalappealstofocusgroupmembers'efforts to achieve more.  Team spiritisenhancedbythistype of leadership.  Example:A salesmanagerwhoencourageshisteamthroughwordstoexcel.  Intellectual Stimulation  Leadershipthatstimulatesfollowerstobe creative andinnovative,andchallenges theirownbeliefs.  Supportsfollowersastheytrynew approaches andinnovative ways.  It promotesproblemsolving.  IndividualizedConsideration  Representative of leaderswhoprovidesupportiveclimateswhere theylisten carefullytothe needsof followers.  Theycoach and advise while assistingfollowerstobecome fully actualized.  These leadersmayuse delegationasameanto helpfollowersgrow. Transactional Leadership Factors (Effective) Thisdiffersfromtransformational inthatthe leaderdoesnotindividualize the needsof the followersnorfocusontheirdevelopment.Theyare effective becauseitisinthe bestinterestof the subordinatestodowhat the leaderwantsthemtodo. Theyessentiallyexchangethingsof value withsubordinates.  ContingentReward  Effortsby the followersare exchangedforaspecificreward.  Example:A college deanwhonegotiatesthe numberof publicationsneededfora promotion.  Management-by-exception  Referstoleadershipthatinvolvescorrective criticism, negativefeedback,and negative reinforcements.  Active Management-by-exception  An example isasupervisorthatcloselymonitorssubordinatemistakes and makescorrective actionsimmediately.  Passive Management-by-exception  An example isasupervisorthatmonitorssubordinatesmistakesand givesa poorperformance evaluation. Non-Leadership Factors (Ineffective)
  41. 41. Thisis the absence of leadership.  Laissez-Faire  Abdicatesresponsibility.  Delaydecisions.  Give no feedback.  Makes little ornoeffortstohelpfollowerssatisfytheirneeds. Other models and perspective The research of (Bennis&Nanus,1985) and (Tichy& DeVanna,1986, 1990) offeredotherperspectives. Theyusedsimilarmethodologiesbyinterviewinganumberof CEOs usingunstructuredopen-ended questions. Bennis and Nanus o TheyaskedCEOs 90 questionssuchasWhat re yourstrengthsandweaknesses?Events?Critical careerpoints?,etc. o Theyidentified4commonstrategiesusedbyleaderstotransformorganizations  Clear visionofthe future state oftheir organizations.  Visionsare attractive,realistic,believable, understandable,beneficial andenergy creating.  The compellingnature of the visiontouchedthe experiencesof followers.  The visionneedstogrow out of the needsof the entire organization.  While leadersplayarole inarticulatingthe vision,itemerges frombothleadersand followers.
  42. 42.  These leaderswere social architects of theirorganizations  Communicate directionthattransformsthe valuesandnorms.  Theymove people toacceptnew groupidentityandphilosophyof organizations.  These leaderscreate "Trust" in the organizations.  Theymake theirpositionknownandstandbyit.  Beingpredictable andreliable.  Whenleaderscreate trustinthe organizations,itestablishesasense of identity.  They use creative-deploymentofselfthroughpositive self-regard.  Leadersknewtheirstrengthsandweaknesses.  Theyemphasizedtheirstrengthsininsteadof dwellingintheirweaknesses. Trichy and DeVanna SimilartoBennisandNanus,theystudies12CEOs of mostlylarge corporations.Theymostlyfocused on howleaderscarriedoutthe change process.Theywantedtofindout how leaderbringchange when workingunderchallengingconditionssuchasincreasedcompetition,cultural changes,rapid technological changes,etc.Theyfoundoutthatleadersbringchange througha 3 stepsprocess. o Act 1 - Recognize the needfor change  There isa tendencytobe comfortable withthe statusquoandresistchange.  The needforchange sometimesgounrecognized.  These leadersare change agents.  Three techniquesweresuggestedby TrichyandDeVannatoincrease opennessforchange. Encourage dissentandallow people todisagree Encourage objective assessmentof how well anorganizationismeetingitgoals. Encourage membersof the organizationstovisitotherorganizationstoobtain differentview points. o Act 2 - The creation ofthe vision  A visioncreatesthe conceptual roadmapwhere anorganizationisheaded.  Developamissionstatementasitisthe centerpiece of creatingavision. o Act 3 - Institutionalizingchange  Leadersneedtobreakdownoldstructuresand establishnew ones.  Findnewfollowerstoimplementnew ideas.  May needtocreate a newcoalitionof followerstobe compatible withthe vision. How does the Transformational theory work?  Thistheoryisa broad-basedapproachthatencompassesmanyfacetsanddimensionsof leadership.  It describeshowleaderscaninitiate,develop,andcarryoutsignificantchangesinorganizations.  It setsout to empowerfollowersandnurture them, itraisestheirconcisenessandtranscend theirown self-interestforthe sake of others.  Leadersbecome strongrole modelswithahighlydevelopedsetof values,self-determinedsense of identity,confident,competent,andarticulate.  Followerswanttoemulate transformational leaders.  Leaderscreate a visionwhichbecomesthe focal pointof the organization.  Out of uncertainty,transformational leaderscreate change.  Transformational leadersbecomesocial architects,clarifyingthe valuesandnormsinan organization.
  43. 43.  Transformational Leadershipdoesnottell people whattodo,butprovidesabroad setof generalizations.Itdoesnottell the leaderhow theyshouldactina particularsituation,butit providesageneral wayof thinkingaboutleadership.  Transformational Leadershipcanbe taughtinorganizationsatall levels,affectperformance, usedinrecruitmentprocess,promotions,andtraininganddevelopment.  The trainingand developmentbeginsbybasicallyworkingwithleadersontheirVision/Mission statements. Strengths  It isa currentmodel thathas receivedalotof attentionbyresearchersandhas beenwidely researchedusingqualitativestudiesof prominentCEOs.  It has a strong intuitive appeal.Itisconsistentwiththe society'spopularnotionof what leadershipis.People are attractedtotransformational leaders.  It emphasizesthe importance of followersinthe leadershipprocess.  It goesbeyondtraditional transactional modelsandbroadensleadershiptoinclude the growthof followers.  It placesstrongemphasisonmoralsandvalues.  There issubstantial evidence thattransformational leadershipisaneffective formof leadership (Yukl,1999) Weaknesses  It lacksconceptual claritybecause itcoversmanyaspects(Creatingvisions,motivation,change agents,trust,social architects,etc.)  There are some doubtsaboutthe validityof the MLQ measuringtransformational leadership.  It sometimesimpliesthattransformational leadershiphas atrait-like quality.These leadersare oftenseenasvisionaries.  It can be seenaselitistandundemocraticbecausethe leaderscreate the visionandchange directions.  Researchdata focusheavilyonsenior-level leaders.The datamay applytoleaders of organizationsandnotnecessarilyleaders in organizations.  It has the potential tobe abusedbecause itisconcernedwithchangingpeople'svaluesand movingthemtoa newvision. Leadership instrument The MLQ is made up of questionsthatmeasuresthe leader'sbehaviorandperceptionof the seven factors inthe transformational leadership. There isalsoanabbreviatedversioncalledMLQ-6S developedbyAvolioin1992. The Team Leadership theory o Thisapproach has become one of the mostpopularand rapidlygrowingareasof leadershiptoday. o Teamsare organizational groupswhoare interdependent,share commongoals,andmust coordinate activitiestoreachtheirgoals.
  44. 44. o The study of groupsbeganin the 1920s and1930 (PorterandBeyerlein,2000) withfocuson humanrelations.The focusshiftedto"groupdynamics"inthe 1940s. The focusshiftedagainin the 1950s movedtosensitivitytrainingandT-Groups.Inthe 1960s/70s, the focusshiftedto developingteamandleadershipeffectiveness throughintervention.Due tocompetitionfrom Japanin the 1980s, the focusshifted toquality teams,benchmarkingandimprovement.Inthe 1990s, while still focusedonquality,shiftedtoglobal perspective. o The organizational teamstructure isone wayorganizations todaycanrespondtoadapt to the rapidlychangingworkplace conditions(new technology,globaleconomy,economiccompetition, and increasingdiversity). o CurrentresearchI focusedonpractical problemsandhow to make teamsmore effective. o Effective teamleadershipisthe primaryingredientof teamsuccess(Zaccaro,Ritman,& Marks, 2001). Ineffective leadershipisthe primaryreasonswhyteamsfail todevelop,yieldimprovement, and quality. o The organizational structure of excellent companies has changed from a functional and matrix organizationintoaprocessand teamorganization.Teamsare importantperformance and learningunitsin organizations today. Team work should enable the company to offer better customerservice,improve the efficiencyof internal processesand improve the motivationof personnel. Itshouldbe remembered thata team isa means of operation, nota goal itself; it should alwaysbe evaluated, if teamwork isthe bestwayto achieve the objective.Moving over to teamwork is a lengthydevelopmentprocessitself,whichneedsalotof training. A working groupneedstime todevelopthroughdifferentphasesof beingapseudo-team, potential team and real team(Katzenbach&Smith1994, 84). Nevertheless,the use of organizational teamshas beenfoundtoleadto greaterproductivity, more effectiveuse of resources,betterdecisionsand problemsolving,betterqualityproductandservicesandincreased innovationandcreativity (Parker1990). o Organizingandleadingteams,ratherthangroupsengagedinworkingtogethertomanufacture or sell aproduct, hasprovedchallenging.Organizationsthatare able tomake teamswork have a significantadvantage in the worldmarket. o The team leadershipandthe teamleadershipmodel donotcompose atheorythatmakes predictionsandistestedbyresearch.Thisdiscussionismore of an attempttohighlightthe special problemsanddifficultiesthatexistinthe leadershipof teams.Itidentifiesplacestolookwhen problemsarise inworkingwithateamandgivesa new teamleadersome guidelinesastohow she or he couldanalyze andapproachthe task at hand. Leader roles in the various team structures.

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