Traits Theories. According to great man leadership theories “effective leaders are born not made”. In traits research examined the physical(height),mental(intelligence),social (personality),characteristics of individual. Ralph stogdill in 1948s concluded that “existing research had not demonstrated the utility of traits approach”.
Behavioral Theories Behavior of effective leaders are different from the behavior of ineffective leaders.It is more important than the physical, mental and social traits.
Ohio state university Task oriented (planning, organizing, coordinating the work of subordinates). Consideration (supportive, recognizing subordinate’s accomplishments ,welfare).
University of Michigan . Employee oriented (focus on interpersonal relationship) Production oriented (focus on task and technical aspects of the job)
Leadership management Grid developed by Robert Blake and Jane mouton, combine the “concern for production” with “concern for people”.
Five alternative behavior styles•Impoverishedmanagement (1,1)•Country club (1,9)•Task manager (9,1)•Middle of the road (5,5)•Team management 9,9)
Contingency approachThis theory was introduce in 1960s and 1970s . 1.fiedler’s contingency theory, 2.path goal theory, 3.vroom-yetton-jago decision making theory, 4.situational leadership theory
fiddlers contingency theory Fiedler explore the idea that there was not just one ultimate style of leadership for a given situation but leader can vary their leadership style depend on the situation that face them. Fiedler research shows that task oriented leader were more effective in highly favorable situation and person oriented leader are more effective in moderately situation.
path goal theory Employee characteristics: These include factors such as employees’ needs, locus of control, experience, perceived ability, satisfaction, willingness to leave the organization, and anxiety. Characteristics of work environment: These include factors such as task structure and team dynamics that are outside the control of the employee
Vroom-yetton-jago theory Primarily focus on degree of subordinate participation in different situation. Five type of decision making such as A1(strongly autocratic) ,A11,C1,C11 and G(strongly democratic).
Recent development theories 1.Leader member exchange theory 2.transformational theories, 3.substitutes for leadership
Leader member exchange theory theories emphasize the dyadic(one-on-one) relationship between leader and subordinates instead of traits and behavior or situational characteristics.Managers establish the IN-group(close relation with some) OUT- group(remaining aloof from others).
Transformational leadershiptheories They focus to explain how leader can accomplish extraordinary things against the odds, such as turning around a failing company, founding a successful company, developing mutual trust , setting goal.
Transformational and transactional theory Transactional leadership Transformational theory focus on role and leadership theory focus task requirement and on developing mutual utilize rewards trust, foresting the contingent on leadership ability to performance. others, and setting goals.
Substitutes for Leadership theory Characteristics of the task, subordinates, or the organization that replace the need for a leader. Subordinates Ability, job related knowledge, experience, training, independence, professional orientation Task Clarity and routine, repetitive tasks , feedback, intrinsic satisfaction Organization Formalization, flexibility, support, cohesiveness,rewads