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Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
Background Info <ul><li>Born~In Broxville, N.Y in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Phillips Academy in Andover, MA- Class ...
Background Info <ul><li>Enrolled in University of Chicago in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Earned Bachelor degree in 1 year. </l...
Background Info <ul><li>Began teaching at Yale University in 1959. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962 he worked at University of Ch...
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>Level 1 – Pre-Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 – Conventional </li></...
Level 1 - Pre-Conventiona l <ul><li>Stage 1 - Obedience and punishment driven  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person will focus on ...
Level 2 - Conventional <ul><li>Stage 3 - Interpersonal accord and conformity  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is receptiv...
Level 3 - Post-Conventional <ul><li>Stage 5 - Social contract driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual holds different view...
One of His Better Moral Dilemmas <ul><li>In Europe a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of ...
Criticisms of Kohlberg <ul><li>“ One criticism of Kohlberg's theory is that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of othe...
Woman HATER!! <ul><li>“Carol Gilligan  has argued that Kohlberg's theory is overly  androcentric ” </li></ul><ul><li>His t...
Potential Flaws <ul><li>Some psychologists have questioned if moral development is reached through concious and intentiona...
What the Stages of Moral Development Mean to a Teacher <ul><li>In the classroom having a basic understanding of a student ...
References <ul><li>HGSE News  http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/larry10012000_page2.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence...
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Kohlberg

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Kohlberg

  1. 1. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
  2. 2. Background Info <ul><li>Born~In Broxville, N.Y in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Phillips Academy in Andover, MA- Class of 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards served in the U.S. Merchant Marine after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Helped smuggle Jewish refugees out of Europe and through a British blockade into British-controlled Palestine </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background Info <ul><li>Enrolled in University of Chicago in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Earned Bachelor degree in 1 year. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jean Piaget's theories of cognitive development in children. </li></ul><ul><li>(1958) His doctoral dissertation on the six stages of moral development was published. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background Info <ul><li>Began teaching at Yale University in 1959. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962 he worked at University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Then in 1968 he began his career at Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>He was married with 2 sons </li></ul><ul><li>Passed away at the age of 59 in 1987. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development <ul><li>Level 1 – Pre-Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 – Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 – Post-Conventional </li></ul>
  6. 6. Level 1 - Pre-Conventiona l <ul><li>Stage 1 - Obedience and punishment driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person will focus on how their actions will directly affect themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - Self-interest driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual thinks “what’s in it for me?” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Level 2 - Conventional <ul><li>Stage 3 - Interpersonal accord and conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is receptive to approval or disapproval as it reflects their perceived role in society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 - Authority and social-order maintaining driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person believes it is important to follow laws in order to maintain a functioning society. Culpability is a major factor in this stage. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Level 3 - Post-Conventional <ul><li>Stage 5 - Social contract driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual holds different views and opinions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 6 - Universal ethical principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning. If a person finds a law unjust, they feel an obligation to break it. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. One of His Better Moral Dilemmas <ul><li>In Europe a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said “no.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A right or wrong answer was not what was important. The application of thought and rationality or the lack thereof was what increased or decreased a participants stage of morality. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criticisms of Kohlberg <ul><li>“ One criticism of Kohlberg's theory is that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other values. As a consequence of this, it may not adequately address the arguments of people who value other moral aspects of actions.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Kohlberg's stages of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development </li></ul>
  11. 11. Woman HATER!! <ul><li>“Carol Gilligan has argued that Kohlberg's theory is overly androcentric ” </li></ul><ul><li>His theory was initially developed using only male participants </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue that the judgment base for his stages of moral development does not adequately address the concerns of women </li></ul><ul><li>Though there is no supporting evidence that there is a difference between sexes when it comes to moral development </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potential Flaws <ul><li>Some psychologists have questioned if moral development is reached through concious and intentional reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s methods for determining what stage a child was at required a child to thoroughly think through a moral dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Some groups, such as the social intuitionists, believe that most moral decisions are based on an intuition, so any processional thinking is a reflection of what someone was intuitively thinking </li></ul>
  13. 13. What the Stages of Moral Development Mean to a Teacher <ul><li>In the classroom having a basic understanding of a student is important </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on trust could be based on how “morally developed” a student is </li></ul><ul><li>Using this theory to improve a student and progress them morally could be useful </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>HGSE News http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/larry10012000_page2.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence Kohlberg http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Kohlberg </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Lawrence Kohlberg? http://www.wisegeek.com/who-is-lawrence-kohlberg.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg's stages of moral development </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohlberg's_stages_of_moral_development </li></ul>

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