1927 - 1987 Moral Reasoning is Super Fun!
<ul><li>Born: October 25, 1927 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronxville, New York </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attended...
<ul><li>His approach was dependent on the thinking of psychologist Jean Piaget and philosopher John Dewey   </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might...
<ul><li>1.) Should Heinz steal the drug? </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Sh...
<ul><li>Level 1: Pre-conventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1. Punishment - obedience orientation </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Oriented to obedience and punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of physical punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Makes choices based on what will satisfy needs </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affirming, ...
<ul><li>Conformity to expectations of peers/society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being good in eyes of others and own eyes </li><...
<ul><li>Moral choices depend on society’s belief of right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and respect established ru...
<ul><li>Behavior governed by universal moral principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual and legalistic, agreed to by soc...
<ul><li>Right action defined by self-chosen ethical principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal principles of justice, equa...
<ul><li>Stages 1 and 2 – before age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 3 and 4 – before age 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 5 and 6 –...
<ul><li>Research has not supported  Kohlberg’s belief that the development of abstract thinking in adolescence invariably ...
<ul><li>Feels Kohlberg’s model is based on an ethic of  individual rights and justice , which is a more common perspective...
 
<ul><li>The End </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Kohlberg p resentation2

3,845 views

Published on

text updated

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,845
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Kohlberg p resentation2

    1. 1. 1927 - 1987 Moral Reasoning is Super Fun!
    2. 2. <ul><li>Born: October 25, 1927 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronxville, New York </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attended the elite Andover Academy in Massachusetts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entered US Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII, helped smuggle Jews through British blockade of Palestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Enrolled in the University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated in one year & taught </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvard University </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctoral research on moral reasoning – Stages of Moral Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professor and leader in moral education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1971 – Kohlberg contracted a tropical parasite in 1971 while doing cross-cultural work in Belize. As a result, he struggled with depression and physical pain for the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Jan. 17, 1987- He requested a day of leave from the Massachusetts hospital where he was being treated, and reportedly committed suicide by drowning himself in the Boston Harbor. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>His approach was dependent on the thinking of psychologist Jean Piaget and philosopher John Dewey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized that human beings develop philosophically and psychologically in a progressive fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 20 years of using interviews to investigate the nature of moral thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Able to demonstrate that people progressed in their moral reasoning through a series of stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t understand moral reasoning more than one stage above their own/can’t jump stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Concept: internalization – the developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principles </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the </li></ul><ul><li>druggist said: &quot;No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it.&quot; So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1963) </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>1.) Should Heinz steal the drug? </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug? </li></ul><ul><li>3.) If it was a drug for a pet dog that he loves, should Heinz steal the drug? </li></ul><ul><li>4.) Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another’s life? </li></ul><ul><li>5.) Is it against the law for Heinz to steal? </li></ul><ul><li>6.) Should people try to do everything they can to obey the law? </li></ul><ul><li>7.) Did the druggist have the right to charge that much? </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Level 1: Pre-conventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1. Punishment - obedience orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2. Personal reward orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Conventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3. “Good Boy/Nice Girl” orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4. “Law and Order” orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3: Post-conventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5. Social contract orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6. Universal Ethics orientation </li></ul></ul>before age 12 before age 18 rarely achieved
    7. 7. <ul><li>Oriented to obedience and punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of physical punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No punishment = no guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deference to authority </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t take others perspective into account if different from his/her own </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heinz must not steal the medicine or he will be put in jail.” </li></ul><ul><li>Children obey because adults tell them to obey. People base their moral decision on fear of punishment </li></ul>Level One – Preconventional Level EXAMPLE: Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug because he’d go to jail if he got caught.
    8. 8. <ul><li>Makes choices based on what will satisfy needs </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moral reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s in it for me? </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wouldn’t steal the medicine because by the time I got out of jail, my wife would be dead anyway.” </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals pursue their own interests and expect others to do the same – what is right involves equal exchange </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Heinz should steal the drug because the druggist is being greedy by charging so much. </li></ul>Level One – Preconventional Level
    9. 9. <ul><li>Conformity to expectations of peers/society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being good in eyes of others and own eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wish to please </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow rules to gain/maintain approval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can take multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Intentions noted of motivation behind behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Will people I like approve or disapprove of me? </li></ul><ul><li>“ No one will think you are bad if you steal the drug, but they will think you inhuman if you don’t.” </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals value trust, caring and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgments' – the views of others matter – avoidance of blame and seeking approval </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Heinz should try to steal the drug because that’s what a devoted husband would do. </li></ul>Level Two – Conventional Level
    10. 10. <ul><li>Moral choices depend on society’s belief of right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and respect established rules, regulations, traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Rules must be followed to maintain social order </li></ul><ul><li>Authority seldom questioned </li></ul><ul><li>Is my decision consistent with the rules? </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can’t steal the drug because it is against the law.” </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Heinz should not steal the drug because that would be against the law and he has duty to uphold the law </li></ul>Level Two – Conventional Level
    11. 11. <ul><li>Behavior governed by universal moral principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractual and legalistic, agreed to by society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyal to social contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work within democratic structure to change laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relativism of personal values </li></ul><ul><li>Laws sometimes in conflict with moral principles – not just about rules </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights take precedence </li></ul><ul><li>Is my decision consistent with general legal, cultural, and social traditions? </li></ul><ul><li>“ You will lose your self-respect and the respect of others if you don’t steal the drug.” </li></ul><ul><li>Individual reasons that vales, rights and principles may transcend the law- differences between moral and legal right </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Heinz should steal the drug because his obligation to save his wife’s life must take precedence over his obligation to respect the druggist’s property rights. </li></ul>Level Three– Postconventional Level
    12. 12. <ul><li>Right action defined by self-chosen ethical principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal principles of justice, equality, respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every individual’s interests are worthy for consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions based on conscience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gandhi, Mother Theresa, Martin Luther King, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Will this decision enhance or diminish the human condition? </li></ul><ul><li>“ You won’t get blamed by the law if you don’t steal the drug, but you won’t be able to live up to your own standards.” </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: Heinz should steal the drug even if the person was a stranger and not his wife. He must follow his conscience and not let the druggist’s desire for money outweigh the value of a human life. </li></ul>Level Three– Postconventional Level
    13. 13. <ul><li>Stages 1 and 2 – before age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 3 and 4 – before age 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Stages 5 and 6 – rarely achieved </li></ul><ul><li>In general, decisions using logic of higher stages are preferred over lower stage logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals develop due to a conflict in their current stage – cognitive disequilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to logic one stage above their own can help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests that teachers provide opportunities to hear logical arguments based on higher moral stage </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Research has not supported Kohlberg’s belief that the development of abstract thinking in adolescence invariably leads people to the formation of idealistic moral principles </li></ul><ul><li>Link between moral reasoning and moral behavior – Too much emphasis on moral thought and not enough on behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Some cross-cultural psychologists argue that Kohlberg’s stories and scoring system reflect a Western emphasis on individual rights, harm, and justice that is not shared in many cultures . </li></ul><ul><li>Under-estimation of family influences- Kohlberg argued for peer rather than family influence in moral development (like Piaget) But ignores the possibility of parental role in inductive discipline – reasoning and focusing attention on consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s early research was conducted entirely with male subjects , yet it became the basis for a theory applied to both males and females. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Feels Kohlberg’s model is based on an ethic of individual rights and justice , which is a more common perspective for males </li></ul><ul><li>Care perspective views people in terms of connectedness with others – emphasizes interpersonal communication and concern for others </li></ul><ul><li>the standards of maturity and moral development that were generally used in psychological testing did not hold true for women. Gilligan held that women’s development was set within the context of caring and relationships, rather than in compliance with an abstract set of rights or rules. At a time when men and women across the nation were reexamining gender assumptions, Gilligan became a powerful voice. </li></ul><ul><li>But most research studies using Kohlberg stories and scoring do not find gender differences </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>

    ×