Goslin Functionalism

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  • Intelligence, narrowly defined, can be measured by intelligence tests, also called IQ tests. Such tests are among the most accurate ( reliable and valid ) psychological tests , but they are not intended to measure creativity, personality , character, or wisdom. Intelligence tests take many forms, but the common tests ( Stanford- Binet , Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Wechsler-Bellevue I, and others) all measure the same intelligence. The general factor measured by intelligence tests is known as g (see g theory ). The fundamental indicator of a general factor is that test scores on a wide range of seemingly unrelated cognitive ability tests (such as sentence completion, arithmetic, and memorization) are positively correlated . People who score highly on one test tend to score highly on all of them. This suggests that the tests are not unrelated, but that they all tap a common factor. The common factor, g , can be extracted using mathematical techniques such as factor analysis or principal components analysis . IQ tests measure g better than any other test. A single factor is not guaranteed. Other psychological tests which do not measure cognitive ability, such as personality tests , generate multiple factors. IQ tests have been strongly criticized as biased, particularly against minorities. Bias in cognitive ability testing means, in part, that two groups with different average scores on the test have similar average scores on the outcome the test is supposed to predict (for example, academic achievement or job performance).
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • BECAUSE THE TRADITIONAL understanding of intelligence assumes that our ability to learn and do things comes out of a uniform cognitive capacity, some researchers began to experiment with the possibility that such an intelligence would be fairly easy to measure - and thus be very useful in assessing students in order to place them at an appropriate academic level. At the turn of the century, the educators of Paris asked psychologist Alfred Binet to formulate a test that could be use to analyze a child's intelligence in order to uncover his or her weaknesses. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ test, was thus born. Though Binet's IQ test (now known as the Stanford-Binet Test) was originally used to discover a student's intellectual shortcomings (and thus used as a guide to tutor them appropriately), it quickly caught on in the US as a way to rank students as more or less capable in school. With an average score of 100, a student who scored a 131, for example could be placed in a gifted program, while another who scored 81 could be placed in special education. Though there was some reservation about coding students by a test-determined score (why, for instance, was a 131 acceptable for a gifted program, while a 127 was not?), the IQ test went on to become a near-national standard. The measuring of raw intelligence with tests continued in all areas of education. One of the most famous examples is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or SAT. The SAT, which analyzes a student's mathematic and gramatical abilities as well as reading comprehension and vocabulary, is used by nearly every college in America to help determine whether a student is qualified to enter that institution. Because it is assumed that the SAT can predict future achievement, certain scores could automatically dictate whether a student was in or out of a prospective program. To this day, American education is dictated by the student's scores on a battery of intelligence tests, from kindergarten through university. Advocates of traditional education continue to push this paradigm of Uniform Schooling - an educational system based on national standards and efficient, cost-effective assessment in the form of multiple choice, number two pencil exams. Against this long-lived convention, though, many researchers, educators, even parents, have expressed reservation that such tests do nothing to judge a student's potential - they merely demonstrate that a child is or is not good at standardized tests. Students should not be judged by what they cannot do, but what they can do, and education should focus on bringing out the individual's potential. Until recently, this view was considered utopian and unrealistic, but now a new theory of learning and intelligence has finally forced educators and policymakers to reconsider the pedagogical methods of the last century - the theory of Multiple Intelligences. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Howard Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences":
  • Goslin Functionalism

    1. 1. Constructivist Learning Educational Psychology
    2. 2. What is Constructivist Learning Theory? <ul><li>“ The essence of constructivist theory is the idea that learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their own.” (p. 243) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, Constructivist Learning Theory is concerned with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How learners make (construct) meaning from their own experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How teachers can organize learning experiences to aid students in “meaning-making.” </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning <ul><li>The brain is a complex adaptive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most potent feature of the brain is its capacity to function on many levels and in many ways simultaneously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predispositions and physiology operate concurrently and interactively as the entire system interacts with and exchanges information with its environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moreover, there are emergent properties of the brain as a whole system that can not be recognized nor understood when the parts alone are explored. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning <ul><li>The search for meaning is innate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general terms the search for meaning refers to making sense of our experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is survival-oriented and basic to the human brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While the ways in which we make sense of our experience change over time, the central drive to do so is life long. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something of the extent of human purposes was expressed by Maslow. Thus, the search for meaning ranges from the need to eat and find safety, through the development of relationships and a sense of identity, to an exploration of our potential and the quest for transcendence. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning <ul><li>Learning occurs through&quot; patterning&quot;. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In patterning we include schematic maps and categories, both acquired and innate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain needs and automatically registers the familiar while simultaneously searching for and responding to novel stimuli. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain is both scientist and artist, attempting to discern and understand patterns as they occur and giving expression to unique and creative patterns of its own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It resists having meaninglessness imposed on it as in isolated pieces of information unrelated to what makes sense to a particular learner. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning <ul><li>Emotions are critical to patterning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we learn is influenced and organized by emotions and involving expectations, personal biases and prejudices, self-esteem and the need for social interaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions and thoughts literally shape each other and cannot be separated. Emotions color meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moreover, the emotional impact of any learning may continue to reverberate long after the specific event that triggers it. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Following Patterns <ul><li>Clear your mind and focus on the video you are about to see </li></ul><ul><li>There are two teams (black & white) of three passing a basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>Your task is to count how many times the WHITE team passes the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
    8. 8. Gestalt Psychology <ul><li>a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic , parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies; or, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Gestalt Laws of Patterning
    10. 10. Olny srmat poelpe can raed tihs. <ul><li>I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. Tihs shwos the phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy. It deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. </li></ul><ul><li>Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and oyu awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! </li></ul>
    11. 11. Count every “ F ” in the following text <ul><li>FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTI FIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS </li></ul>
    12. 12. Count every “ F ” in the following text <ul><li>F INISHED F ILES ARE THE RE SULT O F YEARS O F SCIENTI F IC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE O F YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 6 “F”s </li></ul>
    13. 13. Read the following
    14. 14. Left/Right Hemisphere Processing
    15. 15. Proximity
    16. 16. Optical Illusions
    17. 17. Optical Illusions
    18. 18. Optical Illusions
    19. 19. Optical Illusions
    20. 20. Optical Illusions
    21. 21. Optical Illusions
    22. 22. Optical Illusions
    23. 23. Faces in Strange Places
    24. 24. Faces in Strange Places
    25. 25. Faces in Strange Places
    26. 26. Constructivist Learning Theorists <ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolding & Social Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jerome Bruner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson Brothers, Spencer Kagan, Sharan, Slavin </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Jerome Bruner’s Theory <ul><li>Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to &quot;go beyond the information given&quot;. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Teachers need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand the relationship between motivation and learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand how structure relates to the whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn to form &quot;global concepts.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn how to build &quot;coherent patterns” of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand that facts without meaning or context are not learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To believe that any subject can be taught to any child. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Jerome Bruner – Three Modes of Presentation <ul><ul><li>Enactive Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through demonstration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through non‑verbal interactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience is translated into language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts and Ideas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Jerome Bruner – Sequencing <ul><ul><li>The simplest sequence is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going from generalizations to specifics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Whole‑parts) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>There are 4 Critical Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Social Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of Cooperative Learning Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Together (Johnson & Johnson) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Investigation (Sharan & Sharan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jigsaw (Aronson) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STAD,CIRC (Slavin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinwheel, etc (Kagan) </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Knowledge (recall) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
    33. 33. Critical Thinking
    34. 34. Bernice McCarthy & 4-MAT McCarthy's 4MAT Model
    35. 35. Learning Style Inventories <ul><li>The Learning Style Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs Inventory </li></ul>
    36. 36. Theories of Multiple Intelligence <ul><li>Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Intelligence is mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Theories of Multiple Intelligence <ul><li>Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences p. 126-28 </li></ul><ul><li>“ This theory is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence, as it has been traditionally considered, is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties.” </li></ul>
    38. 38. Theories of Multiple Intelligence <ul><li>Gardner originally identified 7 faculties which he labeled as “intelligences” </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Musical Intelligence
    40. 40. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
    41. 41. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
    42. 42. Linguistic Intelligence
    43. 43. Spatial Intelligence
    44. 44. Interpersonal Intelligence
    45. 45. Intrapersonal Intelligence
    46. 46. Other Intelligences?

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