Philosophy 2011


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Philosophy 2011

  1. 1. Philosophy is: <ul><li>A search for meaning(s) and truth(s) </li></ul><ul><li>the general beliefs and attitudes of an individual or group </li></ul><ul><li>the body of principles underlying a branch of learning or major discipline </li></ul>
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>“ Love of Wisdom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Philo] love of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Sophia] wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The systematic development of theories of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Organizational Strategies for studying Educational Philosophies <ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the personal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Schools” of philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophical Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship between Theory and Practice </li></ul>
  4. 4. Subjective <ul><li>Everyone has a “philosophy of Life” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually at a tacit level (metaphorical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often fails the three “C”s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clarity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coherence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consistency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Philosophy of Education should grow out of a personal philosophy or a personal set of beliefs </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Systematic <ul><li>Idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatism </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructionism </li></ul><ul><li>Existentialism </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Philosophical Approach <ul><li>The Traditional Branches of Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is real? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is truth? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean to know? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the “rules” of reasoning? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we know the good? right from wrong? (Ethics) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we make judgments about beauty? (Aesthetics) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ontology <ul><li>Concerned with theories of the nature of reality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the nature of existence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is reality limited to what we can experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reality be pursued through the application of intellect and reason? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is reality subjective or objective? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is truth eternal and unchanging? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is truth situational and contextual? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Epistemology <ul><li>Concerned with theories of the nature of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemological questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What knowledge is of utmost value? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the different types of knowledge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the educational goals of schools? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Axiology <ul><li>Concerned with theories of value </li></ul><ul><li>Two major divisions of axiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is right and wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is evil and good? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is beautiful and ugly? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Relationship Between Theory and Practice <ul><li>What are the educational aims of a philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the educational methods of a philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>What curriculum fits the philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Role of the Teacher ? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Idealism As a philosophy of Education
  12. 12. Plato (427-347 B.C.) <ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reality is a duality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world of ideas (world of forms) and the ever-changing world of matter </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plato (427-347 B.C.) The Divided Line
  14. 14. Plato (427-347 B.C.) <ul><li>Epistemology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>truth is perfect and eternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is obtained through the dialectic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most important attributes of thought are clarity and consistency. How do we learn? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The doctrine of remembrance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We do not create knowledge. Rather, we discover it. “The Meno” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Plato (427-347 B.C.) <ul><li>Axiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a search for the Good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Philosopher-King) &quot;Know thyself&quot; the search is inward (Socrates) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Plato (427-347 B.C.) Allegory of the Cave
  17. 17. Augustine (354-430) <ul><li>God is transcendent </li></ul><ul><li>The City of God and the City of Man </li></ul><ul><li>Christ is the model for behavior </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) <ul><li>Subjective reality &quot;I think, therefore I am“ </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific skepticism (doubt) the criteria (clear and distinct) </li></ul><ul><li>Deduction- build a system </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity is the “given” </li></ul>
  19. 19. G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) <ul><li>The Absolute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reconciliation of idea and nature is spirit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality is not a thing, but a process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dialectic is a movement toward perfection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thesis/antithesis/synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension between right and RIGHT </li></ul>
  20. 20. Idealism As A Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Society /Civilization not of central importance. </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN VALUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a purposeful, spiritual environment, the individual personality develops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus society is a means to a higher goal (i.e. The Republic) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Aim of Education <ul><li>Absolutist- The search for “TRUTH”- True Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization </li></ul><ul><li>Character Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral conviction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Methods of Education <ul><li>Depth over breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts over specific facts </li></ul><ul><li>Confront problems that arise from the “human condition.” </li></ul><ul><li>“Self-Directed” learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information </li></ul>
  23. 23. Curriculum <ul><li>Materials that promote “critical thinking.” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading materials should foster discussion of “big ideas.” </li></ul><ul><li>Classic works are favored because they have passed the test of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Student writing should emphasize both personal expression and clear reasoning. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Role of the Teacher <ul><li>Socrates might serve as the prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socratic questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers serve as role models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more than just an occupation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Realism As a Philosophy of Education
  26. 26. Classical Realism <ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>384-322 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He was a student at Plato’s Academy </li></ul><ul><li>He opened his own school, The Lyceum. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Aristotle’s Ontology <ul><li>Prime Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Potentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pure Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Actuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FORM and MATTER are separate concepts, but they are never found alone </li></ul>
  28. 28. Aristotle’s Ontology <ul><li>Plato’s FORMS are the universal property of material things </li></ul><ul><li>Each particular piece of MATTER has both a universal and a particular property </li></ul>
  29. 29. Aristotle’s Ontology <ul><li>The PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMS are the nonmaterial aspect of each particular material object that relates to all other particulars of that class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We arrive at forms (classes) by examining material objects that exist in themselves, independent of us as observers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, MATTER is primary and prior to FORM </li></ul>
  30. 30. Aristotle’s Ontology Examples of behavior Materiality Body PURE MATTER Potentiality Law Rationality Mind PURE FORM Actuality
  31. 31. Aristotle’s Epistemology <ul><li>The Universe is one of orderly design </li></ul><ul><li>All things exist according to a rational design </li></ul><ul><li>All things have a rational function or purpose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Man’s defining characteristic is Rationality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo Sapiens- the rational animal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syllogistic Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All men are mortal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, Socrates is Mortal </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Aristotle’s Epistemology THEORY OF CAUSATION House Purpose Final Carpenter Agent Efficient Blueprint Design Formal Wood,nails Matter Material
  33. 33. Aristotle’s Axiology <ul><li>The Golden Mean is described as &quot;the smaller is to the larger, what the larger is to the whole.“ </li></ul><ul><li>It's also known as the Golden Section or the Divine Proportion. It divides a line in such a way as to create an ideal relationship between the parts. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Aristotle’s Axiology <ul><li>Man’s purpose is to lead a rational life of moderation. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Good” life is one of avoiding extremes </li></ul>
  35. 35. Modern Realism <ul><ul><li>Argued against Syllogistic logic. Deductive A priori reasoning is flawed because you have TRUTH in hand before you begin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Bacon, the proper method is Induction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You begin with observation, then you reason to general statements </li></ul></ul>Francis Bacon
  36. 36. Modern Realism Emotion The IDOL of the THEATER Current (faddish) language The IDOL of the MARKETPLACE Follow the Majority The IDOL of the TRIBE Limited experience The IDOL of the DEN
  37. 37. Modern Realism <ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we know is what we experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tabula Rasa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are born as blank tablets and experience “writes upon us” </li></ul></ul>John Locke
  38. 38. Religious Realism <ul><li>GOD is PURE REASON </li></ul><ul><li>The UNMOVED MOVER- FINAL CAUSE- who gives meaning and purpose to the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Man can use his reason to reach GOD through a study of the material world. </li></ul><ul><li>Faith and Reason are one </li></ul><ul><li>TELEOLOGY the Universe (and Man) is moving toward a Destiny </li></ul>St. Thomas Aquinas
  39. 39. Realism as a Philosophy of Education <ul><li>Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the natural and physical world </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of problem solving by exploring the material world </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts- “3Rs” There are objective skills and facts that all students should learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Character Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold students accountable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for the world of work </li></ul></ul>Aims of Education
  40. 40. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Methods of Education <ul><li>Direct teaching techniques are preferable. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be presented information in an organized, efficient and logical format. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the “information overload” in today’s society, it is important that “non-essential” learning should be eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be taught based upon their strengths and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and place students in settings most appropriate to their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Technology should be utilized whenever appropriate in schools </li></ul>
  41. 41. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Curriculum <ul><li>Curricula should be practical and useful </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should concentrate on the “Basics” and avoid fads and frills. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be highly organized, correlated and aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by schools </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be based upon pre-established standards and criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricula should be “experiential” whenever possible </li></ul>
  42. 42. Realism as a Philosophy of Education Role of the Teacher <ul><li>A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teachers should be able to present material in an organized and systematic way. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess students in such a way that all students are challenged and motivated to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>A Realist teacher should understand current research and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom. </li></ul>