Colonial national period 2011


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Colonial national period 2011

  1. 1. Schooling in Colonial America 1600-1800
  2. 2. The Purpose of Education <ul><li>What does a person need to know to be a productive citizen? </li></ul><ul><li>Religious training </li></ul><ul><li>Upper class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>College </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticeships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ on the job” training </li></ul></ul>Harvard 1726
  3. 3. Education was neither free, public, nor secular in the Colonies <ul><li>Educational opportunities were stratified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education served to retain the status quo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were educated to take their parent’s place in society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American ideal of equal opportunity for all </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Southern Colonies <ul><li>A sharply defined class structure </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed population </li></ul><ul><li>Anglican church did not put an emphasis on religious indoctrination </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that education was a private matter and not the concern of the state </li></ul>
  5. 5. Middle Colonies <ul><li>A diverse population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, Dutch, German, French, Swedish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics, Mennonites, Calvinists, Lutherans, Quakers, Presbyterians, Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An emphasis on vocational education </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Northern Colonies <ul><li>A fairly uniform population </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan New England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Children are vipers and infinitely more hateful than vipers.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Theocracy </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>For the Puritans, Children were miniature adults </li></ul><ul><li>Born in sin, they were vulnerable to Satan’s ploys </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, they need to be closely monitored </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>High child mortality led to more “objectification” than today </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>By the mid-19 th century, childhood began to be thought of as a unique time in life. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adolescence” had not yet been invented, however. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Emergence of Higher Education <ul><li>Harvard College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose was to prepare young men, 13-18, in Biblical and classical studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to produce a new generation to assume leadership in the church and commonwealth </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. College Life <ul><li>Greek, Latin, Scripture </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development was as important as intellectual development </li></ul><ul><li>College was a “rite of passage” for colonial gentlemen. </li></ul>“ Caning” at Harvard
  12. 12. Colonial Schooling <ul><li>Private Tutors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dame Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys & girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper & Merchant Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mission or Charity School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private Academies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Class </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Dame Schools <ul><li>Taught by women in their homes </li></ul><ul><li>Open to girls </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial “Day Care” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Education For The Wealthy <ul><li>Private tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar school </li></ul><ul><li>Academy </li></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul>
  15. 15. What was a colonial education like? <ul><li>One-room log or clapboard cabins </li></ul><ul><li>Students aged 3-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers would “cite,” students would “re-cite.” </li></ul><ul><li>Corporal punishment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hornbook <ul><li>Paddle shaped board with paper sheet attached </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contained the ABC's in both small and capital letters </li></ul><ul><li>Some Scripture </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hornbook <ul><li>They had been used in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Their use continued in the colonies because printed books and pamphlets were harder to come by. </li></ul>
  18. 18. New England Primer <ul><li>Calvinist Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Combined hornbook with authorized catechism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Secular materials <ul><li>Almanacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Poor Richard’s Almanack” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most were imported from England </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The National Era 1780-1830
  21. 21. The Educated Citizen “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free, it expects what never was and never will be.” - Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>The Founders were deeply influenced by Enlightenment thought </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that a republic could survive only if its citizens were educated </li></ul>
  22. 22. European Thinkers who influenced American Education <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1632 – 1704 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tabula Rasa </li></ul><ul><li>Children should learn through their five senses (Empiricism) </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn through imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Children are rational creatures </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1712-1778 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical of educational practice </li></ul><ul><li>Education should be consistent with the natural conditions of a child’s growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not ready to deal with abstract ideas imposed upon them through books </li></ul></ul>European Thinkers who influenced American Education
  24. 24. Educating a New Nation <ul><li>Literacy prior to the revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. After the Revolution <ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved transportation </li></ul><ul><li>A more mobile society meant a need for improved communication </li></ul>
  26. 26. After the Revolution <ul><li>Political changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political, economic theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls to action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pamphlets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadsides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. A Republic demands an educated citizenry <ul><li>The task was to build a nation out of 13 colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate all things British </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>History instead of Scripture </li></ul><ul><li>“ Geniuses raked from the rubble” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The people are the only safe depositories” </li></ul><ul><li>University of Virginia </li></ul>
  29. 29. Noah Webster <ul><li>Connecticut teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Goal- eliminate British textbooks </li></ul>
  30. 30. Noah Webster <ul><li>Blueback speller </li></ul><ul><li>Became America’s greatest lexicographer </li></ul><ul><li>The first American Dictionary </li></ul>
  31. 31. Benjamin Rush <ul><li>Founder of Dickenson College </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thoughts upon the mode of education proper in a republic” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thoughts upon female education” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the first to advocate education for females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, separate, not equal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Benjamin Rush <ul><li>Jefferson’s personal physician </li></ul><ul><li>Gave medical advice to Meriwether Lewis prior to the Lewis and Clark expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Invented “the tranquilizing chair” </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Impact of Immigration and Industrialization <ul><li>The Lancastrian system </li></ul><ul><li>A course of study </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Units of work </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McGuffy readers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blueback spellers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Lancasterian System <ul><li>System of education in which children could be educated very cheaply </li></ul><ul><li>One teacher was in charge of large numbers of students </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors were used as a method of &quot;crowd control,&quot; hence the schools came also to be known as monitorial schools. </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced students had the responsibility of assisting in teaching those students below them </li></ul>
  35. 35. The McGuffy Reader <ul><li>The most popular schoolbook in the nineteenth century was the McGuffey Reader, introduced in 1836. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on landmarks of world literature, the set of six readers, which increased in difficulty, were the basis for teaching literacy, as well as basic values such as honesty and charity. </li></ul><ul><li>The readers gave the teacher flexibility she lacked before, allowing her to more easily teach a classroom of pupils of different ages and levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of millions of copies were sold in the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>In rural America the McGuffey Reader was often the only exposure people had to world literature. </li></ul>