Erikson’s Theory and series of stages of Personality
•Erikson gave the theory of Psychosocial development.
What is Psychosocial development?
Personality is developed from what a person learns from social
• Like Sigmund Freud Erikson believed, that development of
personality based on series of stages.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generatively vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
• Key element of Erikson’s theory is Ego Identity.
Conscious sense develops through social interaction.
• It does not remains constant due to experience and knowledge.
• All the stages that Erikson has described, have a sense of
competency. If these stages pass successfully, person feels
sense of mastery. This increase ego strength
• If all these stages pass poorly, person feels a sense of
• Erikson also described that there is conflict in the development
stages . That conflict could be the turning point of the person.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
This is the first stage of psychosocial development occurs
between birth and one year.
Because a infant is utterly dependent, therefore the
development of trust depends upon the quality of children’s
If child successfully develop trust, he feels secure.
If caregivers are inconsistent and emotionally unavailable
that could develop a sense of mistrust in the children. For this
sense of mistrust children perceive the world is unpredictable
and in consistent.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Personal control which is the second stage. That occurs in
the early childhood.
Like Freud, Erikson also believe that toilet training is the
vital part of that stage. This stage develop the sense of
control and independence.
If this stage complete successfully this could develop a
sense of confident. Conversely child will face sense of self
doubt and inadequacy.
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
Third stage is the preschool years, where children start to
assert their power and control over the world.
If this stage pass successfully they develop the ability to lead
Sense of guilty and self doubt develop if the stage does not
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
This stage is based on early school from 5 to 10 years of age.
Children feel pride on their accomplishment and abilities
when they interact with other in the society.
If the children are encouraged from their teachers and
parents, they feel sense of competence and develop belief on
their own abilities.
On the other hand if children are not encouraged they can not
develop belief on their own abilities.
5. Identity vs. Confusion
• During adolescence, children are exploring their independence
and developing a sense of self.
• Due to proper encouragement strong sense of self can be
developed in a children.
• Conversely children will face confusion if he/she does not
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
• This is the early adulthood stage, when a person explore their
• Erikson believed that a person want to make more close and
committed relations in this age.
• If this happens that person feels more secure.
• Erikson believed that the persons who have poor sense of
self, can not make close relation to others. They are isolated.
7. Generatively vs. Stagnation
• During adulthood we build our self on focusing on our family
• The person who passes successfully through this phrase they
developed a sense that they contributed well in world and for
• Oppositely person feel that they are unproductively.
8. Integrity vs. Despair
• This is the stage of the person’s old age. In which he/she
thinks about the past life span.
• Those who unsuccessfully pass through this phrase, feel that
they wasted their past life.
• And those who feel proud on their accomplishment, they face
sense of integrity. They feel sense of satisfaction from their