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Guidelines for X-Ray Equipments.pptx

Dr. Dheeraj  Kumar
Dr. Dheeraj  Kumar
Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Assistant Professor at School of Health Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, Uttar-Pradesh

This presentation will provide an in-depth understanding of the essential guidelines for designing and locating X-ray equipment in accordance with radiation protection guidelines.

Guidelines for X-Ray Equipments.pptx

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Guidelines for Design and Location of X-
Ray Equipment
and Ensuring Radiation Safety
Presenter: Dr. Dheeraj Kumar
MRIT, Ph.D. (Radiology and Imaging)
Assistant Professor
Medical Radiology and Imaging Technology
School of Health Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur
Introduction
This presentation will provide an in-depth understanding of the essential
guidelines for designing and locating X-ray equipment in accordance
with radiation protection guidelines.
Thursday, 02 November 2023
Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr
Dheeraj Kumar
2
Importance of Radiation Safety
• Definition of Radiation: Radiation is the emission of energy as
electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles. In the context of
X-ray equipment, it refers to the ionizing radiation used for diagnostic and
therapeutic purposes.
• Potential Health Hazards: Exposure to ionizing radiation can have
detrimental effects on human health, such as DNA damage, tissue injury,
and an increased risk of cancer. It is essential to minimize exposure to
protect both patients and healthcare workers.
Thursday, 02 November 2023
Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr
Dheeraj Kumar
3
• Regulatory Bodies: Various international and national regulatory bodies
oversee radiation safety, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the National
Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP).
• Legal Requirements: Compliance with radiation safety guidelines and
regulations is not just a best practice; it is a legal requirement. Violations
can result in fines, legal penalties, and the revocation of licenses.
Thursday, 02 November 2023
Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr
Dheeraj Kumar
4
Principles of Radiation Protection
• ALARA Principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable): This
fundamental principle guides radiation protection efforts. It
emphasizes that radiation exposure should be kept as low as
reasonably achievable, considering economic and societal factors. This
involves minimizing exposure time, increasing distance from the
source, and using shielding when necessary.
Thursday, 02 November 2023
Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr
Dheeraj Kumar
5
Time, Distance, and Shielding:
The three primary strategies for
reducing radiation exposure are
controlling the time of
exposure, increasing the
distance from the radiation
source, and employing shielding
materials.
Thursday, 02 November 2023
Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr
Dheeraj Kumar
6

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Guidelines for X-Ray Equipments.pptx

  • 1. Guidelines for Design and Location of X- Ray Equipment and Ensuring Radiation Safety Presenter: Dr. Dheeraj Kumar MRIT, Ph.D. (Radiology and Imaging) Assistant Professor Medical Radiology and Imaging Technology School of Health Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur
  • 2. Introduction This presentation will provide an in-depth understanding of the essential guidelines for designing and locating X-ray equipment in accordance with radiation protection guidelines. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 2
  • 3. Importance of Radiation Safety • Definition of Radiation: Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles. In the context of X-ray equipment, it refers to the ionizing radiation used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. • Potential Health Hazards: Exposure to ionizing radiation can have detrimental effects on human health, such as DNA damage, tissue injury, and an increased risk of cancer. It is essential to minimize exposure to protect both patients and healthcare workers. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 3
  • 4. • Regulatory Bodies: Various international and national regulatory bodies oversee radiation safety, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). • Legal Requirements: Compliance with radiation safety guidelines and regulations is not just a best practice; it is a legal requirement. Violations can result in fines, legal penalties, and the revocation of licenses. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 4
  • 5. Principles of Radiation Protection • ALARA Principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable): This fundamental principle guides radiation protection efforts. It emphasizes that radiation exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, considering economic and societal factors. This involves minimizing exposure time, increasing distance from the source, and using shielding when necessary. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 5
  • 6. Time, Distance, and Shielding: The three primary strategies for reducing radiation exposure are controlling the time of exposure, increasing the distance from the radiation source, and employing shielding materials. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 6
  • 7. Occupational and Public Exposure Limits: Radiation safety standards establish limits for occupational exposure (for healthcare workers, technicians, etc.) and for public exposure. These limits are based on scientific research and are designed to protect individuals from harmful radiation effects. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 7
  • 8. Types of X-ray Equipment • Diagnostic X-ray Machines: Used for obtaining images of the inside of the body to aid in diagnosis. Examples include radiography and fluoroscopy machines. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 8
  • 9. • Fluoroscopy Units: Provide real-time X-ray images for procedures like angiography, barium studies, and interventional radiology. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 9
  • 10. • Radiation Therapy Equipment: Utilized in cancer treatment to deliver controlled doses of radiation to tumors. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 10
  • 11. • Dental X-ray Machines: Specifically designed for dental imaging, such as bitewing and panoramic X-rays. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 11
  • 12. • CT Scanners: Combine X-ray technology with computer processing to create detailed cross- sectional images of the body. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 12
  • 13. • Mobile X-ray Units: Portable X-ray equipment used in various clinical settings, including emergency rooms and operating rooms. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 13
  • 14. Regulatory Guidelines International Standards: Internationally recognized organizations like the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) establish standards for X-ray equipment safety and performance. These standards provide a global framework for quality assurance. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 14
  • 15. • National Regulations: Each country or region has its own specific regulations governing the use of X-ray equipment. Compliance with these regulations is mandatory and subject to oversight by national regulatory authorities. • In India, the use of X-ray equipment is regulated by a combination of national and state-level authorities, with a focus on ensuring radiation safety for both patients and healthcare workers. The primary regulatory body responsible for overseeing radiation safety and X-ray equipment usage in India is the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 15
  • 16. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) • Role and Responsibilities: The AERB, established under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, functions as the national regulatory authority for nuclear and radiation safety. Its primary role is to ensure the safe use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in India. • Licensing and Registration: AERB is responsible for granting licenses and registrations for the use of X-ray equipment. This process involves a thorough evaluation of the facility's compliance with safety standards and guidelines. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 16
  • 17. • Inspections and Compliance: The AERB conducts regular inspections of healthcare facilities and other entities using X-ray equipment to verify compliance with safety requirements. Non-compliance can lead to penalties and even suspension or revocation of licenses. • Safety Codes and Guidelines: AERB has established safety codes and guidelines that must be adhered to by users of X-ray equipment. These documents cover a wide range of topics, including radiation protection, facility design, equipment maintenance, and personnel training. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 17
  • 18. • Facility-Specific Requirements: Hospitals and healthcare facilities often have their own specific policies and procedures related to radiation safety. These are designed to ensure that equipment is operated safely and in accordance with best practices. • Regular Updates: Guidelines and regulations may change over time as new technologies and safety information emerge. Staying up to date with the latest standards is crucial for maintaining radiation safety. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 18
  • 19. Design Considerations Room Layout: The layout of the X-ray room is critical for safety. It should be designed to minimize the potential for radiation exposure to both healthcare professionals and patients. This involves optimizing the positioning of the X-ray equipment, tables, and other elements to reduce the risk of scatter radiation reaching unintended areas. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 19
  • 20. • Protective Barriers: To ensure the safety of individuals outside the X- ray room, such as adjacent staff or patients in waiting areas, the use of protective barriers is essential. These barriers are typically constructed with lead or concrete and should be of sufficient thickness to effectively block radiation. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 20
  • 21. • Control and Monitoring Systems: The X- ray room should be equipped with control panels that allow operators to set exposure parameters accurately. Emergency shutdown mechanisms should be readily accessible to terminate exposures in case of emergencies. Continuous monitoring and alarms should alert staff to any malfunctions or unsafe conditions. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 21
  • 22. Room Layout • Factors Influencing Layout: The layout of an X-ray room is influenced by factors like room size, equipment type, and intended usage. Smaller rooms may require more precise positioning of equipment to maximize space, while larger rooms may allow for greater flexibility. • Optimal Positioning of Equipment: The X-ray tube and image receptor (e.g., film or digital detector) should be positioned to ensure the best image quality while minimizing radiation exposure to the operator. Proper alignment and distance are crucial. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 22
  • 23. • Minimizing Exposure Risks: Considerations like the use of ceiling- suspended tubes and protective drapes can help minimize exposure risks to staff and patients. The goal is to balance patient safety with diagnostic image quality. • Access Control and Personnel Movement: Access to the X-ray room should be controlled to prevent unauthorized entry during exposures. Well-defined protocols for personnel movement, such as staff positioning during exposures, are essential for safety. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 23
  • 24. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 24
  • 25. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 25
  • 26. Protective Barriers • Material Selection: Protective barriers are typically constructed using lead or concrete. The choice of material depends on factors like the type of X-ray equipment and the room's location within the facility. • Thickness Requirements: Barriers should be of sufficient thickness to attenuate the X-ray radiation to a safe level. The specific thickness requirements are determined by regulatory standards and must be calculated based on factors like the energy of the X-rays and the distance to occupied areas. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 26
  • 27. • Barrier Design: Barriers should extend from the floor to the ceiling and may need to extend horizontally as well. The design should account for any potential weak points, such as seams or penetrations for pipes and cables. • Door and Window Considerations: Doors and windows in the X-ray room should also be constructed with protective materials and designed to minimize radiation leakage. Proper sealing and interlocking mechanisms are important to ensure that the door is closed during exposures. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 27
  • 28. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 28
  • 29. Control and Monitoring Systems • Exposure Control Panels: These panels allow operators to set exposure parameters, including X-ray tube current (mA) and voltage (kVp), exposure time, and image receptor selection. Proper calibration and functionality are crucial. • Emergency Shutdown Mechanisms: In the event of an emergency or malfunction, a readily accessible emergency shutdown mechanism should be available to terminate X-ray exposures immediately. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 29
  • 30. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 30
  • 31. • Continuous Monitoring and Alarms: The X-ray room should be equipped with continuous monitoring systems that measure radiation levels in real time. Alarms should be set to trigger if radiation levels exceed safe limits. • Radiation Dose Monitoring: To ensure that patients receive the appropriate dose, radiation dose monitoring systems are used to measure and record the dose delivered during each X-ray procedure. This helps in quality assurance and regulatory compliance. • Warning Signs: Clear and prominent warning signs should be posted, indicating the radiation hazard and the need for protective measures within the X-ray room. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 31
  • 32. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 32
  • 33. Radiation Shielding • Shielding Calculations: Radiation shielding is determined through complex calculations that take into account factors such as the type and energy of X- rays, occupancy, and usage factors. The goal is to ensure that radiation levels outside the room do not exceed allowable limits. • Primary and Secondary Barriers: The X-ray room typically has primary barriers that block the direct X-ray beam and secondary barriers to attenuate any scattered radiation. The design and thickness of these barriers depend on the specifics of the equipment and room layout. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 33
  • 34. • Ceiling and Floor Considerations: Ceilings and floors may require additional shielding to protect against radiation leakage. Lead lining or other shielding materials are incorporated into these areas as needed. • Scatter Radiation Control: Proper design and shielding should also account for the control of scatter radiation. Scatter radiation can escape the primary beam and should be minimized to prevent unnecessary exposure to personnel outside the room. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 34
  • 35. Lead-Lined Walls and Doors • Lead Thickness Requirements: Lead-lined walls and doors play a crucial role in containing X-ray radiation within the examination room. The thickness of the lead lining is determined based on the type and energy of X-rays used and the specific shielding requirements of the facility. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India provides specific guidelines for lead thickness. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 35
  • 36. • Proper Installation: The installation of lead lining must be carried out by qualified professionals to ensure that it effectively shields against radiation. It's essential to inspect seams and joints to guarantee there are no gaps where radiation could escape. • Maintenance and Inspection: Regular maintenance and inspection of lead- lined walls and doors are necessary. This includes checking for any signs of wear or damage and ensuring that the shielding remains effective over time. Proper records of maintenance and inspections should be maintained. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 36
  • 37. Interlocks and Safety Mechanisms • Preventing Accidental Exposure: Interlocks and safety mechanisms are critical for preventing accidental exposure to radiation. These systems are designed to ensure that X- ray equipment can only be operated when all safety conditions are met. For example, the X- ray machine should not emit radiation unless the exposure door is fully closed and locked. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 37
  • 38. Equipment Safety Features: X-ray equipment is equipped with various safety features, such as dead man's switches (requiring continuous pressure to activate the X-ray beam) and safety shut-off systems that activate in case of malfunctions. These features are essential for operator and patient safety. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 38
  • 39. • Training Requirements: Operators and healthcare professionals must be trained in the proper use of interlocks and safety mechanisms. They should understand how to respond to safety alarms, warnings, and potential equipment malfunctions. • Audible and Visual Warnings: Audible and visual warnings should alert personnel to the status of the X-ray equipment. Alarms or indicators should be easy to understand and acknowledge. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 39
  • 40. Locating X-ray Equipment • Distance from Occupied Areas: Regulatory guidelines specify minimum distances between the X-ray equipment and occupied areas. These distances are determined based on factors like the energy of X-rays, occupancy factors, and shielding effectiveness. Adequate distance helps reduce radiation exposure to personnel and the public. • Separation from Other Equipment: X-ray equipment should be separated from other equipment and rooms to prevent interference and contamination of radiation. Adequate spacing and shielding are used to minimize potential cross-exposure. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 40
  • 41. • Shielding Requirements for Adjacent Rooms: Adjacent rooms, particularly those housing sensitive equipment or occupied spaces, require specific shielding to protect against radiation scatter. For example, a radiology control room or adjacent patient rooms may require additional shielding. • Radiation Zoning: Facilities should establish radiation zoning, categorizing areas based on radiation exposure risk. These zones, which range from controlled areas (with the highest radiation exposure) to uncontrolled areas (with the lowest exposure), help control access and monitor radiation levels effectively. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 41
  • 42. Radiation Safety Training • Personnel Training and Certification: Adequate training and certification are essential for individuals operating X-ray equipment. Training programs should cover radiation safety principles, equipment operation, emergency procedures, and compliance with regulatory requirements. Healthcare professionals should obtain appropriate certifications. • Proper Handling of Equipment: Training should emphasize the proper handling of X-ray equipment, including safe positioning of patients and use of protective measures. This ensures that equipment is used in a manner that minimizes radiation exposure to both patients and healthcare workers. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 42
  • 43. • Emergency Procedures: Training should include detailed instructions for responding to emergencies, such as equipment malfunctions, accidental exposures, or patient complications during X-ray procedures. Quick and effective responses can mitigate risks and prevent harm. • Maintenance and Equipment Checks: Training extends to equipment maintenance and regular checks. Personnel should understand the importance of routine equipment inspections and how to perform them. Proper record-keeping for maintenance activities is also emphasized. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 43
  • 44. Regulatory Requirements: Compliance with national and local regulatory requirements regarding personnel training and certification is essential. Facilities must maintain records of personnel training and certification to demonstrate compliance during inspections. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 44
  • 45. Quality Assurance • Routine Equipment Maintenance: Routine maintenance of X- ray equipment is essential to ensure that it functions reliably and safely. This includes tasks such as checking for loose connections, verifying calibration, and ensuring that safety features are operational. • Calibration and Performance Checks: Periodic calibration and performance checks are critical to maintaining the accuracy of X-ray equipment. These checks involve verifying that the equipment produces the desired image quality and radiation output within specified limits. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 45
  • 46. • Record-Keeping: Thorough record-keeping is a crucial aspect of quality assurance. Maintenance activities, calibrations, performance checks, and any equipment modifications or repairs should be well-documented. These records serve as a historical reference and demonstrate compliance with regulatory standards. • Regulatory Inspections and Audits: Regulatory authorities, such as the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India, may conduct inspections and audits to assess a facility's compliance with radiation safety regulations and guidelines. Consistent quality assurance practices prepare facilities for these inspections. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 46
  • 47. Common Pitfalls • Mistakes to Avoid in Design and Location: It's crucial to understand and learn from common pitfalls that can compromise radiation safety. This section will address common mistakes in X-ray equipment design and location, such as inadequate shielding, improper room layout, or insufficient training, and the potential consequences of these errors. • Lessons Learned from Past Incidents: We will also explore incidents or accidents related to X-ray equipment use that have occurred due to safety lapses. Analyzing these events helps us identify areas of improvement and emphasizes the importance of safety measures. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 47
  • 48. • Consequences of Non-Compliance: Non-compliance with radiation safety regulations can lead to severe consequences, including legal penalties, fines, equipment shutdown, and harm to patients and staff. Facilities should be aware of these risks to maintain a commitment to compliance. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 48
  • 49. Conclusion • This presentation underscores the critical importance of adhering to guidelines for the safe use of X-ray equipment. Compliance not only ensures the well-being of patients and healthcare workers but also helps facilities avoid legal and regulatory issues. • The conclusion of this presentation reiterates the commitment to radiation safety and the ongoing efforts needed to maintain the highest standards of safety in healthcare facilities using X-ray equipment. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 49
  • 50. Any Questions? Now opens the floor for questions and discussion. Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 50
  • 51. Conclusion 1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (2018). Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (GSR Part 3). https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1581_web-57265295.pdf 2. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (2021). AERB Safety Codes and Guides: Code for Design and Shielding of Medical X- ray Installations. https://www.aerb.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/AERB_Code_SDMS-2021.pdf 3. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). (2017). NCRP Report No. 147: Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X-Rays and Gamma Rays of Energies Up to 10 MeV. Bethesda, MD: NCRP. 4. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (2021). IEC 60601-2-54: Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. Geneva, Switzerland: IEC. 5. World Health Organization (WHO). (2021). Quality and safety of radiological equipment. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/quality-and-safety-of-radiological-equipment Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 51
  • 52. Thank You Thursday, 02 November 2023 Guidelines for Design and Location of X-Ray Equipment By- Dr Dheeraj Kumar 52