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Tomography.pptx

Tomography as a medical imaging technique that allows for the visualization of cross-sectional images of the human body. Emphasize that tomography provides detailed, three-dimensional views of anatomical structures, which can be invaluable for diagnosis and treatment planning in radiology.

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Tomography
Presenter: Dr. Dheeraj Kumar
MRIT, Ph.D. (Radiology and Imaging)
Assistant Professor
Medical Radiology and Imaging Technology
School of Health Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 1
Contents
• Introduction to Tomography
• Historical Perspective
• Principles of Tomography
• Types of Tomography
• Applications in Radiology
• Advantages and Limitations
• Clinical Cases
• Conclusion
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 2
Introduction to Tomography
Definition of Tomography: Begin by
defining tomography as a medical imaging
technique that allows for the visualization of
cross-sectional images of the human body.
Emphasize that tomography provides
detailed, three-dimensional views of
anatomical structures, which can be
invaluable for diagnosis and treatment
planning in radiology.
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 3
Basic Principles
Cross-sectional Imaging: Introduce the
basic principle of cross-sectional imaging,
which involves obtaining detailed images
of specific body slices or sections. The
cross-sectional imaging is a cornerstone of
modern radiology, and tomography is an
essential technique for achieving this level
of detail.
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 4
Importance in Radiology
The crucial role of tomography in modern radiology. It has
revolutionized the field by enabling radiologists to view structures layer
by layer, making it easier to detect and diagnose various medical
conditions.
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 5
Historical Perspective
Brief History of Tomography: Provide an
overview of the historical development of
tomography, starting from its earliest
applications. Mention pioneers in the field and
the evolution of tomographic imaging from
simple X-ray radiography to advanced
techniques like CT, MRI, and PET scanning.
Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 6
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Tomography.pptx

  • 1. Tomography Presenter: Dr. Dheeraj Kumar MRIT, Ph.D. (Radiology and Imaging) Assistant Professor Medical Radiology and Imaging Technology School of Health Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 1
  • 2. Contents • Introduction to Tomography • Historical Perspective • Principles of Tomography • Types of Tomography • Applications in Radiology • Advantages and Limitations • Clinical Cases • Conclusion Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 2
  • 3. Introduction to Tomography Definition of Tomography: Begin by defining tomography as a medical imaging technique that allows for the visualization of cross-sectional images of the human body. Emphasize that tomography provides detailed, three-dimensional views of anatomical structures, which can be invaluable for diagnosis and treatment planning in radiology. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 3
  • 4. Basic Principles Cross-sectional Imaging: Introduce the basic principle of cross-sectional imaging, which involves obtaining detailed images of specific body slices or sections. The cross-sectional imaging is a cornerstone of modern radiology, and tomography is an essential technique for achieving this level of detail. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 4
  • 5. Importance in Radiology The crucial role of tomography in modern radiology. It has revolutionized the field by enabling radiologists to view structures layer by layer, making it easier to detect and diagnose various medical conditions. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 5
  • 6. Historical Perspective Brief History of Tomography: Provide an overview of the historical development of tomography, starting from its earliest applications. Mention pioneers in the field and the evolution of tomographic imaging from simple X-ray radiography to advanced techniques like CT, MRI, and PET scanning. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 6
  • 7. Milestones and Key Figures Significant milestones in the history of tomography, such as the advent of the first CT scanner by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan McLeod Cormack in the 1970s. Other key figures and their contributions to the field, illustrating the progression of technology and techniques over time. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 7
  • 8. Principles of Tomography X-ray Basics: The fundamental principles of X-ray imaging, explaining how X-rays pass through the body, are absorbed by different tissues, and form the basis for most tomographic techniques. The importance of contrast agents and how they enhance image quality. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 8
  • 9. The Radon Transform The concept of the Radon transform, a mathematical technique that helps in the reconstruction of cross- sectional images from X-ray data. How this mathematical transformation is used to convert X- ray projections into a two- dimensional image? Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 9
  • 10. Filtering and Reconstruction The image reconstruction process in tomography, including data filtering and back-projection. These techniques convert the acquired data into a cross-sectional image that represents the distribution of X- ray attenuation within the body. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 10
  • 11. Types of Tomography Conventional Radiography vs. Tomography: Compare conventional X-ray radiography with tomography to highlight the key differences. Conventional X-rays provide a two- dimensional image, while tomography focuses on creating cross-sectional, three-dimensional images. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 11
  • 12. Computed Tomography (CT) Provide an in-depth explanation of CT scanning, its principles, and how it works. Its applications in different medical scenarios, such as head, chest, and abdominal imaging. Its high spatial resolution and use of computer algorithms for image reconstruction. Computed tomography (CT) was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and by South Africa-born physicist Allan Cormack of Tufts University, Massachusetts Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 12
  • 13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) The “Father of MRI” is Raymond Damadian. MRI as a non- ionizing imaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to generate detailed images. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine, better known as an MRI, has a long and complicated history, beginning in 1945. It all started when Swiss physicist named Felix Bloch conducted an experiment regarding a new method of nuclear induction, a study of nuclear moments in solids, liquids, or gases. The fundamental principles behind MRI, its exceptional soft tissue contrast, and its applications, particularly in neuroimaging. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 13
  • 14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) PET imaging involves the use of radioactive tracers to monitor metabolic and physiological processes within the body. Its role in cancer imaging, brain studies, and other clinical applications. The first PET camera was built for human studies by Edward Hoffman, Michael M. Ter-Pogossian, and Michael E. Phelps in 1973 at Washington University Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 14
  • 15. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) An overview of SPECT, an imaging technique that uses gamma-ray-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. It is used for myocardial perfusion studies and other applications. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was invented by Dr. David E. Kuhl and Dr. Roy Edwards in the early 1960s. SPECT is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses gamma-ray- emitting radiopharmaceuticals to create cross- sectional images of the body. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 15
  • 16. Applications in Radiology • Head and Brain Imaging: Detail the applications of tomography in head and brain imaging, including the detection of brain tumors, strokes, and traumatic injuries. • Chest and Cardiac Imaging: Describe the importance of tomography in chest and cardiac imaging, highlighting its role in diagnosing conditions like lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and coronary artery disease. • Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging: Explain how tomography is essential for evaluating abdominal and pelvic structures, particularly for diagnosing conditions such as liver disease, kidney stones, and reproductive organ abnormalities. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 16
  • 17. • Musculoskeletal Imaging: Discuss the applications of tomography in musculoskeletal radiology, particularly for diagnosing fractures, joint disorders, and bone tumors. • Oncology and Tumor Detection: Emphasize the role of tomography in oncology, especially in the detection and staging of cancerous tumors. Discuss how it helps in treatment planning and monitoring therapeutic response. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 17
  • 18. Advantages of Tomography • Superior Contrast Resolution: tomography offers exceptional contrast resolution, making it easier to distinguish between different types of tissues and detect subtle abnormalities. • 3D Visualization: the advantage of 3D visualization in tomography, which aids in understanding complex anatomical structures and pathology. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 18
  • 19. • Non-invasiveness: Emphasize the non-invasive nature of tomography, which reduces the need for exploratory surgeries and minimizes patient discomfort. • Quick Imaging: Mention that tomography provides rapid results, making it a valuable tool in emergency medicine and critical care scenarios. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 19
  • 20. Limitations of Tomography • Radiation Exposure (for X-ray-based techniques): Explain that X-ray- based tomographic techniques, such as CT, involve ionizing radiation. Discuss how advancements in technology have reduced radiation doses, but it's still essential to consider and minimize radiation exposure, especially in pediatric and pregnant patients. • Cost: Discuss the financial implications of tomography, particularly for healthcare facilities. Mention the expenses related to purchasing and maintaining equipment, as well as the training required for staff. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 20
  • 21. • Availability: Describe how not all healthcare facilities have access to advanced tomographic equipment, which can limit its availability for patients in certain regions or healthcare settings. • Patient Factors: Discuss how patient factors, such as contraindications, claustrophobia, or inability to remain still, can limit the use of specific tomographic techniques. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 21
  • 22. Clinical Cases Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 22
  • 23. Conclusion • Tomography's future is bright with ongoing technological advancements. • Continuous learning is essential to stay updated in this dynamic field. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 23
  • 24. References 1. Hounsfield, G. N. (1973). Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part 1. Description of system. The British Journal of Radiology, 46(552), 1016-1022. 2. Bushberg, J. T., Seibert, J. A., Leidholdt Jr, E. M., & Boone, J. M. (2011). The essential physics of medical imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 3. Sodickson, A., & Baeyens, P. F. (2007). The many colors of CT: Multidetector row CT. Radiology, 244(2), 334-336. 4. Delaney, J. S., & Smith, T. P. (2016). The history of digital radiography at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: a personal perspective. Radiographics, 36(7), 2206-2222. 5. Cherry, S. R., & Phelps, M. E. (2013). Physics in nuclear medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 24
  • 25. Any Questions? Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 25
  • 26. Thank You Tuesday, 17 October 2023 Tomography By- Dr. Dheeraj Kumar 26