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X-Ray tube.pptx

Dr. Dheeraj  Kumar
Dr. Dheeraj  Kumar
Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Assistant Professor at School of Health Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, Uttar-Pradesh

An X-ray tube is a critical medical and scientific instrument that plays a fundamental role in generating X-rays for various applications. X-ray tubes are widely used in the field of medicine for diagnostic imaging, as well as in industrial and scientific settings for materials analysis and research.

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X-Ray tube
PRESENTER: DR. DHEERAJ KUMAR
MRIT, PH.D. (RADIOLOGYAND IMAGING)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
MEDICAL RADIOLOGY AND IMAGING TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES, CSJM UNIVERSITY, KANPUR
1
Introduction
 An X-ray tube is a critical medical and scientific
instrument that plays a fundamental role in generating X-rays for various
applications. X-ray tubes are widely used in the field of medicine for diagnostic
imaging, as well as in industrial and scientific settings for materials analysis
and research.
 The discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen revolutionized
the fields of medicine and science. Roentgen observed that when cathode rays
(electrons) struck a target material, they emitted a new form of penetrating
radiation that could pass through various substances, including the human body,
leaving a shadow-like image on a photographic plate.
2
Components of x-ray tube
 Cathode assembly
 Filament
 Focusing cup
 Anode assembly
 Glass envelop
 Cooling system
 High voltage generator
 Filtration and collimation
3
Cathode Assembly
 The cathode is the electron-emitting component of the
X-ray tube. It consists of a filament, typically made of
tungsten or thoriated tungsten, and a focusing cup.
When a low voltage is applied to the filament, it heats
up, causing thermionic emission.
 This emission releases a cloud of electrons into the
vacuum space within the X-ray tube.
 The focusing cup, usually made of nickel, creates an
electrostatic field that helps to focus and direct the
emitted electrons toward the anode.
4
Filament
 The X-ray tube filament is a vital component of the X-ray tube responsible for emitting electrons. It consists of a
small wire made of tungsten or thoriated tungsten. The focusing cup plays a crucial role in directing the emitted
electrons toward the anode. It is negatively charged, creating an electrostatic field that focuses and narrows the
electron beam, enhancing its efficiency.
 Controlling the filament current allows radiographers or operators to regulate the number of electrons emitted,
affecting the tube current and, subsequently, the intensity of the X-ray beam. By adjusting the tube current,
imaging parameters can be optimized to achieve the desired image quality while minimizing radiation exposure
to patients.
 The filament is an essential element for X-ray tube operation, as it provides the initial electrons required to
generate X-rays when accelerated and collided with the anode target. Its precise design and control contribute to
the production of high-quality X-ray images for various diagnostic and industrial applications.
5
Focusing Cup
 Focusing cup use for focus the electron to the anode direction and enclosed within
a focusing cup made of nickel. When a low voltage is applied to the filament, it
heats up through the process of thermionic emission. This emission releases a
cloud of electrons into the vacuum space within the X-ray tube.
6
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X-Ray tube.pptx

  • 1. X-Ray tube PRESENTER: DR. DHEERAJ KUMAR MRIT, PH.D. (RADIOLOGYAND IMAGING) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR MEDICAL RADIOLOGY AND IMAGING TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES, CSJM UNIVERSITY, KANPUR 1
  • 2. Introduction  An X-ray tube is a critical medical and scientific instrument that plays a fundamental role in generating X-rays for various applications. X-ray tubes are widely used in the field of medicine for diagnostic imaging, as well as in industrial and scientific settings for materials analysis and research.  The discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen revolutionized the fields of medicine and science. Roentgen observed that when cathode rays (electrons) struck a target material, they emitted a new form of penetrating radiation that could pass through various substances, including the human body, leaving a shadow-like image on a photographic plate. 2
  • 3. Components of x-ray tube  Cathode assembly  Filament  Focusing cup  Anode assembly  Glass envelop  Cooling system  High voltage generator  Filtration and collimation 3
  • 4. Cathode Assembly  The cathode is the electron-emitting component of the X-ray tube. It consists of a filament, typically made of tungsten or thoriated tungsten, and a focusing cup. When a low voltage is applied to the filament, it heats up, causing thermionic emission.  This emission releases a cloud of electrons into the vacuum space within the X-ray tube.  The focusing cup, usually made of nickel, creates an electrostatic field that helps to focus and direct the emitted electrons toward the anode. 4
  • 5. Filament  The X-ray tube filament is a vital component of the X-ray tube responsible for emitting electrons. It consists of a small wire made of tungsten or thoriated tungsten. The focusing cup plays a crucial role in directing the emitted electrons toward the anode. It is negatively charged, creating an electrostatic field that focuses and narrows the electron beam, enhancing its efficiency.  Controlling the filament current allows radiographers or operators to regulate the number of electrons emitted, affecting the tube current and, subsequently, the intensity of the X-ray beam. By adjusting the tube current, imaging parameters can be optimized to achieve the desired image quality while minimizing radiation exposure to patients.  The filament is an essential element for X-ray tube operation, as it provides the initial electrons required to generate X-rays when accelerated and collided with the anode target. Its precise design and control contribute to the production of high-quality X-ray images for various diagnostic and industrial applications. 5
  • 6. Focusing Cup  Focusing cup use for focus the electron to the anode direction and enclosed within a focusing cup made of nickel. When a low voltage is applied to the filament, it heats up through the process of thermionic emission. This emission releases a cloud of electrons into the vacuum space within the X-ray tube. 6
  • 7. Anode Assembly  The anode is the target material where the accelerated electrons collide, resulting in the production of X-rays. X-ray tube anodes are commonly made of high atomic number metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, or copper.  Anodes can be either stationary or rotating. Rotating anodes are preferred in most applications due to their better heat dissipation capabilities. The anode consists of a target area, known as the focal spot, which is designed to produce a small and precise region for X-ray generation. 7
  • 8. Glass or Metal Envelope:  The X-ray tube is enclosed within a glass or metal envelope, ensuring a vacuum environment inside the tube. This envelope serves multiple purposes, including maintaining the vacuum, preventing the escape of X-rays, and minimizing interactions with air molecules that could interfere with the X-ray production. The envelope also provides electrical insulation and physical protection for the delicate internal components. 8
  • 9. Cooling System  Due to the high temperatures generated during X- ray production, effective cooling systems are necessary to prevent overheating and maintain the X-ray tube's longevity.  X-ray tubes employ various cooling mechanisms, including oil or water cooling, to dissipate heat generated by the anode.  In rotating anode systems, the rotation helps distribute heat more evenly, allowing for increased heat dissipation. 9
  • 10. High Voltage Generator  The high voltage generator is an external component connected to the X-ray tube that supplies the necessary voltage to accelerate the electrons from the cathode to the anode.  The generator produces a high voltage potential, typically in the range of kilovolts (kV), to accelerate the electrons to the desired energy level.  The control of tube voltage is crucial as it influences the quality and penetrating power of the X-rays produced. 10
  • 11. Filtration and Collimation  X-ray tubes may include additional components such as filters and collimators. Filters are inserted into the X-ray beam path to remove low-energy X-rays that are not useful for imaging, reducing patient radiation dose and improving image quality.  Collimators help shape and restrict the X-ray beam to the desired area of interest, minimizing unnecessary exposure and enhancing image resolution. 11
  • 12. Summary  These components work together in a precise manner to produce controlled and high-quality X-rays for various applications. Advances in X-ray tube technology have led to improved imaging capabilities, faster image acquisition, and enhanced patient safety, making X-ray tubes a vital tool in medicine, industry, and scientific research. 12
  • 13. References  Bushberg, J.T., Seibert, J.A., Leidholdt, E.M., & Boone, J.M. (2011). "The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging." Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  Fauber, T.L. (2017). "Radiographic Imaging and Exposure." St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.  Carlton, R.R., & Adler, A.M. (2018). "Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science." Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.  Clarke, R.L., & Valentinuzzi, M.E. (Eds.). (2012). "The X-ray Tube: An Intuitive Approach." Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.  Khalil, H.S. (2016). "X-Ray Tube: Operating Principles, Structure, and Use in Diagnostic Radiology." In J. Kuhlmann, & A. Halkoaho (Eds.), "Handbook of Research on Advanced Trends in Diagnostic Imaging and Biomedical Applications" (pp. 166-183). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.  Whitley, A.S., & Branstetter, B.F. (2012). "Fundamentals of Radiology." Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.  AAPM Report No. 39. (1995). "Calibration of X-ray and Gamma-ray Measuring Instruments." College Park, MD: American Association of Physicists in Medicine.  AAPM Report No. 35. (1993). "Radiation Dosimetry: X-Rays and Gamma-Rays with Maximum Photon Energies Between 0.6 MeV and 50 MeV." College Park, MD: American Association of Physicists in Medicine. 13
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