W2 factors for fitness components

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W2 factors for fitness components

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Training Year 1 Lloyd Dean HND Sports Science
  2. 2. Aims <ul><li>By the end of this lesson you should be able to describe the factors effecting fitness components: </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fitness components to a variety of sports </li></ul><ul><li>List factors that can effect each component </li></ul><ul><li>Describe field based tests for measuring components </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aerobic Endurance <ul><li>Oxygenated blood to working muscles and waste removal </li></ul><ul><li>Also know as aerobic endurance, aerobic capacity, aerobic fitness or aerobic power. </li></ul><ul><li>Most essential component at rest and during recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>Developed through continuous and interval training. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactate threshold training(Interval) is the best indicator of aerobic endurance (Coyle et. al, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Lactate tolerance training produces greatest gains (Baechle & Earle, 2008) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Muscular Strength (Siff, 2000) <ul><li>Effects power, and local muscular endurance and is rarely used in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Age – Puberty, mid 20’s, 40+ </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – 2/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Size (Cross-sectional area) – Force </li></ul><ul><li>Type of contraction - Best gains when specificity applied </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibre type – FT vs ST </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibre recruitment – Nerve impulse and amount of fibres contracted. Eg. 1RM all fibres recruited. </li></ul><ul><li>85% of 1RM (2-5 reps), 2 x per week, 8 sets per muscle group – Optimal strength gains (Peterson et. al., 2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Muscular Endurance <ul><li>Associated with muscular fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre type – ST vs FT </li></ul><ul><li>Age – Fatigue levels increase with age. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature – Optimal muscle temperature is 37 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle’s ability to use oxyen </li></ul><ul><li>Lactate tolerance threshold (JoAP, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Interval training elicits gains as well as continuous (Baechle & Earle, 2008) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Speed <ul><li>Closely related to power </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue tolerance levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibre type </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time - indirect factor </li></ul><ul><li>Bone size </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul><ul><li>Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  7. 7. Flexibility <ul><li>Stability vs. Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle temperature – 37 o C & stretch for flexibility (Baechle & Earle, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Age – Lose flexibility with age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – Females more flexible than males </li></ul><ul><li>Injury – Prior injuries reduce flexibility levels </li></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching – Prevention of DOMS (Siff, 2000) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Power <ul><li>Work/Time (Baechle & Earle, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and speed characteristics (Bompa, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching - Static (Knudson et. al, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>ROM at joint – </li></ul><ul><li> Work = Force x Distance travelled (Massis 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing, jumping , changing direction and striking activities </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate recovery times (5 – 6 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Technique and injury </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Composition <ul><li>Measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>Somatotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Endomorph – Short/fat </li></ul><ul><li>Mesomorph- muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Ectomorph – Tall/thin </li></ul><ul><li>Body fat determination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinfold measurements – Skin thickness is measured at various sites on the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body mass index (BMI </li></ul><ul><li>Height / weight 2 ) (WHO, 1992) </li></ul>Issues?
  10. 10. Distance Task <ul><li>Research the remaining components and what can effect each: </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination, balance, agility and reaction time </li></ul><ul><li>Think of what makes each component? </li></ul><ul><li>Mel Siff blog will help </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Can Each Be Measured?
  12. 12. Aims <ul><li>You should now be able to describe the factors effecting fitness components: </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fitness components to a variety of sports </li></ul><ul><li>List factors that can effect each component </li></ul><ul><li>Describe field based tests for measuring components </li></ul>

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