Chapter Four:  Becoming Physically Fit
Key Terms <ul><li>Physical Fitness :  attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Phy...
Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul><ul><li>M...
 
Cardiorespiratory Endurance <ul><li>Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a ...
Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Strength :  abil...
How to Improve Muscular Fitness? <ul><li>Overload Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gradually increasing the resistance can ...
Types of Training Mode <ul><ul><li>Isometric   (same measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic   (full range of motion,...
Flexibility <ul><li>Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to maintai...
Body Composition <ul><li>Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring body fat % should be in...
Aging Physically <ul><li>Physical decline occurs gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are individual in nature </li></u...
Medical conditions influenced by physical activity <ul><li>Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in mid...
ACSM’s Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998) <ul><li>Mode of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul...
Developing a Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program <ul><li>Mode of Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></u...
Frequency <ul><li>How Often Should One Train? </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 times/week (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 times/...
Intensity of Training <ul><li>ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of one’s maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) </li></u...
Duration of Training  <ul><li>Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect <...
Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness) <ul><li>Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Assists w...
Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), cont’d <ul><li>Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended </li></ul><ul>...
Flexibility Training <ul><li>ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups: </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times/week </li></u...
3 Parts of a Training Session <ul><li>Warm-Up   (slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching)...
Exercise for Older Adults <ul><li>Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 </li></ul><ul>...
Sports Injuries <ul><li>5 general principles related toward prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>start at a low level and prog...
Chapter Four:  Becoming Physically Fit
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  1. 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Physical Fitness : attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity : bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise : Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels </li></ul>
  3. 3. Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cardiorespiratory Endurance <ul><li>Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous, repetitive movements </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic energy production (using oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling </li></ul>
  5. 6. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Strength : ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance : ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time </li></ul>
  6. 7. How to Improve Muscular Fitness? <ul><li>Overload Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Types of Training Mode <ul><ul><li>Isometric (same measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic (full range of motion, progressive resistance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isokinetic (speed accommodates the movement of the exercises – expensive computerized dynamometers) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Flexibility <ul><li>Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of stretching motions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>static – holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ballistic – bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissues </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Body Composition <ul><li>Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat </li></ul>
  10. 11. Aging Physically <ul><li>Physical decline occurs gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are individual in nature </li></ul><ul><li>More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 – 64 </li></ul>
  11. 12. Medical conditions influenced by physical activity <ul><li>Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle-aged women </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction </li></ul>* Continuing to follow a fitness regimen is essential to minimizing age-related problems
  12. 13. ACSM’s Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998) <ul><li>Mode of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance training </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility training </li></ul>
  13. 14. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program <ul><li>Mode of Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using large muscle groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyable activity selection </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Frequency <ul><li>How Often Should One Train? </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 times/week (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either </li></ul>
  15. 16. Intensity of Training <ul><li>ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of one’s maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) </li></ul><ul><li>THR = (220 – age x 65-90%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 x .65 = 130 bpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 x .90 = 180 bpm </li></ul></ul>The level of effort to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness
  16. 17. Duration of Training <ul><li>Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect </li></ul><ul><li>20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be </li></ul>
  17. 18. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness) <ul><li>Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with improving body composition </li></ul><ul><li>One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), cont’d <ul><li>Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sets could provide greater benefits </li></ul>
  19. 20. Flexibility Training <ul><li>ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups: </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type </li></ul><ul><li>Hold for 10-30 seconds </li></ul>
  20. 21. 3 Parts of a Training Session <ul><li>Warm-Up (slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning Workout (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and flexibility regimen following ACSM guidelines) </li></ul><ul><li>Cool-Down (return the body to a resting state in 5-10 minutes, i.e., walking, stretching, etc.) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Exercise for Older Adults <ul><li>Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exams would be recommended before beginning a program </li></ul><ul><li>Well designed programs should start slow and become gradual over time </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize signs of distress </li></ul>
  22. 23. Sports Injuries <ul><li>5 general principles related toward prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>start at a low level and progress gradually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the past level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>listen to your body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>follow rehabilitation instructions if prescribed by a rehab specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop a preventive approach to all injuries </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit

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