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Training in sports

Lesson 12 of Grade XII for Physical Education Students of CBSE board

Training in sports

  1. 1. CHAPTER 12
  2. 2. CHAPTER 12
  3. 3. 12.1 Strength-Definition, Types and Methods of Improving Strength-Isometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic 12.2 Endurance-Definition, Type and Methods to Develop Endurance- Continuous, Interval and Fartlek Training 12.3 Speed-Definition, Types and Methods to Develop Speed-Acceleration Run and Pace Run 12.4 Flexibility-Definition, Types and Methods to Improve Flexibility 12.5 Coordination Abilities-Definition and Types TRAINING IN SPORTS
  4. 4. 4 COMPONENTS OFPHYSICALFITNESS Components of Physical Fitness Endurance Flexibility Coordinative Abilities Strength Speed
  5. 5. 12.1 Strength-Definition, Types and Methods of Improving Strength- Isometric, Isotonic and Isokinetic
  6. 6. 6 STRENGTH Strength is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance. a) Facilitates the ability to resist disease as it affects organic efficiency . b) It is the amount of force a muscle or muscles group can exert. c) It is achieved by voluntary muscle contraction. d) Specific type of strength is required in specific type of sports e) Strength is divided into two types: a) Dynamic Strength b) Static Strength
  7. 7. 7 DYNAMIC STRENGTH Dynamic strength is also called isotonic strength because it is related to the movement which is clearly visible. Dynamic strength is of diminishing tendency in which muscles refuses to work after sometime. In each sports movement, strength appears in a different form which are Maximum Strength Explosive Strength Strength Endurance
  8. 8. 8 STATIC STRENGTH Static strength is also called isometric strength. It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance. This type of strength is not seen directly in sports but in some sports, it is applied in phases.
  9. 9. 9 METHODS FOR IMPROVING STRENGTH 1. ISOMETRIC EXERCISES 2. ISOTONIC EXERCISES 3. ISOKINETIC EXERCISES
  10. 10. 10 ISOMETRIC EXERCISES 1. Isometric is “iso-- Same” and “metric-- Length” 2. No change in the length of the muscles. 3. Work done cannot be observed. 4. Require less time and equipment 5. Useful for maintaining strength in case of injury 6. Archery, weight lifting, gymnastic are the examples of isometric movements. Pushing the wall Hanging on Pole Work done = Force × Distance moved But distance moved is 0, therefore work done is zero.
  11. 11. 11 ISOTONIC EXERCISES 1. Isotonic is “iso– same” and “tonic– tension” 2. Movements of muscles can be observed directly 3. Lengthening and Shortening of muscles can be seen and called eccentric contraction and concentric contraction 4. When we throw a ball, jump. run, weight training, these type of contraction occurs 5. Exercise can be done with equipment or without equipment. 6. Increase the flexibility and length of the muscles and are good for conditioning in sports.
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13 ISOKINETIC EXERCISES 1. ISOKINETIC is “iso – same” and “kinetic – motion” 2. Introduced by J.J. Perrine in 1968 3. Exercises are done using specially design machine and are combination of isotonic and iso-metric exercises 4. Machines allow for maximum resistance over the complete range of motion 5. These types of movements are usually applied in water sports, skating, climbing, running etc.
  14. 14. 12.2 Endurance-Definition, Types and Methods to Develop Endurance – Continuous Training, Interval Training and Fartlek Training
  15. 15. 15 ENDURANCE Definition 1. Ability to sustain an activity 2. Also defined as the ability to resist fatigue 3. In all sports endurance is of high importance 4. Measured by the number of repetitions
  16. 16. 16 ENDURANCE Types 1. Types of endurance according to the nature of activity a) Basic Endurance b) General Endurance c) Specific Endurance 2. Types of endurance according to the duration of activity a) Speed Endurance b) Short Term Endurance c) Middle Term Endurance d) Long Term Endurance
  17. 17. 17 ENDURANCE Methods to Develop Endurance 1. Continuous Training Method a) Slow Continuous b) Fast Continuous 2. Interval Training Method 3. Fartlek Training Method
  18. 18. 18 Methods to Develop Endurance Continuous method Exercise is done for a long duration without taking rest Intensity of Exercise is low The heart rate during the exercise for a sportsman remains between 140-160 beats /minute For fast continuous method the heart rate is increased upto 175-180 beats /minute.
  19. 19. 19 Methods to Develop Endurance Interval method  Very effective for developing endurance for track runners  Intervals are given to the athlete in between the repetition for complete recovery.  Recovery period varies from person to person.  Heart rate should go up to 180 beats/min and when the heart rate comes down to 120-130 beats/min, again the repetition / work starts.  Training load should be given again after checking the heart - rate of the athlete.  Activity - Active Rest - Activity - Active Rest – Activity [Rest = Recovery]
  20. 20. 20 Methods to Develop Endurance Fartlek Training Method  Fartlek is a Swedish word that means “speed”  Blends continuous training and interval training  Athlete plans his own pace  Heart beat rate varies between 140 to 180 / minute  Duration of training depends upon athlete but minimum 45 min  It can vary from aerobic walking to anaerobic sprinting  warm up in the beginning and cooling down at the end  Involves varying pace throughout run, alternating between fast and slow pace
  21. 21. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE Continuous training method 1. Increases glycogen in muscles & liver 2. Increases the no. & size of mitochondria 3. Increases the efficiency of heart & lungs 4. Intensity can be increased for better results interval training method 1. More workout can be performed in short duration 2. More beneficial for respiratory & circulatory system 3. Progress of the athlete can be measured easily 4. Athlete achieves his peak performance in a short period 1. More chances of injuries 2. Regular training can lead to heart disease 3. Top performance comes before competition fartlek training method 1. Improves cardio vascular endurance 2. Good for aerobic & anaerobic fitness 3. Makes the body versatile 4. No. of athletes can take parts simultaneously 1. Difficult to judge the trainee’s effort 2. May cause accidents 3. Appropriate check on trainees cannot be maintained
  22. 22. 12.3 Speed-Definition, Types and Methods to Develop Speed – Acceleration Run and Pace Run
  23. 23. Definition: 1. It is the ability or capacity of an individual to perform a movement of the same pattern at faster rate. 2. Different sports skills require different types of fast movements and quick reactions. 3. Speed depends on heredity factor specially on types of muscle fiber one has. SPEED
  24. 24. Types: 1. Reaction Ability a) Simple Reaction Ability b) Complex Reaction Ability 2. Acceleration Ability 3. Movement Speed 4. Locomotor Ability 5. Speed Endurance SPEED
  25. 25. 1. Acceleration Runs It is used to develop speed indirectly by improving explosive strength, technique, flexibility and movement frequency.  It is the ability of a sprinter to achieve high speed from a stationary position.  For direct improvement of acceleration speed, a sprinter should do 25-30 meters sprints 6-12 times.  The maximum speed should be achieved within 5-6 seconds.  Sufficient intervals should be provided between the repetitions METHODS TO DEVELOP SPEED
  26. 26. 2. Pace Runs  Pace run means running the whole distance with a constant speed.  Generally 800 m and above races are included in pace races. An athlete can run a distance of 100 m at full speed but in longer races such as 800 m or above, he must reserve his energy by reducing the speed.  For pace run training an athlete should run at maximum steady speed for a distance which is 10-20% more than the racing distance of the event he is preparing for. METHODS TO DEVELOP SPEED
  27. 27. 12.4 Flexibility-Definition, Types and Methods to Flexibility
  28. 28. Definition: 1. It is the range of movements of joints 2. Range of movements varies significantly from joint to joint but depends on the structure of the surrounding tendons, ligaments and muscle tissues 3. Flexibility is related to genetic factors and physical activity programmes. FLEXIBILITY
  29. 29. 1. Passive Flexibility: Ability to stretch more with external help. It is always more than the active flexibility 2. Active Flexibility: Ability to do movement for a longer distance without external help. Divided into two parts 1. Static Flexibility Diving, Starting positions in many sports 2. Dynamic Flexibility Individual in motion TYPES OF FLEXIBILITY
  30. 30. 1. Ballistic Methods 2. Static Stretching Method 3. Dynamic Stretching Method 4. Proprioceptive Neuro-Muscular Facilitation Technique METHODS TO IMPROVE FLEXIBILITY
  31. 31. 12.5 Coordination Abilities- Definition and Types
  32. 32. Definition: 1. These are the abilities of an individual which enable him to do various related activities properly and efficiently 2. Accuracy, rhythm, flow and consistency depend on coordinative abilities COORDINATION ABILITIES
  33. 33. Types: 1. Orientation Ability 2. Coupling Ability 3. Reaction Ability a) Simple Reaction Ability b) Complex Reaction Ability COORDINATION ABILITIES
  34. 34. Types: 4. Balance Ability 5. Rhythm Ability 6. Adaptation Ability 7. Differentiation Ability COORDINATION ABILITIES
  35. 35. Methods for Improvement: (1) Practicing physical exercise (2) Correct and conscious movement (3) Additional means to improve motor sense. (4) Variation in exercises (5) Degree of difficulty COORDINATION ABILITIES
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Lesson 12 of Grade XII for Physical Education Students of CBSE board

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