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Term Paper-4G mobile Evolution

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  1. 1. 4G TECHNOLOGYA Paper Presentation on 4G TECHNOLOGY Presented by, . 1
  2. 2. 4G TECHNOLOGYAbstractThere is a great demand of userneeds for accessing moreinteractive multimedia applicationlike video on demand andseamless connection whilemoving from one network fromother without any disturbance andmaintaining the high data rate atlower cost. Current technologiesare able to provide the serviceslike multimedia applications butthey failed to provide high datarate, transmission cost andseamless connectivity on usermobility from one network toanother and at the same timemaintaining its Quality of Service(QoS). Some groups namely;3GPP, 3GPP2, and WiMAX areworking to achieve the keyaspects of the 4G technologywhich has been defined in IMTAdvance. The major componentsof the 4G technology are OFDMmodulation, transmission of datausing MIMO, use of smartantennas, SDR, IPV6 and IPMobility. It is expected that thegroups (3GPP, 3GPP2, andWiMAX) will achieve keycomponents and will successfullydeploy 4G technology by 2011.Contents1. Introduction mobile and it was considerably successfully with the standardVoice communication was the Global System for Mobilemajor factor for second-generation Communication (GSM) using 2
  3. 3. 4G TECHNOLOGYTDM/FDM technology with 200 of video transmission at anytimekHz frequency band. The 2G and anywhere at much higher datatechnology was designed only for rates than 3G technologies. Thethe voice communication and data rate range for 4G will beinternet service for transferring between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/suser data were not available. Since speeds for both stationary andboth voice and data moving devices with best qualitycommunications services and high level of security.including Internet service wereneeded and the research on 3G Broadband applicationssystems were on the way. The may be like wireless broadbandprotocols and standards were access, Multimedia Messagingdeveloped to allow data Service (MMS), video chat,transmission over the existing 2G mobile TV, HDTV content,infrastructure. The first is 2.5G Digital Video Broadcasting(GPRS, EDGE, and CDMA Phase (DVB) demands high data rate1) technology that allows data and the quality of service(QoS)transfer at a better rate than 2G but this type of data rate and QoS(GSM). Today, data transfer are not available in 3Gapplications like video technology. 4G wirelessconferencing, music or video technology will be able to providedownloads, video, and TV the seamless services as per theservices at high data rate are more requirements which are set byin demand that force us to third these applications.generation (3G) deploymentwhich includes standard UMTS The objectives of the 4Gand CDMA 2000. wireless communication is defined by the 4G working group which To increase the speed includes standard a spectrallyvarious new technologies have efficient system (in bits/s/Hz andcome into picture. And in the bits/s/Hz/site), High networkfuture, higher speed data capacity: more simultaneous userstransmission with low cost than per cell, Smooth handoff across3G technology will be important heterogeneous networks, Seamlessfactor to enter forward the fourth connectivity and global roaminggeneration (4G). Anytime and across multiple networks,anywhere service and accessing Interoperability with existingof application, with a high degree wireless standards, an all IP,of customization and packet switched network.personalization of user application Still 4G is not clearlyand users can interact with the defined or documented anywhereother protocol based user devices, what are the basic requirements towill be another factor. The current build 4G wireless technology, like3G system works on IP5.0 and 4G 3G is clearly defined in IMT-2000systems will work on IP6.0 and (International Mobilethe user will be able to receive Telecommunications 2000). IMT-voice, data and smooth streaming Advanced is the closest where 3
  4. 4. 4G TECHNOLOGYsome of the 4G requirements can during handoff from one cell tobe found. For supporting high another cell, providing mobiledata rate and high mobility in fast subscriber with always-best-moving car (60kilometers/hours) connected, and high QoSor fast moving trains (250 km/hr) broadband experience.and it is predicted that the newpotential wireless system willsupport 100 Mbps on 2. Evolution of 4G wirelessmobility and 1 Gbps Technologyapproximately on withoutmobility at lower cost. This In order to make smooth transitionpotential new wireless system from 3G to 4G the mobilecould be developed by 2010. Its communication companies arecharacteristics should be like high promoting Super 3G/LTE. Thedegree of commonality of design companies are upgrading 3Gworldwide to provide backward Technology by initializing thecompatibility, compatibility of introduction of High Speedservices within IMT-Advanced Downlink Packet Accessand with the fixed networks, high (HSDPA) service, which increasesquality, and small terminal the downlink data rate of packetsuitable for worldwide use, services, and by finalizingworldwide roaming capability, specifications for High Speedcapability to run high data rate Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA),multimedia applications within a which enhances uplink speed.wide range of services and HSDPA and HSUPA cover areaterminals. by 3-4 times relative to W-CDMA The parameter outlined by and by providing the highthe ITU (International transmission rate with low costTelecommunication Union) which per bit transmission. The mainrequired in order to meet the objective of the Super 3G is totargeted data rate and QoS construct simple, low cost system(Quality of service) as already by removing the complexity fromdiscussed above in the main wireless network and mobileobjective of 4G wireless handsets. The 3G provides packettechnology are going to be based and voice services separatelyon OFDMA (Orthogonal where as Super 3G is based onFrequency Division Multiple ALL-IP network covering bothAccess) modulation with MIMO packet and voice services. As(multiple inputs, multiple outputs) from diagram we can infer that byand other smart antenna the 2010 we would be able toenhancements. 4G is also called achieve the 1 Gbps in motion atnetwork of networks like low low speed and 100 Mbps at highnetwork latency, integration of speed. On December 25, 2006,mobile broadband heterogeneous NTT DOCOMO became the firstnetwork, smooth sharing of in the world to achieve a packetnetworks, seamless connection signal speed of 5 Gbps in an outdoor test in a low-speed 4
  5. 5. 4G TECHNOLOGYenvironment (10 km/h). The test 2.2 Implementation of MIMOwas undertaken to demonstrate the (multiple inputs, multipleexpected maximum transmission outputs)speed in an actual cell 2.3 Smart antenna enhancementsenvironment, taking into accountinterference from peripheral cells. 2.4 SDR (Software-Defined Radio) 2.5 IPv6 and IP mobility 2.1 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) modulation Multipath phenomena in CDMA can tolerate long delay but it does not capture the entire energy, only fraction of the energy of the multipath signal because of limited no. of capability of taking the signal. In OFDM as from the below figure it can be understand the long guard band interval is long enough to absorb all inter- symbols-interference. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) We are steadily not only provides clear advantagesapproaching towards 4G wireless for physical layer performance,technologies by upgrading the but also a framework forcurrent 3G technology by improving layer 2 performance byincreasing the data rate speed and proposing an additional degree ofby reducing the cost of freedom. Using ODFM, it is possible to exploit the timetransmission which is the main domain, the space domain, theobjective of 4G wireless frequency domain and even thetechnology. code domain to optimize radio channel usage. It ensures veryThere are some key components robust transmission in multi-pathfor the successful deployment of environments with reducedthe 4G wireless technology. receiver complexity.2.1 OFDMA (OrthogonalFrequency Division MultipleAccess) modulation 5
  6. 6. 4G TECHNOLOGY CDMA OFDM 1 CDMA can It captures entire . tolerate long energy because of delay but it does capability to absorb not capture the high no. of OFDM entire energy, signal subcarriers. only fraction of In OFDM, as long the energy of the as guard interval is In OFDM, a data stream is multipath signal long enough, allsplit into Nc parallel lower data because of limited inter-symbol-streams (a few kHz) that are no. of capability interference ismodulated on separate subcarriers. of taking the absorbedThe split the signal is called signal.orthogonal subcarriers and these 2 Multipath self- Multipath self-subcarriers are modulated by . interference interference doesInverse Discrete Fourier affects CDMA. not affect OFDM.Transformation (IDFT) andhence it does not affect the signals 3 CDMA the Only a few toneson multipath effects. The long . interference are affected or lostguard band is inserted between affects all in OFDMeach OFDM symbol to absorb all symbols.inter signal symbols interference. 4 CDMA several OFDM spreads theThis significantly improves the . symbols may be impulse noise overphysical layer performance. The lost because of a burst reducing itsOFDM signal is also compatible impulse noise. effectwith other enhancementtechnologies like smart antennas 5 CDMA is very This results inand MIMO. . sensitive to complex algorithms timing and and overhead Multiple access requires fast unlike OFDM.technology (Orthogonal acquisitionFrequency Division MultipleAccess; OFDMA) can also be 6 CDMA rake Implementation ofused for modulation of OFDM. In . receiver is more equalization,this case, each OFDM signal complex than interferencesymbol can transmit information OFDM digital cancellation, andto/from several users using a front end (FFT). adaptive antennadifferent set of subcarriers array algorithms is(subchannels). This not only simpler in OFDM.provides additional flexibility forresource allocation (increasing the 7 CDMA requires Which is not in thecapacity), but also enables cross- . fast and precise case of OFDM.layer optimization of radio link power control asusage. it is very sensitive to received power 2.1.1 Advantages of OFDM fluctuationsover CDMA 6
  7. 7. 4G TECHNOLOGY8 CDMA minimum number of antennas in Which is not in the. technology is less case of OFDM. the link. The MIMO enables sensitive to significant increase in the data capacity throughput and link range with enhancement by additional bandwidth or transmit using smart power. It achieves this by higher antenna spectral efficiency more bits per techniques than second per hertz of bandwidth) OFDM and link reliability or diversity technology (reduced fading). Because of these because of properties MIMO has become CDMA intra-cell current theme of wireless interference research. behavior. 2.3 Smart antenna enhancements.2.2 Implementation of MIMO The main purpose of the radio(multiple inputs, multiple communication depends on theoutputs). advancements of the antennas which refer to smart or intelligentIn order to improve the antennas. In early 90s, in order tocommunication performance meet growing data rate needs ofbetween sender and receiver, the the data communication, manymultiple antennas are used at both transmission techniques weretransmitter and receiver end. proposed such as spatialMIMO multiplex the signals from multiplexing which increases thethe multiple transmitting antennas bandwidth conservation andas it is suitable for OFDM because power efficiency. Spatialtime symbols can be processed multiplexing provides theindependently after OFDM multiple deployment of antennaswaveform is correctly designed at the transmitting and receivingfor the channel. This aspects of end and then independent streamsOFDM reduces the complexity of data can be transmitted aswhile transmission and makes requested by the user can beprocessing simple. The signal transmitted simultaneously fromtransmitted by m antennas and the all transmitting antennas. Thussignal received by n antennas and increasing the throughput intothe processing of the received multiple folds with minimumsignal may produce significant number of the transmitting andperformance improvement such as receiving antennas.range, quality of received signaland spectrum efficiency. HenceMIMO is more efficient whenmany multiple path signals arereceived. The gain in spectrumefficiency is directly related to the 7
  8. 8. 4G TECHNOLOGY 2.4 SDR (Software-Defined Radio) A basic SDR produces a radio that is capable of receiving and transmitting a different form of radio protocol (sometimes referred to as a waveform) as per the needs just by running different software. A SDR will allow to increase network capacity at specific time (e.g. during a sports There are two types of event) and the operator cansmart antennas which are reconfigure its network by addingswitched beam smart antennas and several modems at a given Baseadaptive array smart antennas. Transceiver Station (BTS). SDRSwitched beam systems have will allow reconfigure networkseveral available fixed beam structure as per the needs. At thepatterns which help in making present SDR implementation isdecisions as to which beam to done by the infrastructure whichaccess at any given point of time develops multi-band, multi-based on the requirements of the standard base stations andsystem. While adaptive arrays terminals. SDR can be a powerfulallow the antenna to steer the aid for manufacturer by providingbeam to any direction of interest multi-standard, multi-bandwhile simultaneously nulling equipment with reducedinterfering signals. development effort and costs through simultaneous multi- The reliability in channel processing. Softwaretransmitting high speed data in the radios have significant utility forfading channel can be improved the military and cell phoneby using more antennas at the services, both of which must servetransmitter or at the receiver. This a wide variety of changing radiois called transmit or receive protocols in real time. In the longdiversity. Both transmit/receive term, software-defined radio isdiversity and transmit spatial expected by its proponents tomultiplexing are categorized into become the dominant technologythe space-time coding techniques, in radio communications.which does not necessarily requirethe channel knowledge at the time 2.5 IPv6 and IP mobilityof transmitting the signals. Theother category is closed-loop 4G wireless technology will bemultiple antenna technologies using mobile IPv6 which allowswhich use the channel knowledge assigning more number ofat the transmitter. addresses than IPv4. In IPv6 each device have own IP address. User can keep their IP address even if 8
  9. 9. 4G TECHNOLOGYuser changes the access point. handovers is considered to havePresently translate IP with each low mobility.change because there are notenough IP addresses. The 3. Spectral efficiency in 4Gfollowing diagram shows thateach IPv6 packet can have The 4G wireless technologymultiple source addresses and bandwidth efficiency will bemultiple destination measured in terms of spectral efficiency. Spectrum efficiency describes that the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system. It is a measure of how efficiently a limited frequency spectrum is utilized by the physical layer protocol, and sometimes by the media access control (the channel access protocol). Clearly the bitaddresses. rate should be associated with an amount of spectrum. For mobileMobile IP techniques allow use, a good target is a networknetwork roaming, a device can performance of 5 bit/s/Hz, risingmove from one network to other to 8 bit/s/Hz in nomadic use.network. IP Mobility is oftentermed ‘macro-mobility’ since it For example, awill be global, and independent of transmission technique using onemechanisms (such as routing kilohertz of bandwidth to transmitprotocols, link-layers technologies 1000 bits per second has a spectraland security architectures) of efficiency of 1 (bit/s)/Hz. Also, adifferent administrative IP- V.92 modem for the telephonedomains. These methods are network can transfer 56,000 bit/sapplicable to data and probably downstream and 48,000 bit/salso voice. During handover in IP upstream over an analogMobility the OFDM, MIMO telephone network. Due toallows ‘macro-diversity’ filtering in the telephoneprocessing with performance exchange, the frequency range isgains. However, the limited to between 300 hertz andimplementation of macro- 3,400 hertz, corresponding to adiversity implies that MIMO bandwidth of 3400 − 300 = 3100processing is centralized and hertz. The spectral efficiency istransmissions are synchronous. In 56,000/3,100 = 18.1 (bit/s)/Hzhigh mobility a device is capable downstream, and 48,000/3,100 =to cope with more than 10 15.5 (bit/s)/Hz upstream.handovers per minute. In contrast,a host performing less than 10 3.1 Spectral efficiency target 9
  10. 10. 4G TECHNOLOGYA simple calculation illustrates the the cellular technology. There areorder of magnitude. The design 3 groups who are working fortarget in terms of radio deployment of 4G wirelessperformance is to achieve a technology.scalable capacity from 50 to 500bit/s/Hz/km2 (including capacity 4.1 3GPP (The Thirdfor indoor use). The expected best Generation Partnershipperformance of 3G is around 10 Project)bit/s/Hz/km2 using High SpeedDownlink Packet Access 4.2 3GPP2 (The Third(HSDPA), Multiple-Input Generation Partnership ProjectMultiple-Output (MIMO), etc. No 2)current technology is capable of 4.3 WiMAXsuch performance.3.2 Spectral efficiency objectivesAs per the various traffic analysesby analyzing the transmission andreceiving the data from variousmode of communication, theWireless World Initiative (WWI)has issued target air interfaceperformance figures. A consensushas been reached around peakrates of 100 Mbit/s in mobilesituations and 1 Gbit/s in nomadicand pedestrian situations, at leastas targets. So far, in a 10 MHzspectrum, a carrier rate of 20 4.1 3GPP (The 3rd GenerationMbit/s has been achieved when Partnership Project)the user is moving at high speed The 3rd Generation Partnershipand 40 Mbit/s in nomadic use. Project (3GPP) is body which isThese values will double after formed by collaborating theintroduction of MIMO. Clearly, groups of the telecommunicationsthe bit rate should be associated associations to develop upcomingwith an amount of spectrum. For a globally applicable thirdmobile use, a good target is a generation (3G) mobile phonenetwork performance of 5 specification within the scope ofbit/s/Hz, rising to 8 bit/s/Hz in International Mobilenomadic use. Telecommunications-2000 project of the International4. Working groups on 4G Telecommunication Union (ITU).wireless technology 3GPP standardization major focus is on Radio, Core Network andThere are many groups who work Service architecture. 3GPP istogether for the enhancement of working to upgrade the mobile 10
  11. 11. 4G TECHNOLOGYcommunication by increasing the in the WiMAX. As it is shown indata rate and reducing the cost. As figure in the WiMAX section infrom the figure above it states that 2008 Mobile WiMAX is using3GPP focus on mobile SISO and 60-65% of SIMO withcommunication since 2007 and frequency spectrum of the10MHz.3GPP is working in that direction And in 2009 WiMAX will bewhich will lead to enter in the 4G using SIMO/MIMO and data ratetechnology by the 2011. of 23/46 Mbps in downlink and data rate of 12 Mbps in uplink4.2 3GPP2 (The 3rd Generation with frequency spectrum of 10Partnership Project) MHz In 2011 WiMAX will beAgain there is another working able to achieve the 100 Mbps withgroup on mobile communication high mobility which is defined inis called the Third Generation the IMT Advance. In 2011Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) is WiMAX will fully enter into 4Gformed by collaborating third technology because it is expectedgeneration (3G) that the WiMAX will using all thetelecommunications major key component of the 4Gspecifications-setting project technology. At present WiMAX iscomprising North American and one of the potential candidate forAsian interests developing global the 4G technology. WiMAX hasspecifications for served as a catalyst for 3GPPANSI/TIA/EIA-41. Cellular Radio (Third Generation Partnershiptelecommunication Intersystem Project) and 3GPP2 to accelerateOperations network evolution to their next round of innovation,3G and global specifications for adopting OFDM modulation andthe radio transmission implementing MIMO and othertechnologies (RTTs) supported by smart antenna technologies withANSI/TIA/EIA-41. 3GPP2 is the high mobility. Both 3GPP andstandardization group focuses on 3GPP2 camps have clearlyCDMA 2000 which includes the defined their paths toward 4G.set of 3G standard based on earlier2G CDMA technology. Mobile WiMAX was4.3 WiMAX being commercialized in 2007 and It had been expected that theAs we can see in the above figure WiMAX will have severalthat WiMAX is using the some of advantages, including throughput,the major key component of 4G cost, time-to-market. It does seemtechnology which is defined in to have a time-to-marketIMT-Advance. WiMAX is using advantage over LTE (Long Termthe OFDM modulation technique Evolution) and UMB (Ultrafor transmission of the signals but Mobile Broadband). However, theother features of the 4G first generation of mobiletechnology such as MIMO, smart WiMAX technologies withoutantennas capabilities and IP MIMO enhancements will not bemobility which are not available 11
  12. 12. 4G TECHNOLOGYable to deliver significantlyhigher throughput as compare to 5.1 NTT DoCoMo3.5G technologies such as NTT DoCoMo after successfulHSDPA (High-Speed Downlink experimentation in February 2007Packet Access), which has already announced the completion of a 4Gbeen deployed commercially. trial where they achieved aWiMAX vendor had predicted the maximum packet transmissioncost advantages of the WiMAX. rate of approximately 5Gbps inMobile company sprint claims the downlink using 100MHzthat Mobile WiMAX will deliver frequency bandwidth to a mobilea cost-per-bit performance of 10 station moving at 10km/h. Fourthtimes EVDO (Evolution-Data generation (4G) technologyOptimized). The spectral implementation is in theefficiency of WiMAX is better but laboratory now and also in thethe coverage area of the WiMAX field trials in certain areas of theis smaller, possibly at only half to world. Some people define the 4Gone-quarter the cell radius of an goal as increasing data transferequivalent HSPA (High-Speed rates to 100Mb/sec. Recently,Packet Access) cell. NTT DoCoMo, the Japanese telecommunications giant and Over period of time Japans largest wireless carrier,WiMAX will improve by has claimed to achieve aincreasing throughput and lower maximum packet transmissioncost, but 3GPP and 3GPP2 rate of approximately 5Gb/sec in atechnologies are also evolving to downlink transmission. Thesupport higher throughput, lower transmission used a 100MHzlatency and better economics by channel bandwidth and the targetleveraging MIMO and other smart receiving device was a mobileantenna technologies, wider device moving at 10km/hour.spectrum bands and eventually Since the maximum transmissionOFDM modulation. 3GPP and rates closest to commercialization3GPP2 are still getting stronger today are approaching 10Mb/sec.support from technologycompanies, and they are already 5.2 T-Mobile and Nortelbeing integrated into laptops and Networksother embedded devices. Mobile operator T-Mobile and Nortel Networks after successfully5. Demonstration of 4G wireless testing a new high-speed wirelesstechnology technology, designed to makeThere are companies who have mobile connections as fast assuccessfully tested and fixed fiber links. A connectionimplemented the 4G technology. was maintained while driving in aThe companies are NTT car in range of three cell sites on aDoCoMo, Mobile and Nortel highway in Bonn, Germany at anNetworks, and Nokia Siemens average speed of 67 kmph. TheNetworks. experiment achieved data rates of 12
  13. 13. 4G TECHNOLOGYup to 170 Mbit/s for downloads technology, which is based on theand up to 50 Mbit/s for uploads, use of multiple antennae. Mobilethe operator said, about three WiMAX’s recent inclusion to thetimes faster than the new high- 3GPP family of standards hasspeed broadband technology raised the possibility of bothVDSL it is currently rolling out technologies becoming part ofacross the country. If the Long- what will be known as 4G.Term Evolution (LTE) technologyproved promising in more In its announcement,everyday situations, the Bonn- Nokia Siemens Networks said itbased company would consider had completed the world’s firstupgrading its network with it, said multiuser field trial of LTE in anPhilipp Humm, head of T-Mobile urban environment. The trial,Germany. A decision would be which was in Berlin, utilizedmade within six months. There is 20MHz of bandwidth in theincreasing urgency for fourth- 2.6GHz spectrum, which is set forgeneration (4G) wireless a hotly contested auction in thenetworks, where growing demand U.K. next year. The trialfor mobile data is driven by such confirmed that LTE performancetools as smart phones and requirements can be met usingembedded laptops. 3GPP standardized technologies and it realized data rates of more Canada’s Nortel Networks than 100Mbps over distances ofhas said it sees LTE as the most several hundred meters, whilelikely upgrade path for about 80 maintaining excellent throughputpercent of the world’s existing at the edge of typical urbanmobile phone providers, with mobile radio cells, the company’sothers going for WiMAX. statement read. Calling the trial an important initial proof of concept5.3 Nokia Siemens Networks for LTE, Nokia SiemensNokia Siemens Network Networks’ chief technologyannounced after testing that officer, Stephan Scholz, said thatachieved theoretical data rates of LTE would further the company’sup to 173 megabits per second, goal of connecting 5 billion usersLTE is in something of a race to by 2015, due to LTE’s efficientmarket with mobile WiMAX, use of spectrum.which only promises around70Mbps but has a significant head 6. Conclusionstart. The fastest currently There has been constantavailable mobile broadband, development in the cellular as weHSDPA, offers around 7.2Mbps. have seen in 2G technology to 3G technology which includes GSM, Both LTE and mobile GPRS, EDGE, CDMA,WiMAX use the OFDM CDMA200, HSPDA, WiMAXmodulation scheme and multiple- etc. 2G only supports the voiceinput multiple-output (MIMO) communicate and 2.5G supports 13
  14. 14. 4G TECHNOLOGYvoice and data communication EVDO: Evolution-Dataand 3G supports voice and data Optimizedcommunication but at higher rate HSPA : High-Speed Packetas compare to the 2.5G. But today Accessthere is high demand ofmultimedia applications like IMT: International Mobileonline video, video conferencing. TelecommunicationsAnd there is need of better quality ITU: Internationalof service (QoS) and device Telecommunication Unionmobility from one network tonetwork at high speed. There is LTE : Long Term Evolutionstrong need of technology better MIMO : Multiple Inputthan 3G. Multiple Output OFDM : Orthogonal A 4G technology which is Frequency Divisionan upgraded version of 3Gtechnology, will be introduced in Multiplexingthe market by 2011 which will SDR : Software Defined Radiomeet the needs which were notfound in the 3G technology while UMB: Ultra Mobile Broad Bandmaintaining its backward WiMAX: Worldwidecompatibility. As we have seen in Interoperability forthe working group of 4G Microwave Accesstechnology namely 3GGP,3GGP2 and WiMAX technologieswill continue to evolve and B. Bibliographyenhance its capability, with a Websitesclear roadmap of reaching 1 Gbps Tech News World: Who Will Winin motion at low speed and 100 the 4G Race?Mbps at high speed at lower cost. Date: 10/10/2008The successful demonstration of http://www.technewsworld.com/the 4G technology has been done story/58256.htmlby the companies such as NTTDoCoMo, Mobile and Nortel Frequently Asked Questions onNetworks, and Nokia Siemens 4G By Zahid GhadialyNetworks. Date: 10/10/2008 http://www.3g4g.co.uk/4G/faq.h A. Abbreviations tml (Alphabetically Arranged)3GGP : The Third GenerationPartnership Project3GGP2 : The ThirdGeneration Partnership Project2 14