A descendant to 2G and 3G technologies aiming to provide the very high data
transfer rates. 4G technology provides very speedy wireless internet access to not only
stationary users but also to the mobile users. This technology is expected to trounce the
deficiencies of 3G technology in terms of speed and quality.
4G in Nutshell:
Generation of mobile communication. 4G can be best described in one
word “MAGIC”, which stands for Mobile multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global
mobility support, integrated wireless and personalized services. When 4G technology has
been deployed, web will be full of High Definition (HD) content and downloading or
high quality streaming will not consider any issue at all.
The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA). The DARPA selected the distributed architecture and end-to-
Why 4G over 3G?
Components of 4G
3G & 4G comparison
Advantage and Disadvantage
end Internet protocol (IP), and believed at an early stage in peer-to-peer networking in
which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in
the network, eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems.
Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the Mobile WiMAX standard
(first used in South Korea in 2006), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE)
standard (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009).
Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service, using TD-LTE technology, in Kolkata on
April 10, 2012.
Fourteen months prior to the official launch in Kolkata.
Why 4G over 3G?
4G (LTE) is quicker than 3G which means less buffering, better audio quality,
improved gaming experience and streaming services with reduced lag. The other key
difference is the frequencies used to broadcast our 3G and 4G networks.
Our 4G Plus network uses the 1800 & 2300 MHz frequency bands
Our 3G Plus network uses the 900 & 2100 MHz frequency bands
Components of 4G:
There are some components which makes the successful 4G systems they are:
d) Spectral efficiency of 4G
e) SDR(Software Defined Ratio)
f) Smart antennas
OFDMA(Orthogonal Frequency Demux):
It captures entire energy because of capability to absorb high no. of OFDM signal
subcarriers. Only few signals are affected or lost in OFDM while compared to CDMA in 3G.
Implementation of equalization, interference cancellation, and adaptive antenna array algorithms
is simpler in OFDM.
MIMO(Multi Input Multi Output):
To improve the communication performance between sender and receiver, the
multiple antennas are used at both transmitter and receiver end. It produces significant
performance improvement such as range, quality of received signal and spectrum
Spectral Efficiency in 4G:
The 4G wireless technology bandwidth efficiency will be measured in terms of
spectral efficiency. Spectrum efficiency describes that the amount of information that can
be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system.
There are two types of smart antennas which are switched beam smart antennas and
adaptive array smart antennas. Switched beam antenna- Based on the requirement of the
syste ,signal is received at any given time. Adaptive Antenna: Steer the signal at any
direction of interest, nullify the interfering signal.
SDR(Software Defined Ratio):
A basic SDR produces a radio that is capable of receiving and transmitting a different
form of radio protocol as per the needs just by running different software. A SDR will
allow increasing network capacity at specific time.
4G wireless technology will be using mobile IPv6 which allows assigning more
number of addresses than IPv4. In IPv6 each device have own IP address. User can keep
their IP address even if user changes the access point.
Starting at the far left, you see the individual mobile device, otherwise known as
User Equipment or UE. A UE connects over radio frequency (RF) to a tower that
transmits on the LTE spectrum. One of the most significant parts of LTE, and really
where the "Evolution" in "Long Term Evolution" comes in, is the eNodeB. Think of an
eNodeB as comprising the communications architecture that makes LTE possible,
including communications between the tower, the SGW (Serving Gateway), and the
MME (Mobility Management Entity), which is the main signaling node that deals with
registration and a lot more.
The diagram above shows you how, in LTE, the UE is connected to eNodeB, then
eNodeB is connected to MME, and so on. The PDN on the right is the Packet Data
Network, commonly known as the Internet.
3G & 4G comparison:
Thus the comparison clearly shows that 4G has overcome the drawbacks of 3G
such as low quality HD data transfer, time consuming etc.
Advantage of 4G:
Better response time. 10 times better then 3G
Works at 2.6GHz frequency
Less time to build 4G
It use the same tower and fiber cables as 3Gs - they only have to upgrade the towers with
The user will be able to receive HD streaming of video, and the data range of 4G will
be 100M/bits and 1G/bits. The main objective of 4G technology is going to be based on
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple access) modulations with MIMO
(Multiple Input Multiple Outputs) and other smart antennae enhancements
Disadvantage of 4G:
New technology which makes it more expansive than 3G
It is impossible to make our current equipment to be compatible with 4G.
It is available in certain cities within US.
Future of 4G:
This show the growth of the mobile communication generation up to 4G. Thus 4G
may evolve around 10 – 20 years.
The top 5 market for this 4G is:
The future of 4G is obviously 5G.
4G technologies was still at research stages in many of the countries however
companies like NTT Do Como, Mobile and Nortel Networks, and Nokia Siemens
Networks successfully demonstrated the working of 4G. This technology will be
deployed in the world market soon.