3g basic


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3g basic

  1. 1. UT D CS6V81 Personal Communications Systems Lecture 7 Third Generation (3G) Systems4 Information Technologies Convergence Mobility Telecom Infocom Industry Internet Industry PC-LAN PC Desk-top computing Computer Industry Mainframes Electronic publishing and entertainment Media Industry Multimedia data communications are the driving 2 force for IT convergence 1
  2. 2. Wireless Subscribers Worldwide (in millions)180016001400 Rest of World Asia Pacific1200 North America1000 European Union 800 600 400 200 Source: UMTS Forum 0 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year 3 Wireless Data Service Usage Worldwide 4 2
  3. 3. Data support in 2G systems BSC PSTN MSC BSC IWF Packet Or IP-Network Limitations of 2G Systems• Voice centric – Designed mainly for telephony application – Circuit-switched Circuit- – High BER (Bit Error Rate) – Low data bit rate (< 14.4kbps)• Two many standards globally – GSM, NA-TDMA, CDMA, PDC, PHS etc…. NA- etc…• Isolated networks – MAP based – IS-41 based IS- – Difficult to roam between these networks 6 3
  4. 4. Motivation for 3G • 1.7B wireless subscribers by 2010 projected – Exceed wireline access lines • Increasing demand for high-speed data services high- from anywhere – Exponential growth of Internet traffic • Increasing interest in multimedia services for wireless • 2G systems do not work together (usually) – Many standards – Need to converge different regional and national 2G systems 7 Wireless Networks Evolution Present Future• Narrowband • Wideband• Voice • Multimedia• Low data rate • High data rates• Circuit-switched Circuit- • Packet-switched Packet-• Multi-standards Multi- • Harmonized standards• Hierarchical, isolated • Integrated Networks networks 4
  5. 5. Third Generation History• ITU started studies of 3G systems as Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Systems (FPLMTS)• Changed to IMT-2000 (International Mobile IMT- Telecommunications for Year 2000) in 1997• To evolve and converge 2nd generation systems to support wireless multimedia – Global commercial roll-outs planned for 2001-2003 roll- 2001- 9 Third Generation Vision• Common spectrum worldwide – 1920-1980 MHz and 2110-2170 MHz 1920- 2110-• Wide range of new services – Data centric (e.g. Internet) and multimedia oriented – Data bit rates up to 2 Mb/s• Seamless global roaming• Improved security and performance• Support a variety of terminal (from PDA to desktop)• Intensive use of Intelligent Network (IN) technology 10 5
  6. 6. The 3G Environment Global Satellite Suburban Urban Micro-Cell In- Building Home-Cell Macro-Cell Pico-Cell Multimedia Terminals Global Inter-Network Roaming 11 Seamless End-to-End Service Multimedia Data Rate Requirementsbps Video 1M Internet/ High Intranet Quality Access100 k Video Medium Quality Image Slow Text Scan/ 10 k Voice Pictures P.O.S./ 1k Telemetry, SMS, E-mail 12 6
  7. 7. Coverage and Data Rate (bps) RLL 2-3 GHz (High Bit-rates) W-LAN (>5 GHz) Flexibility Variable Bit-rates & Packet (IP) 2M Asymmetric Rates 384 K Cordless Cellular/PCS++ IMT-2000 64 K Cellular/PCS+ 10 K Cellular/PCS MSS Local Wide Area 13 3G Systems Data Capabilities• Wideband “bit pipe” between communicating parties – Up to 384 kbps in wide areas – Up to 2 Mbps in limited areas• IP connectivity from end-to-end – Data (& voice) – Real-time & non real-time Real- real- .. ... IP . WWW IP ... 14 7
  8. 8. Potential 3G Applications • Interactive news delivery • Voice/CD–quality music Voice/CD– (voice, video, e-mail, e- • Multimedia e-mail e- graphics) (graphics, voice, video) • Voice/High-quality audio Voice/High- • Video conferencing • Still photography • Video • Web browser – On-line services On- • Data transmission services – Time schedules • Internet gaming – Global Positioning • Interactive audio Services/Geographical • File transfer from intranet Information Systems 15 3G Spectrum Allocation 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2010 MHzITU Allocations IMT 2000 IMT 2000 1885 MHz 2025 MHz 2110 MHz 2170 MHzEurope UMTS GSM 1800 DECT MSS UMTS MSS 1880 MHz 1980 MHz 2170 MHz 1850 MHz WLL WLL China GSM 1800 IMT 2000 MSS IMT 2000 MSS 1885 MHz 1980 MHz 1885 MHz 1918 MHz Japan MSS IMT 2000 PHS IMT 2000 MSS Korea (w/o PHS) 1895 MHz 2160 MHz PCS M North A A D B E F C A A D B E F C MSS Reserve D S America 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 16 8
  9. 9. 2G to 3G Evolution 17Who’s Who in 2G to 3G Evolution 18 9
  10. 10. CDMA Data Evolution Cdma2000 3xRTT Advanced 3G services 1xRTT up to 2 Mbps Advanced multimedia up to 384 kbpsIS-95B ISDN to 64 kbps 19 CDMA• CDMA is leading second generation air interface systems in US and Korea• cdma2000 1xRTT (Radio Transmission Technology) – uses same carrier space as IS-95 cdmaOne (1.25MHz) IS- – pushed by Qualcomm – data rates up to 307 kb/s – 2.5G• cdma2000 3xRTT – competes directly with W-CDMA W- – Multi Carrier – uses three cdmaOne carrier spaces – up to 2 Mbps 20 10
  11. 11. GSM Data Evolution Functionality IMT-2000 WCDMA EDGE GPRS GSM+ 124-171K HSCSD <115K GSM IN Circuit Data <14.4K SMS Speech Time 21 GPRS General Packet Radio Services• A data networking technology – high speed mobile data (wireless Internet) services (up to 170 kbps - in theory) – using the GSM air interface – co-exists with 2G systems such as GSM and IS- co- IS- 136• A stepping stone towards 3G systems for GSM and IS-136 networks (2.5G) IS- 11
  12. 12. GPRS Overview GPRS provides mobile subscribers with ability to connect to Public Data Networks such as IP (the Internet) or X.25 IP GPRS Network X.25GPRS Network Architecture 24 12
  13. 13. GPRS Enhanced BSC The BSC is enhanced by a Packet Control Unit (PCU) BSC SGSN GPRS Network RAN GPRS Network Architecture Two New ElementsSGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node BSC SGSN GPRSGGSN = Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS GGSN Internet 13
  14. 14. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)• External interfaces• ‘Traditional’ Gateway functionality• Subscriber address publishing IP Network• Routing GGSN X.25 Network 27 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) • Encryption, Authentication, and IMEI check • Mobility management • Logical Link management toward the MS • Billing Data IP Network • Packet routing and transfer (relay) SGSN GGSN X.25 Network 28 14
  15. 15. Backbone Network• Links GSN nodes IP Network• Standardized using IP SGSN GGSN X.25 Network Backbone (IP) Network 29 GPRS Network Reference Model PSTN MSC/VLR HLR A Gs Gr Gci Gb Gi Gn BSC SGSN GGSN PDN 15
  16. 16. GPRS Protocol StacksApplication Application IP/X.25 IP/X.25 Relay SNDCP GTP SNDCP SNDCP GTP LLC LLC UDP/ UDP/ Relay TCP TCP RLC BSSGP RLC BSSGP IP IP Network Network MAC MAC L2 L2 service Service Physical Physical L1bis L1bis L1 L1 MS Um BSS Gb SGNS Gn GGNS 31 Packet Routing in GPRS 32 16
  17. 17. GPRS Internet Connection 33 UMTS Network Architecture MAP Mobility Management UTRAN SCP SCP HLR HLR IN RNS RNS MAP MAP INAP/CAP Uu Iur ISUP NodeB NodeB I RNS RNS 3G MSC GMSC GMSC PSTN ub Iu U-MSC GTP 3G SGSN GGSN GGSN InternetRadio Access Network Core Network 3G Third Generation ISUP ISDN User Part CAMEL Customized Applications for MAP Mobile Application Part Mobile Networks Enhanced Logic MSC Mobile Switching Center CAP CAMEL Application Part Node B Base Station GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node RNC Radio Network Controller GTP GPRS Tunnel Protocol SCP Service Control Point HLR Home Location Register SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node 34 INAP Intelligent Network Application Part U-MSC UMTS Mobile Switching Centre 17
  18. 18. UMTS Protocol StacksApplication E.g., IP, E.g., IP, PPP, PPP, OSP OSP Relay Relay PDCP PDCP GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U RLC RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 L2 L2 L1 L1 ATM ATM L1 L1 Uu Iu-PS Gn Gi MS UTRAN 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN 35 UMTS Market Introduction Plan • 2000-2001 System Development Phase 1 2000- • 2002 Commercial Use Phase 1 (Basic Services) – High bit rate bearer services up to 2 Mbps – Negotiated traffic and QoS characteristics – Bursty and asymmetric traffic – Integrated or stand-alone 3G MSC & 3G SGSN stand- – Multi-vendor environment Multi- • Being delayed in Europe and in North America • Asia (Japan and Korea) is leading the world in this front • Japan‘s WCDMA and Korea‘s cdma2000 networks are Japan‘ Korea‘ deployed since Oct 2001 36 18
  19. 19. UMTS Evolution WCDMA UTRAN Circuit side MSC/VLR GMSC PSTN/ISDN BS BS Iub RNC BS (optional) HLR SCP BS RNCIur 3G-SGSN GGSN Internet WCDMA Iu Packet side (GPRS) Mobile UMTS Release 1999WCDMA/VoIP WCDMA UTRAN NEW !Mobile CS Core NEW ! BS Iub RNC BS MSC/VLR GMSC BS Iur RNC IP Multimedia Core BS SCP HLR SGW (optional) SGW BS Abis BSC CSCF CSCF PSTN/ BS IP transport ISDN BS option for SS7 MGCF BSC MGCF MGW BS MGW EDGE (GSM) BSS Iu 3G-SGSN GGSNEDGE/VoIP Enhanced PS Core InternetMobile NEW ! UMTS Release 4/5 37 R5 System Level Architecture Application servers Service SCP capability HSS CAP OSA servers Gr+ WIN MAP+ Iu-PS Iu- 3G RAN SGSN GGSN IPv6 TSGW PSTN ISUP RAS All-IP Core All- MGW RSGW Legacy WLAN, DSL, Cellular cable... MAP SIP IS-41 IS- FW H.248 CSCF MGCF MRF Internet CSCF Call State Control Function MRF Multimedia Resource Function HSS Home Subscriber Server RAS Remote Access Server (DSLAM, head end…) MGCF Media Gateway Control Function RSGW Roaming Signaling Gateway MGW Media Gateway TSGW Transport Signaling Gate 38 19
  20. 20. UMTS Domain Definitions 39 Layered Approach for Control Service Layer OSA, VHE, SCP etc. Application LayerLegacy Mobile CSCF Signaling RSGW Networks CSCF External IP MGCF Networks HSS MRF TSGW 3G- 3G- Transport 3G- 3G- MGW GGSN PSTN/ SGSN Layer External CS Networks RAS 3G RAN WLAN, DSL, Cable, etc. 40 20
  21. 21. New Function: QoS Different channel types (dedicated/common) RNC 3G-SGSN Node B Iu AAL2 PS Domain Gn connections DiffServ. Inter-PLMN 3G-GGSN on transport Backbone level IP Network Gn Data Network IPExternal QoS (Internet) Firewallmechanisms QoS infrastructure in R4 End-to-End QoS is required in R5 End- to- 41Wireless Internet Application Protocols• Wireless systems have various constraints – Small terminal display – High bit error rate• High-level protocols for Internet Access specifically for wireless systems are required• WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)• iMode 42 21
  22. 22. WAP Characteristics• Uses WML as page description language – Wireless Markup Language – Divides content into “cards” equal to one telephone cards” screen• Simplified but incompatible form of HTML• Requests and responses are encoded/decoded before transmission over RF channels 43 WAP Operation Internet Web Content Server Non Mobile Internet User WAP Gateway Mobile Terminal Mobile Database Network Server WAP simulator SOURCE: DANET 44 22
  23. 23. WWW Programming Model 45WAP Programming Model 46 23
  24. 24. iMode• A service of NTT DoCoMo in Japan – ドコモ means “anywhere” anywhere” – More than 18 Millions user (Jan 2001), 50,000 new user every day• Japan is the wireless Internet leader thank to iMode SOURCE: EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN K.K. 47 iMode Characteristics • Use packet data on radio transport – Currently slow - 9.6 Kbps – 3G will raise to 384 K • Uses cHTML (compact HTML) – same rendering model as HTML – no tables or frames – low memory footprint • Services: – telephony, SMS, email, location tracking – Internet browsing for banking and ticketing – Gaming • More information on I-Mode: I- http://www.privateline.com/imode/imode.htm http://www.privateline.com/imode/imode.htm 48 24
  25. 25. iMode Operation iMode INFO ServersPROVIDER HTTP PACKET DATA BILLING DoCoMo DB INTERNET Packet Network IP USER (PDC-P) DB (PDC- IP 49 25