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4 G

  1. 1. Fourth generation of wireless network Submitted by: Utkarsh Bhargava 06ESBEC109 B.Tech 4 th year, 8 th sem 4G
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>4G (also known as beyond 3G), an abbreviation of fourth generation , is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. </li></ul><ul><li>The international telecommunication regulatory and standardization bodies are working for commercial deployment of 4G networks roughly in the 2011-2015 time scale. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Wireless System Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>4G Mobile Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed? </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future? </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  4. 4. WIRELESS SYSTEM EVOLUTION <ul><li>1G </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in the early 1980s and completed in early 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Analog signals with the speed up to 2.4kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Voice was main traffic </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2G </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1980s and finished in 2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Digital signal with up to 64kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Voice transmission and SMS </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3G </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1990s to late 2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission speed from 125kbps to 2Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Based on either circuit switching or packet switching </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4G </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from late 2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission speed from 100Mbps to 1Gbps </li></ul><ul><li>Only packet switched networks </li></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. What is 4G anyway? <ul><li>The next generation of wireless technology that promises higher data rates and expanded multimedia services. </li></ul><ul><li>A completely new fully IP-based integrated system or systems and network of networks achieved after convergence of wired and wireless networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable to provide 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps , respectively in outdoor and indoor environments </li></ul><ul><li>End-to-end QoS and high security . </li></ul><ul><li>Any kind of services at any time as per user requirements, anywhere with seamless interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Always on, affordable cost , one billing and fully personalized . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed? <ul><li>Needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Need global mobility and service portability </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multimedia services requirements, together with the coexistence of different services needing different QoS . </li></ul><ul><li>Need wider bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and data capability. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Objectives <ul><li>A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site) </li></ul><ul><li>High network capacity : more simultaneous users per cell </li></ul><ul><li>A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R </li></ul><ul><li>A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability with existing wireless standards and </li></ul>
  13. 13. Generation Overview Technology 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G First design 1970 1980 1985 1990 2000 Implementation 1982 1991 1999 2002 2010? Service Analog voice Digital voice, SMS Packaged data Broadband data up to 2 mb/s IP-oriented unlimited multimedia data Standards AMPS TDMA, CDMA, GSM GPRS, EDGE W-CDMA, HSOPA WiMAX, HSOPA Data bandwidth 1.9 kbps 14.4 kbps 384 kbps 2 mbps 200 mbps
  14. 14. Comparisons of 4G with 3G Mobile Technologies Major requirement driving architecture  3G (Including 2.5G, Sub3G) 4G   Predominantly voice driven; data was always add on  Converged data and voice over IP Network Architecture  Wide area cell-based  Hybrid: Integration of wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area Speeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps  20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode  Frequency Band  Dependent on country or continent (1800 ‐ 2400 MHz)  Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)  Bandwidth  5-20 MHz  100 MHz (or more) 
  15. 15. All digital with packetized voice  Circuit and Packet  Switching Design Basis  OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA)  W-CDMA Access Technologies  Major requirement driving architecture  3G (Including 2.5G,  Sub3G) 4G Component Design  Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters  Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios  IP   A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0   All IP (IPv6)  Standard WCDMA, CDMA2000 Single Standard Multiplexing CDMA CDMA Core Network Packet Network Internet
  16. 16. Principal Technologies <ul><li>Base band techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDMA : To exploit the frequency selective channel property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIMO : To attain ultra high spectral efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radio interface </li></ul><ul><li>Modulation, spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO </li></ul>
  17. 17. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) <ul><li>Transmission technique based on FDM </li></ul><ul><li>In FDM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple signals are sent out at the same time, but on different frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In OFDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single transmitter transmits on many different orthogonal (independent) frequencies (typically dozens to thousands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequencies closely spaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each only has room for Narrowband signal </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM ) <ul><li>Advantage of OFDM </li></ul><ul><li>High spectrum efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance against multipath interference </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of filtering out noise </li></ul><ul><li>Combining OFDM technique with other techniques (possible to achieve more advantages e.g. MC-CDMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of OFDM </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers from time-variations in the channel : severely degrades performance </li></ul><ul><li>Circuitry must be very linear </li></ul>
  19. 19. Components – IPV6 <ul><li>In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. </li></ul><ul><li>By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT). </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multicast, security , and route optimization capabilities. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Components - Advanced Antenna Systems <ul><li>Transmitting & receiving antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require increase power or additional frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Fix no. of beams that can be selected to follow devices as it moves about </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less power use for transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in handoff rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase security </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future? <ul><li>Lower Price Points Only Slightly Higher than Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>More Coordination Among Spectrum Regulators Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>More Academic Research </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of wireless networks </li></ul><ul><li>A Voice-independent Business Justification Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Integration Across Different Network Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-disruptive or proper Implementation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Applications <ul><li>• E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>• Business/Work </li></ul><ul><li>• Private Life </li></ul><ul><li>• Vehicular </li></ul><ul><li>• Public Place </li></ul><ul><li>• Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>• Education </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  23. 23. THANK YOU