4G technology

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4G technology

  1. 1. 4G Technology Presented By Arun V
  2. 2. 4G Definition <ul><li>4G is not one defined technology or standard, but rather a collection of technologies at creating fully packet-switched networks optimized for data. </li></ul><ul><li>4G Networks are projected to provide speed of 100Mbps while moving and 1Gbps while stationary. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 0G (Zero Generation Mobile System) <ul><li>At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1960’s, a system launched by Bell Systems, called, Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1G Technology <ul><li>1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology was developed in 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>1G had two major improvements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the invention of the microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analog signal </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2G Technology <ul><li>Around 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality & capacity - More people could use there phones at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signals – consist of 0’s & 1’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. Previous Technology - 2G <ul><li>Digital – consist of 0’s and 1’s </li></ul><ul><li>Digital signal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Low level, 2.High level, 3.Rising edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and 4.Falling edge </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Previous Technology - 2G <ul><li>Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplexing -multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal </li></ul><ul><li>For 1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6 Kbit/sec, (I.E) approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN </li></ul>
  8. 8. Previous Technology - 2G <ul><li>Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery </li></ul><ul><li>Power–CODEC introduction -program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translates data from digital to analog and vice versa </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Previous Technology - 2G
  10. 10. Advantages in Previous Technology - 2G <ul><li>The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase sound quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowers the noise level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS –“short message service” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Disadvantages in Previous Technology - 2G <ul><li>Cell towers had a limited coverage area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jagged Decay curve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abrupt dropped calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analog –gradual sound reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Spotty” coverage </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3G Technology <ul><li>Large capacity and broadband capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Increased spectrum efficiency –5Mhz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G–Global roaming </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Previous Technology - 3G <ul><li>CDMA –Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of multiplexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Code Division Multiple Access
  15. 15. Types of Multiplexing <ul><li>FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Multiplexing <ul><li>TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and &quot;takes turns&quot; being transmitted </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Multiplexing <ul><li>CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Reasons for New Research <ul><li>Even though 3G has successfully been introduced to mobile users, there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High input fees for the 3G service licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great differences in the licensing terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G phones are expensive </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Fourth Generation
  20. 20. What is 4G? <ul><li>Fourth Generation Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster and more reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Mb/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost than previous generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-standard wireless system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad Hoc Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDM used instead of CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most information is proprietary </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Communications Architecture <ul><li>Broadcast layer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fix access points, (i.e.) cell tower connected by fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wireless LANs (i.e. internet at Starbuck’s) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Communications Architecture <ul><li>Personal Layer Gateway: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>devices that connect to upper layers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Info-Sensor layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic wire layer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Ad Hoc Networks <ul><ul><li>Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily connected to internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of mesh networking–Very reliable </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Enhance Mobile Gaming <ul><li>Experience enhance wireless capabilities that deliver mobile gaming interaction with less than five seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Play online multi player games while traveling at high speeds or sitting outside </li></ul>
  25. 25. Broadband access in Remote location <ul><li>4G will provide a wireless alternative for broadband access </li></ul><ul><li>I will provide first opportunity for broadband access in remote locations without an infrastructure to support cable or DSL access. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thanking You

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