CONTENT TITLE PAGE NO. 1. OBJECTIVE 2. What is 4G? 3. KEY 4G TECHNOLOGIES Communications Architecture Ad Hoc Networks Smart Antennas MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE –OUTPUT SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Mobile IPv6 OFDM 4. FUTURE SCOPE OF 4G APPLICATIONS Socio-Economic Impact 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
OBJECTIVE4G (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for FourthGeneration, is a term used to describe the next completeevolution in wireless communications.A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IPsolution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can begiven to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and athigher data rates than previous generations.The term 4G is used broadly to include several types ofbroadband wireless access communication systems, notonly cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used todescribe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia, anytimeanywhere, Global mobility support, integrated wirelesssolution, and customized personal service.
What is 4G?The term 4G is used broadly to include several types ofbroadband wireless access communication systems, not onlycellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobilemultimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support,integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service.As a promise for the future, 4G systems, that is, cellularbroadband wireless access systems have been attracting muchinterest in the mobile communication arena.The 4G systems not only will support the next generation ofmobile service, but also will support the fixed wirelessnetworks.This paper presents an overall vision of the 4G features,framework, and integration of mobile communication.The features of 4G systems might be summarized with oneword- Integration; the 4G systems are about seamlesslyintegrating terminals, networks, and applications to satisfyincreasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobilecommunication and wireless networks shows evidence ofexceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber, wirelessnetwork access, mobile services, and applications.
KEY 4G TECHNOLOGIESCommunications Architecture•Broadcast layer: fix access points, (i.e. cell tower) connectedby fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP)•Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer: wireless LANs (i.e. internet)•Personal Layer Gateway: devices that connect to upperlayers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs•Info-Sensor layer: environmental sensors•Fiber-optic wire layer: high speed subterranean labyrinth offiber optic cables and repeaters
Ad Hoc Networks•Spontaneous self organization of networks ofdevices•Not necessarily connected to internet•4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hocnetworks•Form of mesh networking–Very reliable
Smart AntennasMultiple “smart antennas” can be employed to help find, tune,and turn up signal information. Since the antennas can both“listen” and “talk,” a smart antenna can send signals back in thesame direction that they came from. This means that the antennasystem cannot only hear many times louder, but can alsorespond more loudly and directly as well.There are two types of smart antennas:Switched Beam Antennas have fixed beams of transmission,and can switch from one predefined beam to another when theuser with the phone moves throughout the sectorAdaptive Array Antennas represent the most advanced smartantenna approach to date using a variety of new signalprocessing algorithms to locate and track the user, minimizeinterference, and maximize intended signal reception.Smart antennas can thereby:• Optimize available power• Increase base station range and coverage• Reuse available spectrum• Increase bandwidth• Lengthen battery life of wireless devices
MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE –OUTPUTMIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmittingantennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. It is wellsuited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent timesymbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designedfor the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifiesprocessing. The signal transmitted by m antennas is received byn antennas.Processing of the received signals may deliver severalperformances improvements: range, quality of received signaland spectrum efficiency. In principle, MIMO is more efficientwhen many multiple path signals are received. The performancein cellular deployments is still subject to research andsimulations.However, it is generally admitted that the gain in spectrumefficiency is directly related to the minimum number of antennasin the link.
Software Defined RadioA software defined radio is one that can be configured to anyradio or frequency standard through the use of software. Forexample, if one was a subscriber of Sprint and moved into anarea where Sprint did not have service, but Cingular did, thephone would automatically switch from operating on a CDMAfrequency to a TDMA frequency. In addition, if a new standardwere to be created, the phone would be able to support that newstandard with a simple software update. With current phones,this is impossible.A software defined radio in the context of 4G would be able towork on different broadband networks and would be able totransfer to another network seamlessly while traveling outside ofthe user’s home network.A software defined radio’s best advantage is its great flexibilityto be programmed for emerging wireless standards. It can bedynamically updated with new software without any changes inhardware and infrastructure. Roaming can be an issue withdifferent standards, but with a software defined radio, users canjust download the interface upon entering new territory, or thesoftware could just download automatically.
Mobile IPv6The next generation addressing system uses the Internet Protocolversion 6 (IPv6) to locate devices. IPv6 has a much largeraddress space. Its addresses take the form x: x: x: x: x: x: x: xwhere each x is the hexadecimal value that makes up one eighthof the address. An example of this is:FEDC: BA98:7654:3210: FEDC: BA98:7654:3210 (TheInternet Engineering Task Force Network Working Group).Using this address format, there is room for approximately3.40*10^38 unique addresses. This is approximately 8.05*10^28times as large as the IPv4 address space and should have roomfor all wired and wireless devices, as well as room for all of theforeseeable expansion in several lifetimes. There are enoughaddresses for every phone to have a unique address. Thus, phonein the future can use VoIP over the Internet instead ofcontinuing to use their existing network.
OFDMAOrthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) not onlyprovides clear advantages for physical layer performance, butalso a framework for improving layer 2 performance byproposing an additional degree of freedom.Using ODFM, it is possible to exploit the time domain, thespace domain, the frequency domain and even the code domainto optimize radio channel usage. It ensures very robusttransmission in multi-path environments with reduced receivercomplexity.OFDM also provides a frequency diversity gain, improving thephysical layer performance .It is also compatible with otherenhancement Technologies, such as smart antennas and MIMO.OFDM modulation can also be employed as a multiple accesstechnology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access;OFDMA).In this case, each OFDM symbol can transmit informationto/from several users using a different set of sub carriers (subchannels). This not only provides additional flexibility forresource allocation (increasing the capacity), but also enablescross-layer optimization of radio link usage.
How OFDM WorksAbove, binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The phase of the sin wave changes torepresent a different bit.Frequency of the previous wave
How OFDM WorksThe frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interferewith each other (no cross talk)Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiplesignals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to onedeviceParallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiplesignals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to onedevice–Each transmission has a different stream of bits
FUTURE SCOPE OF 4GAs the history of mobile communications shows, attempts havebeen made to reduce a number of technologies to a single globalstandard. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standardthat can be embraced worldwide through its key concept ofintegration. Future wireless networks will need to supportdiverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resourcesamong multiple users. There must be a low complexity ofimplementation and an efficient means of negotiation betweenthe end users and the wireless infrastructure.The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC(personal computing and communication)—a vision thataffordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wirelessnetwork.APPLICATIONSThe different application areas of 4G are as follows: VIRTUAL NAVIGATION TELE-GEOPROCESSING APPLICATIONS TELE-MEDICINE AND EDUCATION CRISIS MANAGEMENT MULTIMEDIA – VIDEO SERVICES
BIBLIOGRAPHYThe following is the list of resources referred to during thecreation of this seminar Report.• www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G• www.4g.co.uk• www.uscwc.com/4GReport• www.four-g.net/