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  1. 1. Language and Society<br />Bilinguals and Bilingualism<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Bilingualism<br />Why do we study bilingualism?<br />A large proportion of the world’s population knows and uses more than one language on a regular basis. Multilingualism is the norm. More than 140 languages are spoken in Manchester. Language planning (social and educational policy) is a political issue often based on academic research.<br />The following slides show the increase in population of hispanics/latinos/as in the US since 1970. The increase has had a marked effect on discussions of bilingualism in the US.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Hispanic Population in the United States: 1970 to 2050<br />Population in millions<br />Projections<br />Census <br />*Projected Population as of July 1<br />Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Decennial Censuses; PopulationProjections, July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2050<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Percent Hispanic of the Total Population in the United States: 1970 to 2050<br />Projections<br />Census <br />*Projected Population as of July 1<br />Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Decennial Censuses; PopulationProjections, July 1, 2010 to July 1, 2050<br />
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  9. 9. Bilingualism<br />Topics in bilingualism<br />Who is bilingual? What is a native language?<br />How does a child acquire two languages?<br />How does bilingualism influence a human being’s intellectual and mental growth?<br />When and how should we learn a second language?<br />Does a bilingual’s brain function differently from a monolingual’s brain?<br />How and when do bilinguals switch from one language to the other?<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Bilingualism<br />True or False?<br />Learning more than one language confuses a child and lowers his/her IQ?<br />A child should learn one language properly before learning a second one.<br />A person cannot be a real bilingual if he learns a second language late.<br />Bilinguals have to translate from their weaker to their stronger language.<br />Learning two languages may cause cultural identity problems for a child.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Bilingualism<br />Approaches<br />Linguistics – studies the structure and development of the two languages<br />Psycholinguistics – studies the psychological basis of bilingual’s language competence and performance<br />Sociolinguistics – looks at how cultures/social groups affect language performance and language choice<br />Neurolinguistics – studies the relationship between language and the brain<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Definitions<br />Individual bilingualism vs Societal bilingualism<br />Bilingualism as an individual attribute: a psychological state of an individual who has access to two language codes to serve communication purposes.<br />Bilingualism as a societal attribute: two languages are used in a community and that a number of individuals can use two languages.<br />Should bilingualism be defined at an individual or a societal level?<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Definitions<br />5 dimensions<br />Cognitive organisation of two languages<br />Age of acquisition<br />Language proficiency<br />Sequence of acquisition of two languages<br />Societal factors<br />13<br />Individual characteristics<br />
  14. 14. Compound vs. Coordinate Bilinguals<br />Compound bilingual: <br />Has one semantic system but two linguistic codes. Usually refers to someone whose two languages are learnt at the same time, often in the same context.<br />Coordinate bilingual:<br />Has two semantic systems and two linguistic codes. Usually refers to someone whose two languages are learnt in distinctively separate contexts<br />Subordinate bilingual:<br />The weaker language is interpreted through the stronger language<br />14<br />
  15. 15. The mental lexicon of monolinguals<br />15<br />
  16. 16. The mental lexicon of bilinguals<br />16<br />Semantic <br />System 1<br />Semantic <br />System 2<br />Semantic system<br />English<br />Spanish<br />English<br />Spanish<br />Compound bilingual<br />Coordinate bilingual<br />
  17. 17. The mental lexicon of bilinguals<br />17<br />Semantic system<br />English<br />Spanish<br />Subordinate bilingual<br />
  18. 18. The mental lexicon of bilinguals<br />18<br />Semantic <br />System 2<br />Semantic <br />System 2<br />Semantic <br />System 1<br />Semantic <br />System 1<br />English<br />Spanish<br />English<br />Spanish<br />
  19. 19. The mental lexicon of bilinguals<br />Whether there are two or more systems depends on:<br />Age of acquisition<br />Learning/teaching method<br />Similarities and differences between the two languages<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Early vs. Late bilinguals<br />Early bilingual:<br />someone who has acquired two languages early in childhood (usually received systematic training/learning of a second language before age 6).<br />Late bilingual: <br />someone who has become a bilingual later than childhood (after age 12).<br />Discussion: Is there a “critical period” for second language learning?<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Early vs. Late bilinguals<br />21<br />How do we determine the age of acquisition?<br />
  22. 22. Balanced vs. Dominant bilinguals<br />Balanced bilingual: <br />someone whose mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent.<br />Dominant bilingual: <br />someone with greater proficiency in one of his or her languages and uses it significantly more than the other language.<br />Semilingual: <br />someone with insufficient knowledge of either language.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals<br />Successive bilingualism: <br />Learning one language after already knowing another. This is the situation for all those who become bilingual as adults, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life. Sometimes also called consecutive bilingualism.<br />Simultaneous bilingualism: <br />Learning two languages as "first languages". That is, a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Infants who are exposed to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.<br />Receptive bilingualism: <br />Being able to understand two languages but express oneself in only one. This is generally not considered "true" bilingualism but is a fairly common situation.<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Additive vs. Subtractive bilinguals<br />Additive bilingual: <br />The learning of a second language does not interfere with the learning of a first language. Both languages are well developed.<br />Subtractive bilingual: <br />The learning a second language interferes with the learning of a first language. The second language replaces the first language.<br />Additive or subtractive bilingualism is related to the different status associated with the two languages in a society.<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Elite vs. Folk bilinguals<br />Elite bilingual: <br />Individuals who choose to have a bilingual home, often in order to enhance social status.<br />Folk bilingual: <br />Individuals who develop second language capacity under circumstances that are not often of their own choosing, and in conditions where the society does not value their native language.<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Summary: Definitions<br />Coordinate vs. Compound bilingualism <br />Early vs. Late bilingualism <br />Balanced vs. Dominant bilingualism <br />Simultaneous vs. Successive bilingualism<br />Additive vs. Subtractive bilingualism <br />Elite vs. Folk bilingualism<br />26<br />