REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELAMINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIORUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL SIMÓN RODRÍGUEZNÚCLEO: PALO VERDECURSE: PSYCHOLINGUISTICSSTUDENTS’NAMES:STUDENTS’NAMES:BARCENAS TERESITABARCENAS TERESITAPACHECO MAIGUALIDAPACHECO MAIGUALIDA
INTRODUCTIONSince a bicycle has two wheels andbinoculars are for two eyes, it wouldthat bilingualism of two languages.The aim of this example is to show thatthe ownership of two languages is notso simple as having two wheels or twoeyes.
BILINGUALISMIt is the habitual useof two languages inthe same region or bythe same person.It is the habitual useof two languages inthe same region or bythe same person.Bilingual speaker is hewho has a nativecontrol of two or morelanguages.Bilingual speaker is hewho has a nativecontrol of two or morelanguages.
BILINGUALISMAccording to Yohansem:A bilingual person can bedefined as someone who isable to speak twolanguages perfectly.According to Yohansem:A bilingual person can bedefined as someone who isable to speak twolanguages perfectly."Bilingual is a person whois able to encode anddecode at any level,linguistic signals fromtwo different languages“Blanco, A. 1981, p. 51."Bilingual is a person whois able to encode anddecode at any level,linguistic signals fromtwo different languages“Blanco, A. 1981, p. 51.
BILINGUALISM &MULTILINGUALISMCan be examinated aspossession of the individual.Can be examinated aspossession of the individual.Are normallyfound in groups.Are normallyfound in groups.Located in a particularregion: (E.g. Catalansin Spain).Located in a particularregion: (E.g. Catalansin Spain).Or may be scatteredacross communities(e.g. Chinese in theUS).Or may be scatteredacross communities(e.g. Chinese in theUS).
BILINGUAL ABILITYThe Four Language AbilitiesListeningListeningSpeakingSpeakingReadingReadingWritingWriting
BILINGUAL ABILITYA Fifth Language CompetenceLanguageLanguageUsed forUsed forThinkingThinking
Someone who is approximately equallyfluent in two languages across varioscontexts may be termed an equilingual orambilingual or, more commonly, aBalanced Bilingual.
SEMILINGUALISMSemilingualism is a phenomenon, which relates tounderdevelopment of language in individual.It has been first described in 1920s by Bloomfield,And later defined in 1960s by Hansegard.
Hansegard described semilingualism in terms of deficits in sixlanguage competences:Size of vocabularyIn grammatical correctnessUnconscious processing of language (automatism)Language creationMastery of the functions of languageMeanings and imagery.
CONVERSATIONAL FLUENCYIt’s when you are capable of having a conversationabout normal everyday things with a native speaker ata normal conversational rate of speed-things in thenews, sports, buying clothes, making jokes, etc.,
ACADEMIC LANGUAGE COMPETENCEIt is a factor strongly associated with school achievement.This type of language and literacy competence isacquired primarily through exposure to written language,or to oral forms of discourse .Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)It used in everyday communicative encounters and isdescribed as being more context embedded.
Cognitive/academic Language Proficiency (CALP)It involves the use of a more context-reduced languageassociated the more formal aspect of classroom andlecture-type language use which are typical of thelearning context.
Cognitive Processes Language ProficiencyCONVERSATIONAL PROFICIENCYSURFACECOGNITIVE / ACADEMIC PROFICIENCYKnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluationPronunciationVocabularyGrammarSemantic MeaningFunctional meaning
INDIVIDUAL’S USE OF BILINGUALISM0It involves the ability of an individual to acquare and use asecond language.An individual’s use the bilingual ability is called FunctionalBilingualism, which requires the study of five actions:Who is the subject?/ who is the speaker?Who is the language target?/ who is the listener?What is the situation? (in the factory, classroom, etc.,)What is the topic a conversation? (sport, work, food)For what purpose?...To what effect?
INDIVIDUAL’S USE OF BILINGUALISMEXAMPLES OF LANGUAGE TARGETS EXAMPLES OF LANGUAGE CONTEXTS(DOMAINS)1.- Nuclear Family 1.- Shopping2.- Extended Family 2.- Visual and Auditory Media (e.g TV,Radio, Recodrs, Cassettes, Cds, Video)3.- Work Colleagues 3.- Printed Media (Newspapers, Books).4.- Friends 4.- Cinema/Discos/Theatre/ Concerts5.- Neighbors 5.- Work6.-Religious Leaders 6.- Correpondence/ Telephone/ OfficialCommunication.7.- Teachers 7.- Clubs, Societies, Organizations,Sporting activity.8.- Presidents, Principals, Other Leaders 8.- Leisure & hobbies9.- Bureaucrats 9.- Religious Meetings10.- Local Community 10.- Information technology (e.gComputers)
SOME POTENCIAL ADVANTAGES OFBILINGUALISM1.- Advantages during communication:a wider communication fieldliteracy in two languages2. Cultural advantages:deeper multiculturalismbilingual experiencesgreater tolerance towards minoritiesLess inclination towards racism3.- Development of cognitive abilities:the development of thoughtcreativitysensitivity in communication
SOME POTENCIAL ADVANTAGES OFBILINGUALISM4.- Personality development:reinforcement of self-esteemself-confidencesecure identity5.- Advantages in the sphere of education:increased possibilities of receiving a higher educationeasier to learn a third language6.- Economic advantages:a wider ranger of possibilities on the jobs market