RECENT POLICY AND CURRICULAR REFORMS IN COLOMBIALey General de Educación (1994) “The acquisition of elements of conversation and reading in at least one foreign language” (Article 21, m)Lineamientos Curriculares: Idiomas Extranjeros (MEN, 1999)Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) (2004-2019)Estándares Básicos de Competencia en Lenguas Extranjeras: Inglés (2006)Common European Framework (CEF) to measure proficiency of teachers and learners (2004)
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE?Learning a second language provides anumber of advantages, not only for theindividual, but society itself.COMMUNICATION ADVANTAGESWider communication (extended family,community, international links,employment)Literacy in two languages.
CULTURAL ADVANTAGESBroader cultural understanding and multicultural sensitivity,“two language worlds of experience” (Baker, 2000)Greater tolerance and social harmonyCOGNITIVE ADVANTAGESThinking benefits (creativity, sensitivity to communication)Greater problem-solving and analytical skillsPERSONAL ADVANTAGESRaised self-esteemFlexibility and adaptabilityConfidence in social interactionsGreater interpersonal skillsCURRICULUM ADVANTAGESConceptual development in two languagesTransfer of academic skills across two languages.Collaborative and cooperative learning
Bilingualism Definition Maximalist Minimalist FunctionalThe almost native To have linguistic To use 2 or morecontrol of two abilities even in a languages in daily life,languages minimal way over regular basesBloomfield, 1935 Macnamara, 1969 Grossjean, 1982 “Bilingualism as a countenance” (Hornberger 1989)
Intensification Bilingual• Subject (English) • Curriculum is articulated through the 2 languages• 10 Hours (content – language) • Language as a “resource”• Language as an aim • Content is a way to• Foreign language teachers acquire the language • Bilingual subjects –• “Trained teachers” Specialists • “no trained teachers”
Bilingualism- Bilingualism as a social phenomenon- Societal bilingualism- Bilingualism as an element of cross cultural communication or conflictBilinguality-Bilingualism as an individual phenomenon-Individual bilingualism-Effects of bilingualism on mental processes
SOCIETAL BILINGUALISMInterdisciplinary nature of bilingualismLanguages in contactCommon occurence of bilingualismDomains of language useDiglossiaLanguage shift
INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISM• More than the sum of two monolinguals (Grosjean, 1985)• Degree of bilingualism• Language as a tool of cognitive functioning• Influence of feedback mechanisms• Codeswitching in bilingual development development
DEFINITIONS OF BILINGUALISMDefinitions based on levels of proficiency (maximal and minimal) -balanced bilinguals -semilingualsDefinitions based on use (functional) -conversational fluency (BICS) -academic language competence (CALP)
CONCLUSIONS What can we formulate about bilingualism inColombia and our institutions?
TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS Total immersion program% of 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50Lge 0grade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS 2 Partial immersion program% of 75 75 75 75 75 75 50 50 50 50 50 50Lgegrade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
BILINGUAL HYBRID PROGRAM% of 50 50 50 50 50 50 Intensfication program (withLge emphasis)grade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM Team teaching strategyPreview-review methodologyBilingual contexts Activities Scenarios
1.The Common Underlying Proficiency Theory 2.Context Embedded and Context Reduced Communication(Cummins, 1981)
THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY (THE ICEBERG ANALOGY)
CONTEXT EMBEDDED AND CONTEXT REDUCED COMMUNICATIONContext embedded communication exists when there is a good degree of contextual support in communications, e.g. body language, gestures, intonation etc.Context reduced communication there are very few clues to meaning outside language.
Development of context embedded second language fluency Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of contexts-embedded language proficiency Monolingual childLevel oflanguageproficiency Second language learner Length of time
Development of context-reduced fluency. Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of contexts-reduced language proficiencyLevel of Monolinguallanguage childproficiency Second language learner Length of time
Taken from Castillo (2009) based on Cummins (1984)BICS Basic Interpersonal No demandanteCommunication Skills cognitivamenteTareas simples, mecánicas,Especialmente útil paraestudiantes con dificultades Ejercicios repetitivos como planas, dictados, desprovistos de contexto, poco significativos y poco Los estudiantes demandantes a nivel cognitivo. Bilingües deben ser llevados a lo largo de este eje Reducida en para asegurar laApoyada en contexto comprensióncontexto CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Los estudiantes deben siempre tener tareas en este cuadrante. Los estudiantes bilingües (Escritura de textos) necesitan la mayor cantidad de Cognitivamente trabajo acá de manera que se Demandante asegure la comprensión mediante procesos concretos y ricos en contexto
DEFINITION OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION“Bilingual education…a program where twolanguages are used equally as media ofinstruction” (Romaine, 1989:216)
“The basic idea underlying immersion, a notionborrowed from communicative language learningtheory, is that by using the target language as alanguage of communication in authentic situations,such as subject-matter instruction or any other formof teacher-student or student-studentcommunication outside strictly instructionalcontexts, students’ acquisition of the target languagewill be improved” (Heller,1990:73)
“Content based language teaching is anapproach to second language instructionthat involves the use of a secondlanguage to learn or practise content” (Met, 1998:35).
CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING: A CONTINUUM OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATIONContent-driven Language-drivenTotal immersion Partial immersion Subject courses Subject courses/language teaching Language classes based on thematic units Language classes/use of content for language practice
COMMON MYTHS ABOUT BILINGUAL SCHOOLS`True` bilingual schools have everything (or nearly everything) taught in the foreign language – EnglishAfter a short time, children will develop into “balanced bilinguals”; “two monolinguals in one person” (Grosjean, 1985: 467)Schools that employ native speakers of English as teachers are better than schools that hire bilingual Colombian teachers.
“As a result of globalisation and widespread use ofEnglish worldwide, the term ‘bilingüismo’ has acquireda different meaning in the Colombian context. It isused by many . . . to refer almost exclusively toSpanish/English bilingualism. . ”“The teaching of other modern languages (e.g.French . . .) has also been undermined by the spread ofEnglish and by people’s increasing desire to ‘invest’ inEnglish” (Valencia, 2005:1)
NATIVE SPEAKERSHiring native speakers as teachers is more expensive and may lead to difficulties in training teachers and equipping classroomsNative speaker accents may seem too remote from the people learners expect to communicate withNative speakers may not possess some of the skills required by bilingual speakers, such as those of translation and interpretingMany countries are revaluing the importance of hiring native speakers of English as teachers due to changing needs and aspirations of learners
ADVANTAGES OF LATE BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMESOlder learners have the benefit of a well-developed L1Older learners have the benefit of well-developed literacy skills in their L1 which can facilitate the transfer of L2 literacy skills (Cummins, 2000)Self selection- student who voluntary choose bilingual education at secondary level are likely to be highly self-motivated and academically capableOlder learners learn more in a given unit of time than younger learners, probably because of their superior academic, cognitive and meta-linguistic ability (Carey, 1984; MacLaughlin, 1982; Fathman, 1975)