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BILINGUALISM   Enrique Arias
               Castaño
RECENT POLICY AND CURRICULAR REFORMS
              IN COLOMBIA

Ley General de Educación (1994)

 “The acquisition of elements of conversation and reading in
  at least one foreign language” (Article 21, m)

Lineamientos Curriculares: Idiomas Extranjeros (MEN, 1999)

Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) (2004-2019)

Estándares Básicos de Competencia en Lenguas Extranjeras: Inglés
  (2006)

Common European Framework (CEF) to measure proficiency of teachers
 and learners (2004)
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF
   LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE?

Learning a second language provides a
number of advantages, not only for the
individual, but society itself.


COMMUNICATION ADVANTAGES
Wider communication (extended family,
community, international links,
employment)
Literacy in two languages.
CULTURAL ADVANTAGES
Broader cultural understanding and multicultural sensitivity,
“two language worlds of experience” (Baker, 2000)
Greater tolerance and social harmony
COGNITIVE ADVANTAGES
Thinking benefits (creativity, sensitivity to communication)
Greater problem-solving and analytical skills
PERSONAL ADVANTAGES
Raised self-esteem
Flexibility and adaptability
Confidence in social interactions
Greater interpersonal skills
CURRICULUM ADVANTAGES
Conceptual development in two languages
Transfer of academic skills across two languages.
Collaborative and cooperative learning
CONSIGA EL
MEJOR
PUESTO
1st session bilingualism
1st session bilingualism
Bilingualism



                               Definition



     Maximalist                Minimalist                 Functional



The almost native         To have linguistic         To use 2 or more
control     of   two      abilities even in a        languages in daily life,
languages                 minimal way                over regular bases
Bloomfield, 1935          Macnamara, 1969
                                                     Grossjean, 1982




                       “Bilingualism as a countenance”
                             (Hornberger 1989)
Intensification               Bilingual
• Subject (English)           • Curriculum is articulated
                                through the 2 languages
• 10 Hours                      (content – language)
                              • Language as a “resource”
• Language as an aim

                              • Content is a way to
• Foreign language teachers
                                acquire the language
                              • Bilingual subjects –
• “Trained teachers”            Specialists
                              • “no trained teachers”
Bilingualism
- Bilingualism as a social phenomenon
- Societal bilingualism
- Bilingualism as an element of cross cultural communication
  or conflict

Bilinguality
-Bilingualism as an individual phenomenon
-Individual bilingualism
-Effects of bilingualism on mental processes
SOCIETAL BILINGUALISM

Interdisciplinary nature of bilingualism
Languages in contact
Common occurence of bilingualism
Domains of language use
Diglossia
Language shift
INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISM

• More than the sum of two
  monolinguals (Grosjean, 1985)
• Degree of bilingualism
• Language as a tool of cognitive
  functioning
• Influence of feedback mechanisms
• Codeswitching in bilingual
  development development
DEFINITIONS OF BILINGUALISM
Definitions based on levels of proficiency

 (maximal and minimal)
 -balanced bilinguals
 -semilinguals

Definitions based on use (functional)

 -conversational fluency (BICS)
 -academic language competence (CALP)
CONCLUSIONS

   What can we
 formulate about
  bilingualism in
Colombia and our
   institutions?
TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS

  Total immersion program
% of    10    100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50                    50   50
Lge     0
grade   pre   1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th   6th   7th   8th   9th   10th 11th




                          Bilingual process
TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS 2


 Partial immersion program

% of   75   75    75    75    75    75    50    50    50    50    50   50
Lge
grade pre   1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th   6th   7th   8th   9th   10th 11th




                        Bilingual process
BILINGUAL HYBRID PROGRAM



% of   50    50    50    50    50    50    Intensfication program (with
Lge                                        emphasis)
grade pre    1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th   6th   7th   8th   9th   10th 11th




            Bilingual process
EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM
 Team teaching strategy

Preview-review methodology

Bilingual contexts
 Activities
 Scenarios
1st session bilingualism
1.The Common Underlying Proficiency
    Theory

 2.Context Embedded and      Context
    Reduced Communication

(Cummins, 1981)
THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY
   THEORY (THE ICEBERG ANALOGY)
CONTEXT EMBEDDED AND CONTEXT REDUCED
            COMMUNICATION


Context embedded communication exists when
 there is a good degree of contextual support in
 communications, e.g. body language, gestures,
 intonation etc.

Context reduced communication there are very
 few clues to meaning outside language.
Development of context embedded
        second language fluency
              Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of
              contexts-embedded language proficiency
                                                        Monolingual
                                                        child
Level of
language
proficiency


                            Second language
                            learner




                           Length of time
Development of context-reduced
                fluency.
              Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of
              contexts-reduced language proficiency


Level of      Monolingual
language      child
proficiency


                            Second language
                            learner




                                                       Length of time
Taken from Castillo (2009) based on Cummins (1984)



BICS Basic Interpersonal                          No demandante
Communication Skills                              cognitivamente
Tareas simples, mecánicas,
Especialmente útil para
estudiantes con dificultades                                   Ejercicios repetitivos como planas,
                                                               dictados, desprovistos de contexto,
                                                               poco significativos y poco
                         Los estudiantes                       demandantes a nivel cognitivo.
                         Bilingües deben
                         ser llevados a lo
                         largo de este eje
                                                                                       Reducida en
                         para asegurar la
Apoyada en                                                                             contexto
                         comprensión
contexto


                                                                      CALP Cognitive Academic
                                                                      Language Proficiency
                                                                       Los estudiantes deben siempre
                                                                        tener tareas en este cuadrante.
                 Los estudiantes bilingües                                        (Escritura de textos)
                 necesitan la mayor cantidad de
                                                          Cognitivamente
                 trabajo acá de manera que se
                                                           Demandante
                 asegure la comprensión
                 mediante procesos concretos y
                 ricos en contexto
1st session bilingualism
DEFINITION OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION




“Bilingual education…a program where two
languages are used equally as media of
instruction”
                  (Romaine, 1989:216)
“The basic idea underlying immersion, a notion
borrowed from communicative language learning
theory, is that by using the target language as a
language of communication in authentic situations,
such as subject-matter instruction or any other form
of teacher-student or student-student
communication outside strictly instructional
contexts, students’ acquisition of the target language
will be improved”
                               (Heller,1990:73)
“Content based language teaching is an
approach to second language instruction
that involves the use of a second
language to learn or practise content”

       (Met, 1998:35).
CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING:
    A CONTINUUM OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE
                INTEGRATION


Content-driven                            Language-driven
Total immersion

       Partial immersion

                  Subject courses

                         Subject courses/language teaching

                                    Language classes based on thematic units

                                           Language classes/use of content for
                                           language practice
COMMON MYTHS ABOUT BILINGUAL
          SCHOOLS
`True` bilingual schools have everything (or nearly
 everything) taught in the foreign language – English

After a short time, children will develop into “balanced
 bilinguals”; “two monolinguals in one person”
 (Grosjean, 1985: 467)

Schools that employ native speakers of English as
 teachers are better than schools that hire bilingual
 Colombian teachers.
“As a result of globalisation and widespread use of
English worldwide, the term ‘bilingüismo’ has acquired
a different meaning in the Colombian context. It is
used by many . . . to refer almost exclusively to
Spanish/English bilingualism. . ”

“The teaching of other modern languages (e.g.
French . . .) has also been undermined by the spread of
English and by people’s increasing desire to ‘invest’ in
English”

                             (Valencia, 2005:1)
NATIVE SPEAKERS


Hiring native speakers as teachers is more expensive and may
 lead to difficulties in training teachers and equipping
 classrooms

Native speaker accents may seem too remote from the people
 learners expect to communicate with

Native speakers may not possess some of the skills required by
 bilingual speakers, such as those of translation and
 interpreting

Many countries are revaluing the importance of hiring native
 speakers of English as teachers due to changing needs and
 aspirations of learners
ADVANTAGES OF LATE
              BILINGUAL EDUCATION
                  PROGRAMMES
Older learners have the benefit of a well-developed L1

Older learners have the benefit of well-developed literacy skills in
 their L1 which can facilitate the transfer of L2 literacy skills
 (Cummins, 2000)

Self selection- student who voluntary choose bilingual education
 at secondary level are likely to be highly self-motivated and
 academically capable

Older learners learn more in a given unit of time than younger
 learners, probably because of their superior academic,
 cognitive and meta-linguistic ability (Carey, 1984; MacLaughlin,
 1982; Fathman, 1975)

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1st session bilingualism

  • 1. BILINGUALISM Enrique Arias Castaño
  • 2. RECENT POLICY AND CURRICULAR REFORMS IN COLOMBIA Ley General de Educación (1994) “The acquisition of elements of conversation and reading in at least one foreign language” (Article 21, m) Lineamientos Curriculares: Idiomas Extranjeros (MEN, 1999) Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) (2004-2019) Estándares Básicos de Competencia en Lenguas Extranjeras: Inglés (2006) Common European Framework (CEF) to measure proficiency of teachers and learners (2004)
  • 3. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE? Learning a second language provides a number of advantages, not only for the individual, but society itself. COMMUNICATION ADVANTAGES Wider communication (extended family, community, international links, employment) Literacy in two languages.
  • 4. CULTURAL ADVANTAGES Broader cultural understanding and multicultural sensitivity, “two language worlds of experience” (Baker, 2000) Greater tolerance and social harmony COGNITIVE ADVANTAGES Thinking benefits (creativity, sensitivity to communication) Greater problem-solving and analytical skills PERSONAL ADVANTAGES Raised self-esteem Flexibility and adaptability Confidence in social interactions Greater interpersonal skills CURRICULUM ADVANTAGES Conceptual development in two languages Transfer of academic skills across two languages. Collaborative and cooperative learning
  • 8. Bilingualism Definition Maximalist Minimalist Functional The almost native To have linguistic To use 2 or more control of two abilities even in a languages in daily life, languages minimal way over regular bases Bloomfield, 1935 Macnamara, 1969 Grossjean, 1982 “Bilingualism as a countenance” (Hornberger 1989)
  • 9. Intensification Bilingual • Subject (English) • Curriculum is articulated through the 2 languages • 10 Hours (content – language) • Language as a “resource” • Language as an aim • Content is a way to • Foreign language teachers acquire the language • Bilingual subjects – • “Trained teachers” Specialists • “no trained teachers”
  • 10. Bilingualism - Bilingualism as a social phenomenon - Societal bilingualism - Bilingualism as an element of cross cultural communication or conflict Bilinguality -Bilingualism as an individual phenomenon -Individual bilingualism -Effects of bilingualism on mental processes
  • 11. SOCIETAL BILINGUALISM Interdisciplinary nature of bilingualism Languages in contact Common occurence of bilingualism Domains of language use Diglossia Language shift
  • 12. INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISM • More than the sum of two monolinguals (Grosjean, 1985) • Degree of bilingualism • Language as a tool of cognitive functioning • Influence of feedback mechanisms • Codeswitching in bilingual development development
  • 13. DEFINITIONS OF BILINGUALISM Definitions based on levels of proficiency (maximal and minimal) -balanced bilinguals -semilinguals Definitions based on use (functional) -conversational fluency (BICS) -academic language competence (CALP)
  • 14. CONCLUSIONS What can we formulate about bilingualism in Colombia and our institutions?
  • 15. TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS Total immersion program % of 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50 Lge 0 grade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
  • 16. TYPES OF BILINGUAL PROGRAMS 2 Partial immersion program % of 75 75 75 75 75 75 50 50 50 50 50 50 Lge grade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
  • 17. BILINGUAL HYBRID PROGRAM % of 50 50 50 50 50 50 Intensfication program (with Lge emphasis) grade pre 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th Bilingual process
  • 18. EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM  Team teaching strategy Preview-review methodology Bilingual contexts Activities Scenarios
  • 20. 1.The Common Underlying Proficiency Theory 2.Context Embedded and Context Reduced Communication (Cummins, 1981)
  • 21. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY (THE ICEBERG ANALOGY)
  • 22. CONTEXT EMBEDDED AND CONTEXT REDUCED COMMUNICATION Context embedded communication exists when there is a good degree of contextual support in communications, e.g. body language, gestures, intonation etc. Context reduced communication there are very few clues to meaning outside language.
  • 23. Development of context embedded second language fluency Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of contexts-embedded language proficiency Monolingual child Level of language proficiency Second language learner Length of time
  • 24. Development of context-reduced fluency. Length of time needed to achieve age-appropriate levels of contexts-reduced language proficiency Level of Monolingual language child proficiency Second language learner Length of time
  • 25. Taken from Castillo (2009) based on Cummins (1984) BICS Basic Interpersonal No demandante Communication Skills cognitivamente Tareas simples, mecánicas, Especialmente útil para estudiantes con dificultades Ejercicios repetitivos como planas, dictados, desprovistos de contexto, poco significativos y poco Los estudiantes demandantes a nivel cognitivo. Bilingües deben ser llevados a lo largo de este eje Reducida en para asegurar la Apoyada en contexto comprensión contexto CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Los estudiantes deben siempre tener tareas en este cuadrante. Los estudiantes bilingües (Escritura de textos) necesitan la mayor cantidad de Cognitivamente trabajo acá de manera que se Demandante asegure la comprensión mediante procesos concretos y ricos en contexto
  • 27. DEFINITION OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION “Bilingual education…a program where two languages are used equally as media of instruction” (Romaine, 1989:216)
  • 28. “The basic idea underlying immersion, a notion borrowed from communicative language learning theory, is that by using the target language as a language of communication in authentic situations, such as subject-matter instruction or any other form of teacher-student or student-student communication outside strictly instructional contexts, students’ acquisition of the target language will be improved” (Heller,1990:73)
  • 29. “Content based language teaching is an approach to second language instruction that involves the use of a second language to learn or practise content” (Met, 1998:35).
  • 30. CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING: A CONTINUUM OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATION Content-driven Language-driven Total immersion Partial immersion Subject courses Subject courses/language teaching Language classes based on thematic units Language classes/use of content for language practice
  • 31. COMMON MYTHS ABOUT BILINGUAL SCHOOLS `True` bilingual schools have everything (or nearly everything) taught in the foreign language – English After a short time, children will develop into “balanced bilinguals”; “two monolinguals in one person” (Grosjean, 1985: 467) Schools that employ native speakers of English as teachers are better than schools that hire bilingual Colombian teachers.
  • 32. “As a result of globalisation and widespread use of English worldwide, the term ‘bilingüismo’ has acquired a different meaning in the Colombian context. It is used by many . . . to refer almost exclusively to Spanish/English bilingualism. . ” “The teaching of other modern languages (e.g. French . . .) has also been undermined by the spread of English and by people’s increasing desire to ‘invest’ in English” (Valencia, 2005:1)
  • 33. NATIVE SPEAKERS Hiring native speakers as teachers is more expensive and may lead to difficulties in training teachers and equipping classrooms Native speaker accents may seem too remote from the people learners expect to communicate with Native speakers may not possess some of the skills required by bilingual speakers, such as those of translation and interpreting Many countries are revaluing the importance of hiring native speakers of English as teachers due to changing needs and aspirations of learners
  • 34. ADVANTAGES OF LATE BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES Older learners have the benefit of a well-developed L1 Older learners have the benefit of well-developed literacy skills in their L1 which can facilitate the transfer of L2 literacy skills (Cummins, 2000) Self selection- student who voluntary choose bilingual education at secondary level are likely to be highly self-motivated and academically capable Older learners learn more in a given unit of time than younger learners, probably because of their superior academic, cognitive and meta-linguistic ability (Carey, 1984; MacLaughlin, 1982; Fathman, 1975)