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Miller section 3.1 (intro to ecology)

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Miller section 3.1 (intro to ecology)

  1. 1. 3.1 What is Ecology?
  2. 2. Studying Our Living Planet <ul><ul><li>Ecology is . . . . </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Studying Our Living Planet <ul><ul><li>Ecology is . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> the scientific study of interactions among organisms and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between organisms and their physical environment. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Studying Our Living Planet <ul><ul><li>Ecology is . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> the scientific study of interactions among organisms and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between organisms and their physical environment. </li></ul></ul>Biotic Factors
  5. 5. Studying Our Living Planet <ul><ul><li>Ecology is . . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> the scientific study of interactions among organisms and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between organisms and their physical environment. </li></ul></ul>Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors
  6. 6. THINK ABOUT IT <ul><ul><li>How is Earth, in a scientific sense, a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ living planet”? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Biosphere
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>The biosphere consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul>The Biosphere
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>The biosphere consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The biosphere extends from about 8 km above Earth’s surface to as far as 11 km below the surface of the ocean. </li></ul></ul>The Biosphere
  10. 10. Make a Venn Diagram (see page 64) biotic factors abiotic factors a mixture of both
  11. 11. Levels of Organization
  12. 12. Levels of Organization
  13. 13. Levels of Organization individual organism the herd is a population —a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
  14. 14. Levels of Organization How is this image different from the previous two images?
  15. 15. Levels of Organization
  16. 16. Levels of Organization Community —an assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
  17. 17. Levels of Organization
  18. 18. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Ecosystem —all the organisms that live in a place, together with their physical environment </li></ul>
  19. 19. Levels of Organization
  20. 20. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biome —a group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms </li></ul>
  21. 21. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biosphere—our entire planet, with all its organisms and physical environments </li></ul>
  22. 22. Levels of Organization
  23. 23. Levels of Organization
  24. 24. Biotic and Abiotic Factors <ul><ul><li>What are biotic and abiotic factors? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Biotic and Abiotic Factors <ul><ul><li>What are biotic and abiotic factors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. Physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Biotic Factors <ul><ul><li>A biotic factor is any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms and bacteria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic factors relating to a bullfrog might include algae it eats as a tadpole, the herons that eat bullfrogs, and other species competing for food or space. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Abiotic Factors <ul><ul><li>An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of the environment, such as sunlight, heat, precipitation, humidity, wind or water currents, soil type, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a bullfrog could be affected by abiotic factors such as water availability, temperature, and humidity. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Together <ul><ul><li>The difference between abiotic and biotic factors is not always clear. Abiotic factors can be influenced by the activities of organisms and vice versa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, pond muck contains nonliving particles, and also contains mold and decomposing plant material that serve as food for bacteria and fungi. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Together <ul><ul><li>In addition, trees and shrubs affect the amount of sunlight the shoreline receives, the range of temperatures it experiences, the humidity of the air, and even the chemical conditions of the soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dynamic mix of biotic and abiotic factors shapes every environment. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Ecological Methods <ul><ul><li>What methods are used in ecological studies? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Ecological Methods <ul><ul><li>What methods are used in ecological studies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regardless of their tools, modern ecologists use three methods in their work: observation, experimentation, and modeling. Each of these approaches relies on scientific methodology to guide inquiry. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Observation <ul><ul><li>Observation is often the first step in asking ecological questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions may form the first step in designing experiments and models. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Experimentation <ul><ul><li>Experiments can be used to test hypotheses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ecologist may set up an artificial environment in a laboratory or greenhouse, or carefully alter conditions in selected parts of natural ecosystems. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Modeling <ul><ul><li>Many ecological events occur over such long periods of time or over such large distances that they are difficult to study directly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecologists make models to help them understand these phenomena. </li></ul></ul>

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