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Ecology -Components, interelatioships & dynamism

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Ecology -Components, interelatioships & dynamism

  1. 1. PLANT ECOLOGY Basic concepts; Levels of organization. Inter- relationships between the living world and the environment, the components and dynamism, homeostasis By N. Sannigrahi, Associate Professor Department of Botany Nistarini College, Purulia (W.B) India
  2. 2. ECOLOGY • Nature and diversity-the awesome source of pleasure and scientific exploration since the onset of human consciousness. The two components of nature, organisms and their environments are not only much complex and dynamic but also interdependent and mutually reactive and interrelated. Ecology, a synthetic science deals with the various principles which explore the relationships between the organisms and the environment. Ecology, the vast encyclopedic biological subject started its journey since the time immemorial but etymologically it is comprising of two Greek words- Oikos meaning home or dwelling space and logos means the study of. Kormondy (1969) first tried to give the credit to Henry David Thoreau in 1853 for this terminology. But German biologist, Ernst Haeckel has been consensually agreed to be the first proponents of this terminology.
  3. 3. BASIC CONCEPTS • Ecology basically echoes the interaction between organisms and environments. • All living organisms and their environments are mutually reactive bit animal population, flora and vegetation are independent through environment and are mutually reactive. • Environment being dynamic works as a sieve selecting organisms for growth from so many forms and one or other factors become critical at critical stages of life cycle of the species. • Every species puts its effort to maintain its uniformity and structure, function, reproduction by preservations its own genetic pool , however, species is also plastic and reacts to the environment to get itself adjustment-somatic plasticity, the ecads or by the recognition of their genes during sexual reproduction-ecotypes.
  4. 4. BASIC CONCEPTS • The environment not only influences the life of an organisms but organisms too also modify the environment by the dint of their growth , dispersal, reproduction, death and decay. The dynamic environment and the organisms make the unique ways for the development of the differe3nt kind of organisms through succession. The process continues until the climax is achieved. • By means of coactions and reaction. The plants and animals related to each other by biomes and under climatic conditions, more than one communities develop, some may reach to the cli8max stage whereas the other experiences different succession stages . • Thus an interdependence along with freedom lies side by side in the interaction between organisms and the environment to make it dynamic.
  5. 5. BASIC CONCEPTS • 1. Biotic and abiotic components build up the structural and functional aspects of ecosystems. • Discrete biological units consists of population, communities including biomes and each population occupies a specific niche-a unique functional position with respect to other organisms with which it interacts • Varying degree of interactions present that enables competition, either at population or communities level, • Energetics of ecosystem maintaining 10% law of energy transfer, • Mineral recycling accounts of biogeochemical cycles like Nitrogen, carbon, sulpher etc, • Successful growth is governed by law of limiting factor
  6. 6. BASIC CONCEPTS • Both the structural and functional aspects of ecology, Tansely (1935) emphasized the role of environment , with the various factors interacting with each other in his comprehensive term ecosystem which involves all the living and non-living factors working with synchroziation.with the new concept of modern ecology, following are the basic concepts in the modern light of ecology. • 1. When the biotic and abiotic components are considerted as the structural and functional units of the ecosystems, discrete biological units consist of population and communities, including biomes are included. • 2. The natural interaction either positive or negative determine along with abiotic parameters , the degree of success a particular population has within a given habitat. • The unidirectional energy flow involved the energetics of ecosystem.
  7. 7. BASIC CONCEPTS • 3. The biogeochemical cycles frequently regulate the rate of movement of cycling of chemicals for sustainable supply of nutrients in the ecosystem. • 4. The minimal and maximal levels of tolerance for ecological factors are governed by the law of limiting factors, • 5. Under natural conditions, the different kind of population undergo succession. Ecosystems undergo an orderly process of change with time, passing from a less complex to more complex state. This process not only involves changes in species composition but also changes in physical environment of a community to a stabilized state known as climax. • 7. Then come the probabilities of disruption and exploitation of ecosphere. Species diversity of an ecosystem is reduced either by man made or natural condition. Whether managed or natural- disturbances caused a serious concern in the ecosystem.
  8. 8. SUB-DIVISIONS OF ECOLOGY • BASED ON TAXONOMIC AFFINITIES: Plant Ecology & animal ecology • BASED ON HABITAT • Whether freshwater, marine, estuarine, grassland, forests etc, it is termed as Habitat ecology, • BASED ON LEVELS OF ORGANISATION • Autecology- Ecology of individuals at a given time together with the influence of environment upon it, • Synecology- Ecological interactions among the multiple groups of organisms like plants, animals, microbes together to create a more complex situations exist to build up a community. This again subdivided under the following headings-Population ecology, Community ecology, Biome ecology, Ecosystem ecology etc.
  9. 9. LEVELS OF ORGANISATION • Species make the basic unit of study in ecology. At each level, the biological unit has a specific structure and function. At this level, the form, physiology, behavior, distribution and adaptations in relation to the environmental conditions are studied. The organisms of the similar type have the potential for interbreeding, and produce fertile offspring, which are called species. The organism performs all the life processes independently. However, parts of organism cannot exist independently of one another. An organism is fully adapted to its environment. It has a definite life span including definite series of stages like birth, hatching, growth, maturity, senescence, aging and death. Competition, mutualism and predation are various types of interaction between organisms.
  10. 10. LEVELS OF ORGANISATION • The levels of organizations in ecology follow the basic pattern: • Cells-Organs--Species-----Population----Community— Ecosystem----Landscape-Biome-----Biosphere—Environment • In ecology, a population is a group of individuals of the same species, inhabiting the same area, and functioning as a unit of biotic community. The interaction between populations is generally studied. These interactions may be a predator and its prey, or a parasite with its host. Competition, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and predation are various types of interactions. • Biotic community organization results from interdependence and interactions amongst population of different species in a habitat. This is an assemblage of populations of plants, animals, bacteria and fungi that live in an area and interact with each other.
  11. 11. LEVELS OF ORGANISATION • A biotic community is a higher ecological category next to population. These are three types of biotic community, they are: animals, plants and decomposers (i.e., bacteria and fungi). A biotic community has a distinct species composition and structure. • The ecosystems are parts of nature where living organisms interact amongst themselves and with their physical environment. An ecosystem in composed of a biotic community, integrated with its physical environment through the exchange of energy and recycling of the nutrients. The term ecosystem was coined by Sir Arthur Tansley in 1935. An ecosystem has two basic components: • (i) Abiotic (non-living), and (ii) Biotic (living organisms).
  12. 12. FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENT • Abiotic components comprise inorganic materials, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, CO2, water etc., while biotic components include producers, consumers and decomposers. • Landscape: A landscape is a unit of land with a natural boundary having a mosaic of patches, which generally represent different ecosystems. • Biome: This is a large regional unit characterized by a major vegetation type and associated fauna found in a specific climate zone. The biome includes all associated developing and modified communities occurring within the same climatic region, e.g., forest biomes, grassland and savanna biomes, desert biome, etc. • On a global scale, all the earth’s terrestrial biomes and aquatic systems constitute the biosphere.
  13. 13. FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENT • Biosphere: The entire inhabited part of the earth and its atmosphere including the living components is called the biosphere. • (i) The hydrosphere which includes all the water components, • (ii) The lithosphere comprises the solid components of the earth’s crust, and (iii) The atmosphere formed of the gaseous envelope of the earth. The biosphere consists of the lower atmosphere, the land and the oceans, rivers and lakes, where living beings are found. • Thus, the different factors of the environment plays a very crucial role in this regard to build up the structural and functional organizations in the environment as well as a tendency to recycle and replenish in order to maintain a dynamic equilibrium of the surroundings.
  14. 14. INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LIVING WORLD AND THE ENVIRONMENT • Environment is a complex of so many attributes like light, temperature, soil, water etc that surrounds an organism. Any external force, substance or condition that surrounds and affects the life of an organism in any way becomes the factor of the environment- environmental factors, ecological factors are either biotic or abiotic factors. Ecological factors may be two types- • 1. Direct factors- Light, temperature, humidity of air, soil air, soil water, soil nutrients etc. • 2. Indirect factors-include soil structure, soil organisms, altitude, wind, slope etc. • Generally four categories of factors are included-
  15. 15. INTER-RELATIONSHIPS • 1. Climatic or aerial factors- Light, temperature, rainfall, Humidity of air, Atmosphere • 2. Topographic factors- altitude, direction of mountain chains, valleys, Steepness and exposure of slopes, • 3. Edaphic factors- These deal with the formation of soil, its physical and chemical properties and details of the related aspects, • 4. Biotic factors- these are all kinds of interactions between the different forms of life like plants, animals and microorganisms etc. • All these factors play a very crucial role for the sustainable environmental complex to make the avenue of the formation of life and its gradual changes corresponding to the changes of the surroundings.
  16. 16. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC INTERACTIONS
  17. 17. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC INTERACTIONS • The effects of environment on the life of an organisms is the interaction of the ecological factors .In the normal conditions, at the same time, the life of an organism is effected by the sum of all the ecological factors- the environment- not by the individual factors. All the factors are interrtelated.But variations in one effect may have strong effect upon the organisms. The law of the limiting factors govern the guiding principles of the life of an organisms as well as the different metabolism of the counterparts of the environment. Increasingly the intensity of light affect the rate of the photosynthesis along with the increase of the temperature. Since various ecological factors affect the life of an organism in a holistic manner, it becomes difficult to understand the mechanism of the nature of influence of individual factor.
  18. 18. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC INTERACTIONS • To understand the mechanism of environmental influence, it thus becomes essential study the effect the each factor separately and this is to considered as analytical approach. Let us give some examples in this regard. • 1. Light directly or indirectly effects the plants life on chlorophyll production, heating action, effect on transpiration rate, stomata movement, distribution of plants along with the overall vegetative and reproductive development of plants life. • 2. Temperature effects on plants and animals life on metabolism, reproduction, growth and development, on crossing over, sex-ratio, coloration and morphology. Animals may be either endothermic, exothermic leading to a gross phenotypic changes. • 3. Rainfall effects on hydrological cycle • .
  19. 19. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC INTERACTIONS • 4. Topographic factors like mountain chains, direction of mountains and valleys, steepness of slope and it exposure have strong effect upon organisms. • 5.Soil- Mineral matter, organic matter, soil water, soil atmosphere, biological systems etc are some of the factors of soil that have strong effect upon the plants and animals of the environment. • In addition to the aforesaid issues, there are other number of factors that have strong synergistic or antagonistic effect upon the counterparts of the different components of the biotic and abiotic constituents of the system. Thus, the living world and the abiotic constituents play a very important relationship to maintain a dynamic equilibrium of the environment since the onset of life in the blue planet.
  20. 20. DYNAMISM OF ENVIRONMENT
  21. 21. DYNAMISM • Because ecosystems consist of living things that can change, it makes sense that the ecosystem itself can change over time. For example, if a certain population experiences a significant transformation, it will affect the entire ecosystem. Since the inception of life on the blue planet followed the different physical, chemical and biological changes, the environment has taken the present shape enriched with the diversity of life forms. Any ecosystem if experiences any kind of changes affect the gross. Take for the example of disappearance of one consumer, it will effect upon the other consumers in the successive levels. The ecological pyramid of energy, number and biomass are interrelated to upon one another. Nature always tries to maintain a sustainable and replanishable system to maintain a dynamic equilibrium as earth is a close system as far as matter but an open system as far as energy.
  22. 22. THANKS FOR YOUR PLEASURE • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: • Images for Google • Different websites • Ecology & Environment- P.D.Sharma • Concepts of Ecology-Kormondy • Ecology &Environmental Biology-Saha • Ecology-Odum • Disclaimer: This presentation has been developed as free knowledge sources without any financial interest of the developer.

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