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Evolution in ecosystems


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Evolution in ecosystems

  1. 1. Evolution in Ecosystems Environmental Science
  2. 2. Charles Darwin <ul><li>Charles Darwin introduced evolution in 1859 in his book On the Origin of Species </li></ul><ul><li>In this book he describes the process of Natural Selection </li></ul>
  3. 3. Natural Selection <ul><li>Darwin noticed that individuals in a population are not exactly alike. </li></ul><ul><li>He proposed that the environment exerts a strong influence on which individuals survive and which die </li></ul><ul><li>The individuals that survive will pass on their traits to their offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Traits that increase the chance that an individual survives and reproduces are called adaptations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution <ul><li>Over several generations natural selection can cause the traits of a population to change </li></ul><ul><li>The change in genetics of a population over generations is called evolution </li></ul>
  5. 5. Coevolution <ul><li>Coevolution occurs when two species evolve in response to long-term interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes symbiotic relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Flowers and hummingbirds </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Artificial Selection <ul><li>There are several species that have been domesticated by humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus humans control how they reproduce and evolve - called artificial selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These species include plants and animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Corn, wheat, roses, dogs, horses, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of Resistance <ul><li>Sometimes humans cause organisms to evolve unwanted adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>When pesticide is sprayed, not every insect is killed. </li></ul><ul><li>The survivors reproduce and the next generation is more resistant to the pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance – the ability of an organism to survive a chemical designed to kill it </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pesticide Resistance