Setting up a small PA

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How to set up a small PA system

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Setting up a small PA

  1. 1. Chris Baker www.musicstudentinfo.com Music Performance & Ensemble How to use a small PA system
  2. 2. Small PA System
  3. 3. PA System About • An electronic amplification system used to get sound from the performer(s) to the audience. • “PA” stands for “public address.” • Made up of many components. • In choosing the right PA you should think about the size of your audience.
  4. 4. Small PA System Components Name all of the components in this small PA system WRITE THEM DOWN
  5. 5. Small PA System Components • Microphones Shure SM57 & SM58 • PA speakers • Mixer powered or unpowered • Foldback/Monitor speakers • Microphone stands • Speaker stands • PA speaker amplifier • Monitor speaker amplifier • Effects unit • Equipment case • Wireless microphone controller optional • Wireless microphones optional
  6. 6. You will need to know how to set up the PA system and be your own sound engineer, even if you are going to work somewhere where you have a professional sound engineer, it will benefit you to know the basics of how to set up the PA system.
  7. 7. How to set up a small PA system 1 Here are some easy steps to setting up and getting the best sound from your P. A. system •The most important thing to remember when hooking up any size PA is the direction of the signal. •The signal starts with your mouth or drum, or horn, or whatever. •Then goes through the microphone into the system. •Then routes its way through the amp. •Then finally into the speaker where it leaves the system as a much louder sound.
  8. 8. How to set up a small PA system 2 NOTE Make sure that the system is turned OFF! Speakers and Stands •The speaker stands should be placed at the front of the stage or performing area at either end. •The speakers are mounted should be at a height of 2ft above the head height of the audience. •This is to prevent the sound from being blocked by people standing in front of the speaker and also prevent hearing damage.
  9. 9. How to set up a small PA system 3 Speakers, Stands & Feedback •The singer should not be in font of the speakers as this can cause problems with feedback.Feedback occurs when there is an audio loop generated between the microphone and the speakers. •Feedback sounds like a high pitched squeal which is not pleasant to listen to and is the biggest contribution to speaker damage.
  10. 10. How to set up a small PA system 4 The Mixer • A multi-channel mixer broken down into the various sections is not too difficult to master. • Each channel is simply just a copy of the first. • The mixer is where all the sound from instruments, microphones and audio players are connected in order to mix the sound with equalization, effects and volumes before it goes to the amplifier and speakers.
  11. 11. How to set up a small PA system 5 The Mixer If we look at the picture we can see the various parts 1. Channel Input 2. Trim 3. Channel Volume 4. EQ 5. Channel Effects 6. Master Volume 7. Master Effects8. Master Outputs
  12. 12. How to set up a small PA system 6 Plugging In 1. Make sure that all channel dials are set to 12 O clock. 2. Set master volume to zero. 3. The equalizer should be set ‘flat’ 4. Place the mixer near one of the performers. 5. Connect the speakers to the power amp/power mixer with the speaker cable. 6. If your speaker cables are jacks or cannons they will plug straight into the speaker and the power amp/power mixer. 7. ‘Speakon’ connectors plug in and than twist it to lock it in.
  13. 13. How to set up a small PA system 7 Plugging In • Next you will want to plug in all your input devices (microphones and CD players or audio devices) • So connect the microphones with microphone cannon leads and connect CD and audio devices with phono leads (maybe phono to phono or phono to jack). • If you are connecting instruments, sequencers or effect units use jack leads.2) Pl • If you are using a power mixer you will not have to do this step. • Next connect your mixer to the power amp. • Take two jack leads and connect the left out on the mixer to the left input on the power amp and the right output the right input. • the other end of the mic cord into any "input" channel of the mixer (input comes from t
  14. 14. How to set up a small PA system 8 Plugging In 1. Check volume knobs and sliders are down on the mixer and the power amp/power mixer and that all power switches on the equipment if off too. 2. Switch the power on at the wall then switch your gear on. 3. If running a power amp and mixer switch the mixer on first. 4. NOW YOU ARE READY TO GO 5. When it comes to switching off switch off the gear first and than switch off at the wall. 6. Do not remove, change or unplug any leads or cables while the gear and the wall power is switched on.
  15. 15. How to set up a small PA system 9 Sound check • Bring up volume levels to suite your live playing volume. • Adjust EQ to your taste. • Hold the microphone around the body and not the head for a clear sound. • Check all sound sources for an accurate sound balance. • Minor adjustments may need to be made for changes in sound with the arrival of an audience.
  16. 16. How to set up a small PA system TEST In groups all of you will be expected to set-up the sound system in this order.

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