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RAPP Presentation For Psychs


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RAPP Presentation For Psychs

  1. 1. A collaborative creation of the RAPP committee: Kendra Belson, Angie Burdue, Karen Burnup, Linda Callahan, Eve Carrington, Carolyn Chalifoux, Heather Franco, Lori Goin, Terri Guitton, Carrie Jessen, Meagan Martin, Myrna Olmo, Kathleen O’Malley, Suzanne Ramsey, Donna Regan, Tracey Schwarz, Kremsa Susla, Chrsitina Welch, Matthew Wiggins, Leigh Wooten, Patti Vickers, Cindy Vines Presented by Christina Welch Pay DRT! Osceola County’s Diagnostic Reading Tool
  2. 2. RAPP - History <ul><li>Began with assessment model created in Orange County School District </li></ul><ul><li>Modified by the Reading Assessment Pilot Program (RAPP) Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Uses portions of existing reading tests compiled to create thorough reading assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Intent is to move from discrepancy testing model to a more diagnostic evaluation of reading abilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Alterations made </li></ul><ul><li>Included all five areas of reading (Reading First, NCLB - 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Include assessment of more facets of reading – increase sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Tie assessment model to interventions </li></ul>RAPP - History
  4. 4. RAPP - History <ul><li>Changes based on current research findings in reading development and current law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Reading Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Literacy and Reading Excellence Center (FLaRE Center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just Read, Florida! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas Reading Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading First – No Child Left Behind </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Finished product required a name change. Suggestions were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Reading Assessment Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( DRAT ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Reading Assessment Guide ( DRAG ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Assessment of Reading Needs ( DARN ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment Program ( CRAP ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osceola Diagnostic Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Reading ( ODER ) </li></ul></ul>RAPP - History
  6. 6. <ul><li>Diagnostic Reading Tool </li></ul>RAPP - History The official name is the . . .
  7. 7. DRT - Overview
  8. 8. Overview – Reading Comprehension <ul><li>Reading Comprehension , the ability to understand what you read, is the ultimate goal of reading instruction </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Reading comprehension is comprised of two equally important components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Comprehension </li></ul></ul>Overview – Reading Comprehension
  10. 12. <ul><li>Reading comprehension is comprised of two equally important components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Comprehension, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding ability (Basic Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills) </li></ul></ul>Overview – Reading Comprehension
  11. 15. Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) Torgesen, J.K. Meeting the Instructional Needs of Students with Reading Disabilities: Issues in Prevention and Remediation . Presented at meetings of the Council for Exceptional Children, Charleston, South Carolina, January, 2005 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHONEMIC AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic
  12. 16. Language
  13. 17. Language <ul><li>Language can be broken down into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary (Expressive and Receptive) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Language video clip </li></ul>
  15. 19. Listening Comprehension
  16. 20. Language Listening Comprehension is . . . understanding the implicit and explicit messages contained in language (SEDL, 2001).
  17. 21. Oral language comprehension is a good predictor of reading comprehension. (Carroll, 1977; Ladd, 1970; Stanovich, Cunningham & Freeman, 1984) Listening comprehension is more related to reading ability than intelligence (Aaron, 1991; Durrell & Hayes, 1969; Spring & French, 1990; Wood, Buckhalf &Tomlin, 1988). Language
  18. 22. <ul><li>Some children decode words fluently and still have reading comprehension problems that seem to stem from language comprehension problems (Oakhill, Cain & Yuill, 1998; Oakhill, Yuill & Parkin, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension and listening comprehension are governed by the same cognitive mechanism (Danks, 1980; Duker, 1965; Joshi, Williams & Wood, 1998; Kintsch & Kozminsky, 1977; Palmer, McCleod, Hunt & Davidson, 1985; Townsend, Carrithers & Bever, 1987; Trabasso, 1981). </li></ul>Language
  19. 23. Language
  20. 24. Background Knowledge
  21. 25. <ul><li>Background Knowledge is . . . </li></ul><ul><li>the substance on which language operates. </li></ul><ul><li>In communicating through language, successful comprehension requires both the ability to use the language and knowledge of the substance to be communicated (SEDL,2001). </li></ul>Language
  22. 26. <ul><li>Schemas – knowledge base. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be simple knowledge (dining in a restaurant = being seated, ordering, being served, eating and paying the bill) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>esoteric (how computer programs complete searches for information). </li></ul>Language
  23. 27. <ul><li>Without a broad knowledge base, an individual can not make sense of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge and reading comprehension scores are positively correlated -- the more background knowledge a reader has about a subject, the more the reader understands when reading text about that subject ( Chiesi, Spilich & Voss, 1979; Marr & Gormley, 1982; Pearson, Hansen & Gordon, 1979; Spilich, Vesonder, Chiesi & Voss, 1979). </li></ul>Language
  24. 28. Language
  25. 29. Expressive Vocabulary
  26. 30. <ul><li>Expressive Vocabulary is . . . </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to produce meaningful messages through speech or writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Word use. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called confrontation naming or object naming </li></ul>Language
  27. 31. <ul><li>Expressive Vocabulary . . . </li></ul><ul><li>has been found to be a reliable predictor of future reading ability (Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998). </li></ul>Language
  28. 32. Language
  29. 33. Receptive Vocabulary
  30. 34. <ul><li>Receptive Vocabulary is . . . </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to understand messages through either listening or reading. </li></ul>Language
  31. 35. Language
  32. 36. Basic Reading Skills
  33. 37. Reading Fluency
  34. 40. <ul><li>According to the National Reading Panel, fluency is reading “…with speed, accuracy, and proper expression.” </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent reading is natural sounding, conversational, smooth, and expressive ( Put Reading First ). </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  35. 41. <ul><li>Reading Fluency is a great indicator of overall health of basic reading skills and should be assessed first </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  36. 42. Basic Reading Skills
  37. 43. <ul><li>The basic reading skills necessary for an individual to read fluently are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter & Word Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  38. 44. Basic Reading Skills
  39. 45. Letter & Word Knowledge
  40. 46. Basic Reading Skills
  41. 47. Basic Reading Skills <ul><li>Letter-Word Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sight Word Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sight Word Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Naming Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Naming Accuracy </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. Sight Word Fluency
  43. 49. <ul><li>Sight Word Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Sight words are words that contain word parts that have not yet been taught, but that are highly predictable or words that the child has memorized. </li></ul><ul><li>Sight word fluency pertains to the speed and accuracy of sight word reading </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  44. 50. Sight Word Accuracy
  45. 51. <ul><li>Sight Word Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Sight word accuracy pertains to the correctness of sight word reading </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  46. 52. Letter Naming Fluency
  47. 53. <ul><li>Letter Naming Fluency . . . </li></ul><ul><li>is the reading readiness skills that is the strongest predictor of future reading ability is letter identification (Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Naming Fluency pertains to the speed and accuracy of letter identification. </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  48. 54. Letter Naming Accuracy
  49. 55. <ul><li>Letter Naming Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Naming Accuracy pertains to the correctness of letter identification. </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  50. 56. Phonics
  51. 58. Basic Reading Skills
  52. 59. Basic Reading Skills Phonics is . . . a system that utilizes the sounds of spoken language and the letters and patterns of written language (FLaRE, ). Includes written symbols (letters) and their corresponding sounds (phonemes).
  53. 60. Basic Reading Skills <ul><li>Phonics encompasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic Decoding Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter/Sound Knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  54. 61. Phonemic Decoding Fluency
  55. 62. Basic Reading Skills <ul><li>Phonemic Decoding Fluency . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the ability to sound out words that follow English spelling conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires speed as well as accuracy. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 63. Word Attack
  57. 64. Basic Reading Skills Word Attack Using Word Attack skills, students can read unknown words by examining the individual letters and sounds and perhaps making associations with known letters or words (Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children).
  58. 65. Letter/Sound Knowledge
  59. 66. Basic Reading Skills <ul><li>Letter/Sound Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying letters when someone produces the corresponding sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saying the most common sound associated with individual letters. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 67. <ul><li>Only proceed with testing Phonological Awareness if below average performance on all Phonics skills. </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  61. 68. Basic Reading Skills
  62. 69. Phonological Awareness
  63. 70. <ul><li>Insert video clip about Neil here </li></ul>
  64. 71. Basic Reading Skills Phonological Awareness is . . . The understanding that speech is composed of sub-parts Sentences are comprised of words, words are comprised of syllables, syllables are comprised of onsets and rimes, and can be further broken down to phonemes (SEDL).
  65. 72. Basic Reading Skills A strong, positive relationship exists between phonological awareness and reading skills (Adams, 1990; Ehri & Sweet, 1991; Goswami & Bryant, 1992; Mason & Allen, 1986; Mann, 1986; Morais, Mousty & Kolinsky, 1998; Pratt & Brady, 1988; Read, Zhang, Nie & Ding, 1986;Shaywitz, 1996; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998, Stahl & Murray, 1994; Sulzby & Teale, 1991; van Kleeck, 1990).
  66. 73. <ul><li>It is a safe assumption that if a student has average to above average phonics skills, that he/she has competence in phonological awareness. </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  67. 74. Basic Reading Skills <ul><li>Phonological Awareness encompasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhyming </li></ul></ul>
  68. 75. Phonemic Awareness
  69. 76. Basic Reading Skills Phonemic Awareness is . . . the ability to notice, mentally grab hold of, and manipulate the individual phonemes within speech (Yopp & Yopp, 2000).
  70. 77. <ul><li>Children who fail to develop phoneme awareness have difficulty learning basic reading and spelling skills (Baddeley, Ellis, Miles & Lewis, 1982; Bradley & Bryant, 1978; Bradley & Bryant, 1983; Bryant, MacLean, Bradley & Crossland, 1990; Griffith, 1991; Holligan & Johnston, 1988; Holligan & Johnston, 1991; Juel, Griffith & Gough, 1986; MacLean, Bryant & Bradley, 1987; Olson, Wise, Conners & Rack, 1990; Snowling, 1981; Wagner, Torgesen & Rashotte, 1994). </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  71. 78. Syllables
  72. 79. Basic Reading Skills Syllables are . . . a unit of spoken language that can be spoken. In English, a syllable can consist of a vowel sound alone or a vowel sound with one or more consonant sounds preceding and following (Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children). The division of words into its basic units of pronunciation.
  73. 80. <ul><li>An awareness of syllables, onsets, and rimes (phonological awareness) typically develops before an awareness of phonemes (Fox & Routh, 1975; Goswami, 1994; Liberman, Shankweiler, Fischer & Carter, 1974; MacLean, Bryant & Bradley, 1987; Treiman, 1985; Treiman, 1986; Treiman, 1992). </li></ul>Basic Reading Skills
  74. 81. Rhyming
  75. 82. Basic Reading Skills Rhyming is . . . sharing identical or at least similar medial and final phonemes in the final syllable. Words can rhyme without sharing similar orthography such as ‘suite’ and ‘meet’ (SEDL).
  76. 83. Completing a reading assessment
  77. 84. Materials you have received Completing a reading assessment
  78. 85. <ul><li>DRT Flow Chart </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  79. 86. <ul><li>DRT Flow Worksheet </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  80. 87. <ul><li>DRT List of </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  81. 88. <ul><li>DRT Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>of Terms </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  82. 89. <ul><li>The Diagnostic Reading Tool List of Assessments helps you to determine tests you can use to assess each reading skill area. </li></ul><ul><li>Since we are looking to isolate reading skills so that we can pinpoint areas to intervene, we are looking for ‘pure’ measures. </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  83. 90. <ul><li>For example, DIBELS Letter Naming Fluency measures only the ability to name letters quickly (not comprehension, rhyming, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>FCAT Reading – a great broad measure but not sensitive to where exactly the problem lies (measures comprehension, decoding, vocabulary, etc.) </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  84. 91. DIBELS Additional testing probes and instructions for use are available for free download at Cool Tools Testing materials are available for free download at
  85. 92. <ul><li>1. To start, measure reading comprehension (use DRT List of Assessments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* If reading comprehension is average or above average – stop testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low achievement may be a result of motivation, lack of focused attention, study skills, inappropriate behavior, etc. </li></ul></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  86. 93. Joe Smith – First Grade DX of ADHD History of Oppositional Bx Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) Reading Comp = 97SS *Negated due to test administration error Completing a reading assessment
  87. 94. <ul><li>If reading comprehension is below average – you will need a measure of each of the four language areas (listening comprehension, background knowledge, expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary) and reading fluency </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  88. 95. <ul><li>2. Don’t reinvent the wheel - plug in existing data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIBELS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRADE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Classroom Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoeducational Evaluation </li></ul></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  89. 98. <ul><li>If Reading Fluency is average to above average, the reading difficulties are likely due to language deficits or need for intervention with comprehension strategies </li></ul><ul><li>If Reading Fluency is low, it could be due to deficits in one or more of the following reading areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter & Word Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  90. 99. <ul><li>Basic Reading Skills are arranged in order of skill acquisition. The top skill in each column is the latest skill to develop. The bottom is the most basic. </li></ul><ul><li>We are going to assume that if a student has proficiency in any area of phonics, that they are competent with phonological processing. </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  91. 100. Completing a reading assessment
  92. 101. <ul><li>If reading fluency is below average begin measuring letter and word knowledge and phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Begin assessing top skill in each section (for example, sight word fluency under letter and word knowledge). Continue testing down until an average score is obtained. </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  93. 102. Completing a reading assessment
  94. 103. <ul><li>Once an average score is obtained, back up to previous skill area and remediate. </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  95. 104. Completing a reading assessment
  96. 105. <ul><li>Only measure Phonological Awareness if the student gets all the way down to Letter-Sound Knowledge under Phonics and is still below average. </li></ul><ul><li>If the student has some Phonics skills, it is assumed that he/she has a decent grasp on Phonological Awareness </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  97. 106. Completing a reading assessment
  98. 107. Completing a reading assessment
  99. 108. <ul><li>Identify which areas of reading need to be assessed </li></ul><ul><li>*Back to Joe </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  100. 114. <ul><li>A couple of suggestions: </li></ul><ul><li>No need to just plug in a score for every area – use judgment and critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The question to focus on is “Where do I need to intervene with this child?” not “Where should this child be in relation to his/her peers?” </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  101. 115. <ul><li>Let’s practice! </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  102. 119. <ul><li>The advantage of using this assessment is that we now know where to intervene so that we see maximum student growth. </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  103. 120. <ul><li>Allons enfants de la patrie, Le jour de gloire est arrivé ! Contre nous de la tyrannie L'étendard sanglant est levé ! (bis) Entendez-vous dans les campagnes, Mugir ces féroces soldats ? Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras Égorger nos fils, nos compagnes ! </li></ul>Completing a reading assessment
  104. 121. Future Initiatives
  105. 122. Future Initiatives <ul><li>Create a bank of scientific, research-based interventions paired with deficit areas </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with RTI committee and implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Tie reading skills to required cognitive process areas/CHC factors (ie – phonological processing involves Auditory Processing (Ga) and Crystallized Intelligence (Gc) </li></ul>