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  1. 1. Vocabulary
  2. 2. A listing, either selective or exhaustive, containing the words and phrases ofa language, with meanings or translations into another language; glossary
  3. 3. ‘What is a word?’ there are only partly satisfactory answers depending onthe reasons of the question. If we want to count how long a book is, or howfast someone can speak or read words per minute , then we need to count‘tokens’. If our reason for counting is related to vocabulary learning then weneed to
  4. 4. choose a unit of counting that reflects the kind of knowledge that languageusers draw. Language users see closely related word forms (mend, mends,mended, mending) as belonging to the same word family and it is the totalfrequency of a word family that determines the familiarity of any particularmember of that family
  5. 5. A major problem with counting word families is in deciding what should becounted as a member of a family. The most conservative way is to countlemmas. A lemma is a set of related words like approach , approaches ,approached , approaching because they all have the same stem and are allverbs.
  6. 6. suggest that native speakers speak appropriately and fluently because theyhave stored very large numbers of these multi – word – units (MWUs).These MWUs go by several names: Preformulated language FormulasLexical phrases
  7. 7. The need of the learners and the usefulness of the vocabulary items.
  8. 8. Listening and reading Speaking and writing Deliberate vocabulary learningDeveloping fluency with vocabulary across the four skills Strategydevelopment
  9. 9. Vocabulary tests can have a range of purposes: To measure vocabulary sizeTo measure what has just been learned To measure what has been learnedin a course To diagnose areas of strength and weakness