Basic elements of quality 1. Quality characteristics 2. Quality of design 3. Quality conformance
1. Quality characteristics• Dimension, strength, colour, temperature, and for concrete - slump, size of aggregates, water cement ratio, surface finish, compressive strength, etc.
2. Quality of design• Desired standards for the characteristics that define a product and also the tolerances for acceptable variations from the standard• If very high standards of quality and stiff tolerances are set, this will increase the cost of the project.
3. Quality conformanceIt is affected by1. The field construction methods – skill of the workers, the efficiencies of the tools and equipment used and the quality of the materials.2. Supervision enforced and the managerial controls applied to direct the working crew to conform to the plans and specifications3. Inspection and quality control procedures that are applied.
Requirements Criteria for Engineering & Technicalof the owner design design process specificationsSite constructionmethods Degree of Quality ofSupervision & control conformance to constructed specifications structureinspection
Construction Manager is qualified to provide: • The CM will provide Quality Assurance and monitor the day-by-day construction quality control activities performed by construction contractors to verify compliance with the contract plans and specifications. • The CM will also manage, coordinate, and administer all QC/QA activities and requirements, including those of subcontractors.
• Construction contractors are responsible for the quality control of their constructed work product as well as the necessary inspections and tests required to ensure that their work complies with the contract documents.
Site Manager monitors and works to approve each contractor’s quality, and progress reports to ensure that the project is meeting the contract requirements.The SM will manage the field implementation of the Construction Quality Assurance Plan at the project sites under control of the senior field engineer (FE) and the Construction QA Officer.
Construction Quality Assurance Officer• The CQAO reports directly to the CM.
Field Engineer• The FE reviews QC and QA testing documentation with contractors, engineers, and inspectors.• The FE also reviews the plans and specifications and estimates the type and number of QA tests that should be accomplished for each activity.• The FE meets with third-party testing and inspection firms to review test requirements and coordinate testing and inspection services.
INSPECTION AND VERIFICATION ACTIVITIES• Quality control plans will cover the type, test standard, frequency, control requirements, and assigned responsibility for inspections and tests.• The CM will review and approve these plans• Contractors shall perform the inspections and tests as prescribed in the technical specifications
• QA inspection and testing will be used to verify the adequacy and effectiveness of the contractor QC program.• The QA inspection and testing frequency will be at the discretion of the CQAO based on results of QC tests, evaluation of daily reports, audits of the QC program and verification testing conducted by the CM and owner’s third party testing firm.
Inspection and Testing Plan• Materials qualification testing will be done prior to construction to verify that the materials comply with requirements of the specifications.• The contractor will obtain representative samples of the materials designated at the proposed source of the materials.• Test samples will be sent by the contractor to the Testing Laboratory.• For soils, sampling and analysis will be performed by the contractor on the onsite borrow material source.
Sampling• This is the process of determining the quality of a large group by examining a part of the group that is representative of the whole group.• If the size of the sample is large, the reliability of the information obtained is more, but cost of inspection increases.Reliability = 100 – No. of defective units x 100 No. of units tested
Mean = x = x1 + x2 + x3 +………..+ xn NStandard deviation = ∑( x – x )2 q ^ N–1 q V = x 100 X
• Smaller the standard deviation higher is the degree of conformity.• standard deviation is an absolute measure of dispersion but coefficient of variation is a relative measure of dispersion. It is used when the variability of 2 or more groups are to be compared.• If the variation is less means more consistent and homogeneous is the (eg.)concrete mix.
Follow-Up InspectionThe contractor and the CM perform follow-up inspections daily.• Ensure continuing compliance with Contract requirements.• Ensure continuing compliance with control testing until completion of particular feature of work.• The CM inspection staff records follow-up inspections in their daily inspection report.• Conduct final follow-up inspections and correct test deficiencies prior to the addition of new features of work.
DOCUMENTATION• Project documents will be managed through a combination of a secure document filing and storage system and a computerized document tracking system.• Sufficient records shall be prepared and maintained as work is performed to furnish documentary evidence of the quality of construction and laboratory analysis and of activities affecting quality.• Each contractor QC technician shall maintain a daily log of all inspections performed for both contractor and subcontractor operations on a form acceptable to the CM.• The Daily Inspection and Daily Test reports shall be signed by the responsible QC technician and the QCM.• The CM shall be provided at least one copy of each daily inspection and test report on the work day following the day of record.
DAILY CONSTRUCTION REPORT• A daily construction report will be prepared and signed by each FE and FI.• The report will include a summary of the contractor’s daily construction activities.• Supporting inspection data sheets will be attached to the daily report where needed.the daily construction report will include the following information:1. Date, project name, location, and other identification2. Description of weather conditions, including temperature, cloud cover, and precipitation3. Reports on any meetings held and their results4. Record of visitors to site
5. Locations of construction underway during that day6. Equipment and personnel working in each activity, including subcontractors7. Descriptions of work being inspected8. Decisions made regarding approval of units of material or of work, and corrective actions to be taken9. Description of problems or delays and resolution10. Communications with contractor staff11. Construction activities completed and/or in progress12. Progress photos, where applicable13. Signature of the report preparer
INSPECTION AND TESTING REPORT1. Description or title of the inspection activity2. Location of the inspection activity or location from which the sample was obtained3. Recorded observation or test data4. Results of the inspection activity5. Personnel involved in the inspection activity6. Signature of the inspector
Quality control circles• In addition to the quality control team, quality control circle, which is a small group formed voluntarily within the organisation.• Employees from all hierarchal levels meet to discuss the problems and find solutions.
Principles of planning• The plan should form a basis for project monitoring and control• It should be flexible• It should be realistic• It should be comprehensive
roles of planning• Initial screening• Designing• Tendering• Constructing• commissioning
advantages of planning• When the contractor prepares the network schedule, he studies the work properly.• A detailed programme in conjunction with cost control can prevent the loss of money.• Planning lays down a preconceived programme not only for the whole project but also for the various stages of work.
stages of planning• Preplanning• Detailed planning• Monitoring and control
types of plans• Standing plan• Single use plan• Strategic plan• Administrative plan
Standing plan• Plans which are used repeatedly and include the management’s policies, procedures and rules.
Single use plan• Used for single purpose• Designed to accomplish specific objective within a relatively short period of time
Strategic plan• Concerned with broad matters that affect the development of an organisation• The factors being economic, technological and environmental• Emphasis is given to predicting the future behaviour of external variables and formulation of alternative types of action in the light of the expected events
Administrative plan• Less subjective than strategic plan• Focuses on how to accomplish the objective of the project or the organisation• Concerned with factors within the control of the organisation
Agencies involved in planning• Owner• Builder/contractor