Pm deep dive quality management


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Pm deep dive quality management

  1. 1. PM DeepDiveProject Quality Management - Niraj Agarwal May 2011 Slide 1
  2. 2. Project Quality ManagementDefinitionProject Quality Management processes include all the activities of theperforming organization that determine quality policies, objectives, andresponsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it wasundertaken.Quality Planning – identifying which quality standards are relevant tothe project and determining how to satisfy them.Perform Q lit AP f Quality Assurance – applying the planned, systematic quality l i th l d t ti litactivities to ensure that the project employs all processes needed tomeet requirements.Perform Quality Control – monitoring specific project results to f l l f ldetermine whether they comply with relevant quality standards andidentifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. May 2011 Slide 2
  3. 3. Project Quality ManagementWhat is Quality?• The totality of characteristics—features functionalities and characteristics features,performance requirements—of an entity that bear on its ability tosatisfy stated or implied needs.• In simpler terms, the degree to which the project fulfils requirements terms requirements.• Quality and Grade are different concepts. Grade is a category or rankgiven to entities having the same functional use but different qualityrequirements. Hi h G d means more features and f i t Higher Grade f t d functions, not ti tnecessarily higher quality. May 2011 Slide 3
  4. 4. Project Quality ManagementGoals of Quality• Conformance to the requirements - Does the product or serviceconform to the requirements?• Fitness for use - Is the product or service capable of being used?• Fitness for purpose - Does the product or service meet its intendedpurpose?• Customer Satisfaction - Understanding, managing, and influencing g g g gneeds so that customer expectations are met or exceeded.• Prevention over Inspection - The cost of avoiding mistakes is alwaysmuch less t a t e cost o co ect g t e uc ess than the of correcting them May 2011 Slide 4
  5. 5. Project Quality ManagementCost of Quality• Cost of quality is the total cost of all the work required to assure theproject meets the quality standards.• These costs include all the work required, planned and unplanned, tomeet these standards, as well as the cost of nonconformance rework standards nonconformance, rework,and quality assessments.• In other words Cost of Quality is cost of conformance plus the cost ofnon conformance. f May 2011 Slide 5
  6. 6. Project Quality ManagementMajor Cost Categories of Quality• Prevention costs are the costs of keeping defects out of the hands ofthe customers. These costs include quality planning, training, designreview, contractor or supplier costs, and any product or process testingyyou may p y perform.• Appraisal costs include the activities performed to examine theproduct or process and make certain the quality requirements are beingmet. Appraisal costs include inspection, testing, and formal qualityaudits. May 2011 Slide 6
  7. 7. Project Quality ManagementMajor Cost Categories of Quality• Failure costs include the cost of activities needed if the product fails fails.• Failure costs are also known as the cost of poor quality. - Internal failure costs result when the customer requirements are not satisfied but the product is still in the control of the organization. Some examples of internal failure costs include corrective action, rework, scrapping, and downtime. - External failure costs occur when the product has reached the customer and they determine it doesn’t meet their requirements. Example external failure costs include inspections at the customer site, returns, and customer service costs. d May 2011 Slide 7
  8. 8. Project Quality ManagementMajor Cost Categories of Quality May 2011 Slide 8
  9. 9. Plan QualityDefinition & ITTOThe process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards forthe project. May 2011 Slide 9
  10. 10. Plan Quality May 2011 Slide 10
  11. 11. Plan QualityTools & Techniques• Benefit/cost analysis - Considers cost and benefits arising fromdifferent approaches to quality planning• Benchmarking - Established standards, practices, or performancesfrom other projects or market that can be used as comparison• Design of experiments (DOE) - An analytical technique which helpsto identify variables with greatest influences• Flowcharting uses diagrams that depict the relationship of variouselements in the project. May 2011 Slide 11
  12. 12. Plan QualityQuality metrics• A quality metric is a standard of measurement that specificallydefines what will be measured and how it will be measured.• You can define metrics for any area of the project.• E.g. A web sales application - To measure quality of the checkoutprocess, your metric might state that when the customer implementsthe checkout process, the system will multiply the price of each item bytheth quantity of it tit f items ordered and compute th applicable sales t and d d d t the li bl l tax dshipping charges 100 percent of the time. This metric would be part ofthe test scenarios used in the user acceptance test. May 2011 Slide 12
  13. 13. Plan QualityQuality checklists• A quality checklist is a tool that lists a series of steps that must betaken to complete an activity or process.• As each step is completed, it is marked off the list.• This provides documentation that the steps were completed and canalso be used to track when the step was taken and who performed thework.• Typically phrased as imperatives (DO IT! - LISTS) or asinterrogatives (HAS THIS BEEN DONE? - LISTS) May 2011 Slide 13
  14. 14. Quality Assurance ProcessDefinition & ITTOThe application of planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that plannedthe project will employ all processes needed to meet requirements. May 2011 Slide 14
  15. 15. Quality Assurance ProcessITTO May 2011 Slide 15
  16. 16. Quality Assurance ProcessQuality Audits• A structured independent review of quality management activities todetermine whether project activities comply with organizational andproject policies, processes, and procedures.• Identify Lessons Learned for performance improvements• Performed on a scheduled and random basis• Can be performed by trained in-house auditors or by external p y yauditors May 2011 Slide 16
  17. 17. Perform Quality ControlDefinition & ITTOThe Monitoring specific process to determine if they comply withrelevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes ofunsatisfactory results. May 2011 Slide 17
  18. 18. Perform Quality Control May 2011 Slide 18
  19. 19. Perform Quality ControlCause and Effect Diagrams• Cause and Effect Diagrams are also called fishbone diagrams orIshikawa diagrams• Analyze the inputs to a process to identify the causes of errors. CAUSES EFFECT TIME MACHINE METHOD MATERIAL MAJOR DEFECTENERGY MEASUREMENT PERSONNEL ENVIRONMENT May 2011 Slide 19
  20. 20. Perform Quality ControlPareto Chart• A relatively small number of causes will typically produce a largemajority of the problems or defects.• Accredited for the 80/20 Rule• A Histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows howmany results were generated by type or category of identified causes.• Defects with most frequent occurrence should be targeted for q gcorrective action. May 2011 Slide 20
  21. 21. Pop QuizQuestion 1A quality technique that analyzes similar activities as a meansof comparison is known as what?A. Cost - benefit analysisB. Cost of qualityC. FlowchartingD.D Benchmarking May 2011 Slide 21
  22. 22. Pop QuizQuestion 2The benefits of meeting quality requirements include all ofthe following except for which one?A. Increased satisfactionB. Less reworkC. Higher productivityD.D Lower costsE. Improved quality metrics May 2011 Slide 22
  23. 23. Pop QuizQuestion 3Which of the following are the types of cost of quality? Choosethree.A. Failure costsB. Prevention costsC. Appraisal costsD.D Equipment costsE. Resource costsF. Quality Planning costsG. Extended support costs May 2011 Slide 23
  24. 24. Pop QuizQuestion 4These costs are also known as the cost of poor quality.A. Appraisal costsB. Corrective costsC. Prevention costsD. Failure costs May 2011 Slide 24
  25. 25. Thank You!