• Construction Safety Management: role of various
parties, duties and responsibilities of top
management, site managers, supervisors etc. role of
safety officers, responsibilities of general employees,
safety committee, safety training, incentives and
monitoring, writing safety manuals, preparing safety
checklists and inspection reports.
• Construction activity in India has travelled a long distance, from the
humble beginning of building simple structures and roads and minor
civil work projects, the industry has changed significantly
particularly over the years following independence.
• The social concern of the safety of construction workers and their
protection against injury arising out of their employment has been
quite evident from a long term.
• Importance of Safety
• The construction industry, employing the largest labour
force in the country has accounted for about 11 % of all
occupational injuries and 20 % of all deaths resulting from
occupational accidents. The cost of accidents is expensive.
However, economic cost is not the only reason for which a
contractor should be conscious of safety. The reasons for
considering safety include:
• Humanitarian Concern: When the accident happens, the resulting
suffering of the injured workers and their families is difficult to
quantify in economic terms. The contractor should never ignore if he
has insurance against accidents.
• Economic Reasons: Even if a contractor has insurance, he will find
out that the cost of accidents will come out of his own pocket
through an increase in increase premiums. In addition, there are
othe indirect costs that result from accidents. The direct & indirect
cost of accidents can be
• Medical Care expenses for injured
• Workmen’s compensation costs
• Insurance premium increases.
• Replacement cost of equipment and material damaged in accidents.
• Facility repair and cleanup
• Replacement cost of equipment ad material damaged in accidents
• Facility repair and cleanup.
• Fee for legal counsel
• Slowdown in operation
• Decrease in morale which affects productivity
• Productive time lost by injured worker and fellow workers
• Administrative work associated with accidents
• Loss of clients
• Overtime necessitated by work slowdown
• Laws & Regulations As per different acts & Laws, the
employer should look after the safety of the employee.
Violation of these laws will be subjected to punishment.
• A good safety Record can produce higher morale and
productivity and stronger employee loyalty. It will also
improve the company’s public Image and therefore make it
easier to acquire negotiated jobs.
16. Safety in construction Industry
• An organization setup Safety Engineering Department
has to play basically the role of catalyst which
communicates the message of safety and motivates
the employee to adopt safe practices. For exercising
their effective control over unsafe practices and ensue
safety each & every line manager has to understand
the importance of safety.
17. Role of Managers
• Safe Production should be motto of the manager. With a strong
conviction of safety, he has to impart the message.
• Instruction of Work
• This should contain all the element of information
• Who: Assignment of Responsibility
• How: Standard operating practices
• When: time schedule
• Where: Place of work
• What: The work to be assigned
19. Role of Managers
• Instruction should be clear, specific, easily understood by employees.
If any of the above element is missing it will result in “
• A line manager should watch closely whether his instruction are
followed and 100 % safe practices.
• Employee are to be persuaded to mold their behavior to adopt safe
practices. 5 min safety interaction by the shift in-charge before
deployment on the job will slowly change employee’s behavior
21. Role of Managers
• Every job demands a level of technical knowledge and skill. It’s the
responsibility of a line manager to train the employee to gain
knowledge and skill comparable to job hazards.
• To motivate the employee to observe safety norms, should be
encouraged by the line managers. A team or individual who is safety
conscious should be suitable and timely rewarded. The first principle
is to practice what we preach.
23. Role of Managers
• Summing Up:
• A line manager has the following role to play:
• To ensure operation with acceptable safety standards.
• To ensure follow up of all stator norms and safety recommendations
• To keep employee informed about hazards, risks and safety measures.
• To procure material and equipment which meet safety requirement.
• To formulate and implement standard operating and maintenance
• To ensure proper up keep of equipment.
• To ensure proper work environment.
• To formulate and implement inspection schedules for house-keeping
25. Role of Managers
• To ensure restricted entry in vital/ hazardous installation.
• To arrange for suitable job and safety training by expert faculties.
• To ensure use of safety appliances as per jobs,
• To ensure proper safety training to new employee.
• To show concern for safety in every jobs.
• To plan for emergency situations and make arrangements i.e. . Fire
fighting transport, medical services.
26. Role of Safety Officers
• The basic functions of safety officers can be listed as follows:
• Inspection of shops, and equipment's, with a view to identification of
hazards, unsafe practices and conditions,
• Assessment of Hazards and help liquidation of Unsafe point so that at least
acceptable level of risk is achieved.
• Investigation of all minor and major accidents and documentations of
statistics and building of management information system
• Communication of information to statutory body and the management.
• Checking of system of work, identify the lapses and giving feedback to
management for setting things right.
28. Role of Safety Officers
• To liaison with factory inspector and ensure compliance of statutory
• To educate all employee regarding provisions under factory act.
• Training and deployment based on need based safety training inputs
including contractor workers.
• Safety monitoring of major repair associated in protocol jobs.
• To organize safety Audits.
• To create safety awareness by innovative work in the field of safety,
display posters, hoardings, banners, slogans.
• To monitor and ensure excellence in industrial Safety Management.
30. Role of Employee
• Following are the model code of Code of conduct.
• Every employee will co-operate with the employer in carrying out
the provisions of this code.
• Every employee shall forth with report the employer or the foreman
any defect that he may discover in the Industrial Establishment or the
appliances used there on
• Every employee shall make proper use of all safe guards, safety
devices and the appliance furnished in accordance with the code for
his protection or the protection of others and shall obey all safety
instructions made or approved by the competent authority,
pertaining to his work.
32. Role of Employee
• No employee shall interfere with remove, displace, damage or
destroy any safety devices or the other appliances furnished for his
protection, or the protection of others or interfere with any method
or process adopted with a view to minimizing occupational hazards.
• All employee shall comply, in regard to their conduct, with the
requirement of their code.
34. Approaches to Safety
• Mr. Trevor Kietz of ICI U.K has enlisted various approaches to safety.
• The Prist Type: This is a method of sermon giving where a safety manager conveys only
benefits of safety to the workers.
• The Lawer Type: Such managers believes in statutory obligations. He sees every aspect of
safety with references to acts and rules.
• Police Man type: He sees safety with punishment angle and brands injured employee as
careless. He imposes safety without going into details. He is a fault finder not a fact
• Statician type; In this method statistics are collected and safety needs are explained on
• Engineer like: He believes that the only way to combact evil of accidents is by
introducing technical system in industrial activities.
• Postman type approach: He believes in display of safety posters and slogans.
• All the above methods separately applied yields partial results.
35. Role of Management in Ensuring Safety
• The basic ingredient of safety Management can be listed as follows:
• To setup a strong foundation by suitable staffing of safety
• To establish a system of reporting, Investigation, data collection,
analysis and decision making.(Organizing)
• To predict, discover, control and eliminate the hazards(Planning)
• To promote safety activities to impart knowledge and skill (Leading)
• To apprise worker regarding man-machine interface
37. Role of Management in Ensuring Safety
• To analyze the cause of accidents in time and enforce remedies
• To motivate workers by suitable rewards and recognition (Leading)
• To be keen in good house keeping, removing unsafe condition
• To care for job satisfaction by proper deployment. (Leading)
• To make disaster management plan & enforce (Planning)
• To make action plan for each managers within time frame and
• Discussion on compliance and corrective action (Controlling)
39. Safety Management
• Safety management is essential for the desired changes in system of work and
• It develops a sense of safety in work activities.
• It helps in acquiring basic knowledge of hazards and precautions.
• To prepare employee to make useful contribution
• To develop clean habits
• To increase efficiency in the use of tools, equipment's and processes.
• To consider and implement useful and effective suggestions.
• To make workplace more pleasant and human with the application of
ergonomics and house keeping.
• To generate feeling of Participation and Job satisfaction,
• To achieve the goal of quality, productivity and profit.
41. Management Aspect
• Safety Manual
• Prepare a safety manual for the company.
• Safety Co-coordinator
• Depute full time/ part time safety coordinators depending upon the
size of the project site and natural hazards.
• Worker Screening
• Screening of Workmen
42. Management Aspect
• Project Safety Plan
• Prepare a project safety Plan
• (a) Overall Scope of work : Fabrication, erection, excavation,
concreting, brickwork, finishing work, painting, blasting, non
destructive tests, etc.
• (b) Obligation Chart: Responsibility of the line functionaries and
reporting of the line functionaries and reporting of the safety
44. Management Aspect
(d) Job Related specific PPE
(e) General Site safety Rules
• Use of PPE and safety devices relevant to site activities
• General house keeping, stacking of materials.
• Road safety inside the projects
• Access/ egress and workstation safety.
• Safe Use of Construction Power.
• Work permit System
• Use of maintenance and inspection of plant and machinery
• Use of safe materials handling and personal handling equipment.
• Fire Prevention and protection
• Contingency Plan
46. Management Aspect
• Identification of High Risk/ Hazardous Operations in the site and their Appropriate
• Structural and equipment erection
• Precast erection
• Pile driving
• Road works: existing roads/ new roads
• Use, handling, storage of compressed gas cylinder
• Pressure Testing
48. Management Aspect
• Checklist and Reports
• General Site Safety Inspections
• Excavation, demolition, blasting, scaffoldings, ladders, working
platforms, PPE, structural fabrication and erection, gas cutting and
welding, means of access, electrical work, fire prevention and
protection, road safety, first aid box, safety boards, posters, stickers,
drinking water, sanitation, emergency vehicles.
50. Management Aspect
• Statistics and Reports
• Accidents Investigation Report
• (a) Action taken report
• (b) Weekly analysis of accidents
• (c) Monthly safety statistics
• (d) Register of first aid
• (e) Subcontractors
51. Management Aspect
• Job Safety Analysis
• Identity of tasks
• Third Party (Competent person) Inspection, examination and testing
• Safety Training
• Safety awareness Programme.
52. Safety Information
• Communication Plays an Important role in Industrial Safety
Management. The reports are generated for onward transmission
so that managerial action are taken to create safety awareness and
liquidation of Unsafe points.
• I.O.W Forms
• Details of Accidents are sent in this “Injury on Works” format which
contains nature of industry, causes, data and time of accident, exact
location where the accident took place with other details. This format
is submitted by the department after signature of officer concerned.
53. Safety Information
• Investigation and Personnel Form:
• The accident is investigated by the team members of Section, In
charge of safety and the facts are found out of which helps in
collection of input information.
• First Information Report:
• The road accident caused outside the plant are reported to safety
Engineering Dept./ authorized representative of the department
within 24 hrs. The information is sent to personal dept. Investigations
are carried out by the member of safety Engineering Department and
54. Safety Information
• Injury Extension Certificate
• Inspection Reports
• This report is submitted by safety personnel after inspection of
different shop/ areas and indicates about safety status of different
55. Approaches To Improve Safety
• Recognizing the Importance of safety performance, a contractor can
approach the problem in four different ways:
• Organizational Approach, Physical Approach, Behavioral Approach,
and economic incentives.
56. Approaches To Improve Safety
• Organizational Approach
• A safety programme cannot be successful without an appropriate
organizational setup. A company safety programme should be a part
of the contractor’s business, just as scheduling and cost accounting,
• Safety Department:
• A formal safety department is essential in a company. This
department should be incharge of the safety and jobsite
representatives, recording and analyzing safety and other accident
57. Approaches To Improve Safety
• A safety committee should be set up to guide the operation of safety
programs. The members of the committee should include all levels of
workers and management to reflect opinions on safety from all levels. It
should review the company’s safety programme periodically.
• Field Procedures
• A system must be designed to process safety suggestions from workers, the
people who carries out the daily construction process, since they are in the
best position to detect any possible accidents. They should be reminded
and encouraged to bring out any unsafe procedure detected in their daily
59. Approaches To Improve Safety
• Field Management and supervisor should be evaluated for
promotions and salary increases in terms of safety record as well as
productivity and cost.
• Safety Cost
• The cost of accounting system should be adjusted to encouraged
safety by allocating safety costs to company account and allocating
accident costs to project accounts.
60. Physical Approach
• In Physical aspects, a contractor can improve safety performance using following
• New workers should be given a safety orientation.
• For every project the contractor must study in advance the possible accidents
that the proposed construction methods, procedure and equipment may create.
Then an accident prevention plan should be devised to take care of those
• The contractor should enforce the use of approved equipment for personal
protection such as hard hats, safety belts, glasses, goggles, gloves, etc.
• The contractor should integrate safety programmes with other programmes,
such as scheduling and budgeting during preplanning procedure. This will help
to identify possible accidents inherent in the work to be done, to suggest
remedial training if necessary, to assure the proper tools and equipment will be
available for the work, and to verify the method selected are safe according to
61. Physical Approach
• Periodic checking of tools and equipment if necessary in order to
make sure that they are well maintained.
• Conduct periodic safety meetings, such tool box meetings, to provide
safety education on the job.
• Seek and obtain full cooperation from all subcontractors on the
62. Behavioral Approach
• Studies conducted disclose that more than 80 % of all
accidents result from worker’s unsafe acts, while only 10 %
result from failure of equipment's or improper procedure,
Apparently, this is the most potential for improving safety
performance. Also, the behavior of managers on every level
has significantly influence on workers safety performance
64. Behavioral Approach
• The following guidelines will be found useful:
• Top management, while visiting job sites or meeting in the main
office should talk about safety in the same manner as they talk about
schedules and costs. This will make the subordinates understand that
safety is an important as cost and schedules, so that the importance
of safety will not be ignored.
65. Behavioral Approach
• The Project manager and the superintendents should not place
unnecessary pressure on foeman such as over emphasis on meeting the
estimated budget and schedule. Usually this will make foremen choose
unacceptable method that often lead to higher possibility of accidents.
• Craft foremen are the key persons in behavioral approach as to better
safety, because they q the persons who have daily contact with Workers.
They are also the person in the best position to detect the workers
• The foremen along with project manager and superintendent should try to
create and maintain good relationship between members of crew crafts If
workers have pleasant relationship with each other, they tend to be more
concerned about their co-workers safety.
66. Approaches To Improve Safety
• Economic Incentives
• Owners as well as contractors should always bear in mind and take
into consideration the economic benefits due to safety at the
worksite. If a complete estimate should be taken into account for the
cost of their safety programme as percentage of direct field labour
costs, their estimate would result in some positive return for the
amount spent on safety programme. The contractors should also
reward workers for good safety performance. This creates
perseverance on their part to learn more, know, practice and strive
towards a high level of safety at the job site.