Abraham Maslow feels that individuals have certain
needs that must be met in an hierarchical fashion,
from the lowest to highest.
Critic of the "banking" model of education, in which
the elite own and construct the knowledge, and the
poor are excluded
Radical thinker and maths teacher,
best known for How Children Fail.
Malcolm Knowles' "Andragogy"
(supposedly the adult equivalent of
"pedagogy") is a leading "brand" in adult
The need to know — adult learners need to know
why they need to learn something before
undertaking to learn it.
Learner self-concept —adults need to be
responsible for their own decisions and to be
treated as capable of self-direction
Readiness to learn —adults are ready to learn those
things they need to know in order to cope effectively
with life situations.
Orientation to learning —adults are motivated to
learn to the extent that they perceive that it will
help them perform tasks they confront in their life
Issues dealing with self-esteem,
self-fulfillment, and needs are
paramount. The major focus is to
facilitate personal development.
Two major theorists associated
with this view are Carl Rogers and
Carl Rogers feels that each person operates from a
unique frame of reference in terms of building Self
Regard or their self concept. Self Concept is one's
own belief about themselves. These beliefs stem, in
part, from the notion of Unconditional Positive
Unconditional positive regard occurs when
unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is
when that love seems to only come when certain
conditions are met. Rogers theory states that
psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the
fullest, hence, they are seen as fully functioning
Abraham Maslow feels that indivduals
have certain needs that must be met in an
hierarchical fashion, from the lowest to
highest. These include basic needs, safety
needs, love and belonging needs,
achievement needs, and ultimately, SelfActualization.
According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,
the needs must be achieved in order. For
instance, one would be unable to fulfill
their safety needs if their physiological
needs have not been met.
. The levels are as follows:
Self-actualization – morality, creativity, problem
achievement, respect, etc.
Belongingness – includes love, friendship, intimacy,
Safety – includes security of environment,
employment, resources, health, property, etc.
Physiological – includes air, food, water, sex, sleep,
other factors towards homeostasis, etc.
understandable mechanism for examining
an individual's need for conflict in order to
create peace. This simplistic theory has
become a favorite and popular topic
Additionally, the struggle for mankind to
gain greater understanding and meaning
cornerstone conflict in entertainment and
Implication in language learning
There are many theories on learning TEFL
methodology. What we can conclude is that when we
learn something, some sort of change has occurred
within us. Also, we know that learning occurs through
life and although it often takes place in a social
context, it is a highly individualized process; we all
have different learning styles. Theories on language
learning and teaching evolve from the fields of
psychology and linguistics.
Whether one agrees with previous theories for
learning TEFL methodology or not, the
important implication in a course of English as
a Foreign Language (E.F.L.) is that students
learn -and acquire- a given language by means
of eclectic (combination) approaches. Also,
they learn and acquire language without even
being aware of the existence of learning
principles embedded in different learning
HUMANISTIC APPROACHES to language
learning, like “Community Language
Learning”, “Silent Way”, “Suggestopedia”,
and “Total Physical Response”, have
stressed the importance of the individual
learner and of her social and affective
dimensions. Learning has thus come to be
seen as a global experience of the whole
personality, and not merely as the smooth
working of mental processes.