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Introductory Psychology: Sensation & Perception: Auditory+

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lecture 17 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University, includes anatomy of ear, sound localization

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Introductory Psychology: Sensation & Perception: Auditory+

  1. 1. Sensation & Perception II: Audition+ Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Objectives• Audition (hearing)• Olfaction (smell)• Gustatory (taste)• Touch/Pain & pain control!
  3. 3. Audition Sound waves are compressing and expanding air molecules.Wavelength: determines pitch, measured in Hz (20 – 20kHz)Amplitude: determines loudness, measured in dB
  4. 4. Loudness 120 dB-----------------------------------------
  5. 5. Pitch • 50 kHz: + – Drugs Testing consisted of placing the subjects in a 45 by 3520 cm opaque plastic test box with corn-cob bedding. – Sex Subjects then received 2 min exposure to a – Play standard tickle test-sessions consisting of four successive cycles of 15 s of no stimulation followed by 15 s of – “Tickling” tickle stimulation [13]. This procedure was conducted once per day for two consecutive days. For all animals • 22 kHz: - (in this and all subsequent experiments) the tickling was done with the right hand and consisted of rapid initial – Cold finger movements across the back with a focus on the neck, followed by rapidly turning the animals over on – Fear their backs, with vigorous tickling of their ventral surface, followed by release after a few seconds of stimulation. This was repeated throughout each tickling session. EvenPaaksep & Burgdorf (2000) Behav Brain Research, though the tickling was brisk and assertive,care was115, 25-38. taken not to frighten the animals.
  6. 6. Hearing• Sound -> Ear -> Auditory Nerve -> Temporal Cortex
  7. 7. Dr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals UnlimitedThe Ear
  8. 8. The EarOuter Ear: Collects and sends sounds to the eardrum.Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochleacontaining three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup)that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on thecochlea.Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing thecochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
  9. 9. CochleaCochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in theinner ear that transforms sound vibrations toauditory signals.Carpet Explanation
  10. 10. Localization of SoundsBecause we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound.
  11. 11. Localization of Sound 1. Intensity differences 2. Time differencesTime differences as small as 1/100,000 of a secondcan cause us to localize sound. The head acts as a “shadow” or partial sound barrier.
  12. 12. Critical & Sensitive Periods• Time during development when stimulation is especially important• Visual example• Language example
  13. 13. Neuroplasticity (10% Myth)Merabet & Pascual-Leone (2010) Nature Neurosci, 11, 44-52.
  14. 14. TouchThe sense of touch is a mix of four distinct skin senses—pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.
  15. 15. Skin SensesOnly pressure has identifiable receptors. All otherskin sensations are variations of pressure, warmth, cold and pain. Pressure Vibration Burning hot Cold, warmth and pain
  16. 16. Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Pain tells the body that something has gonewrong. Usually pain results from damage to the skin and other tissues. A rare disease exists in which the afflicted person feels no pain. AP Photo/ Stephen Morton Ashley Blocker (right) feels neither pain nor extreme hot or cold.
  17. 17. Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy Pain tells the body that something has gone wrong. Usually pain results from damage to the skin and other tissues. A rare disease exists in which the afflicted person feels no pain.5 min:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vLsZ_dXFAg
  18. 18. “I feel your pain” • fMRI is used in females to examine activation during pain (electric shock) versus non-pain • Self versus significant otherSinger et al. (2004). Science, 303, 1157-1162.
  19. 19. Empathy for PainPain > No PainSelfOtherSinger et al. (2004). Science, 303, 1157-1162.
  20. 20. Sympathetic Pregnancy• Male experiences: – Weight gain – Nausea – Hormone abnormalities – Labor pains
  21. 21. Therapeutic Touch • Worth -> Neuroscience & Methodology -> Scientific AttitudeRosa et al. (1998). JAMA, 279, 1005-1010.
  22. 22. Therapeutic Touch • Worth -> Neuroscience & Methodology -> Scientific AttitudeRosa et al. (1998). JAMA, 279, 1005-1010.
  23. 23. Therapeutic Touch • Worth -> Neuroscience & Methodology -> Scientific AttitudeRosa et al. (1998). JAMA, 279, 1005-1010.
  24. 24. Gate-Control TheoryMelzack and Wall (1965, 1983) proposed that our spinal cord contains neurological “gates” that either block pain or allow it to be sensed.
  25. 25. Pain Control & AcupuncturePain can be controlled by a number of therapiesincluding drugs, surgery, exercise, hypnosis, andeven thought distraction.
  26. 26. Pain Control & Acupuncture• Chronic back pain patients completed a double-blind study with 6 licensed acupuncturists (4-19 years experience): – Individualized – Standardized – Sham – Usual Care
  27. 27. Interpretation?
  28. 28. Evaluating Information• Backward- Pubmed• Forward: Google Scholar
  29. 29. Biopsychosocial Influences
  30. 30. Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet,salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors fora fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”. Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami (Fresh Chicken)
  31. 31. Receptors• Sweet: sucrose• Sour: pH• Saltiness: NaCl• Bitter: organic (Carbon)• Umami: Monosodium Glutamate• Fat: ?
  32. 32. SmellLike taste, smell is a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 millionreceptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell.
  33. 33. Tracking in HumansPorter et al. (2006) Nature Neuroscience, 10, 27-29.Quick Time Video (2 min): ID 80474881 PW 03171962http://www.nature.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/neuro/journal/v10/n1/extref/nn1819-S2.mov
  34. 34. Sensory Interaction When one sense affects another sense, sensoryinteraction takes place. So, the taste of strawberry interacts with its smell and its texture on the tongue to produce flavor.
  35. 35. Smell and Memories The brain region forsmell (in red) is closely connected with thebrain regions involved with memory (limbic system). That is why strong memories aremade through the sense of smell.
  36. 36. 6th Sense: Body Position and Movement The sense of our body parts’ position andmovement is called kinesthesis. The vestibularsense monitors the head (and body’s) position.
  37. 37. Integration of Auditory & Visual• McGurk Effect• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G- lN8vWm3m0
  38. 38. Brain & Senses• Phantom Limb Pain: may occur following loss of appendage• Tinnitus: an auditory sensation that may occur following hearing loss• Phantom Sights: visual hallucinations that may occur following visual loss
  39. 39. Psychological Factors in Perception• Kids: carrots + milk• Adults: wine & music (Joshua Bell)• Last 30 sec: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnOPu0_YWhw
  40. 40. Pain Perception• Harvard undergraduates rated the painfulness of electric shocks.• A confederate was employed to manipulate intentionality.Gray & Wegner (2008) Psychological Science, 19, 1260-1262.
  41. 41. Summary• Structures of Sensation• Perception > Sensation• John Milton: The mind is its own place, and in itself can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven.

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