Functional english1


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Functional english1

  1. 1. Functional English To interact with teachers andTo interact with teachers and classmatesclassmates Make explanations during tutorialsMake explanations during tutorials and practical sessions.and practical sessions. Take part in seminars and workshops,Take part in seminars and workshops, technical presentations.technical presentations. Academic discussions, viva voce, andAcademic discussions, viva voce, and so on. 2
  2. 2. To take part in discussions, meetings, conferences, seminars, business presentations, telephonic conversations, teleconferences and videoconferences, and so forth. In fact, success in the highly competitive environment of today will depend not just on professional knowledge but also on the ability to present that knowledge in an appropriate oral form. 3
  3. 3. Conversation Skills Includes the ability to Start a conversation Choose a topic for conversation Help others to start Move conversation from one topic to another, and Conclude a conversation naturally 4
  4. 4. Functions of Conversation To convey information in order to help achieve an individual or group goal. Small talk is a type of conversation where the topic is less important that the social purpose of achieving bonding between people or managing personal distance. 5
  5. 5. Starting a Conversation • Never hesitate to start • Always try to break the ice • Start with close-ended questions • Do not be blunt about anything • Talk about some personal information Job and workplace – good subjects • Involve the whole group • Talk with confidence 6
  6. 6. Face your fears! Be comfortable with yourself Be sincere with your praise Ask thoughtful questions Choose comfortable topics Use conventional gap fillers Express that you want further contacts 7
  7. 7. Tips for Interesting Conversation Outline the points for conversation Keep words simple and understandable Interrupt only when needed Dot not talk to impress Assess your listener’s interest and personality 8
  8. 8. Formal Conversation Formal content / elements Always factual, Formal words and expressions Accepted rules and customs Fixed norms of behavior associated with the conduct of official matters Always formal in style Objective approach Logical organized and structured 9
  9. 9. Informal Conversation Personal and emotional content / elements May be emotional or factual Colloquial words and expressions No accepted rules No fixed norms Both formal and informal in style Both objective and subjective 10
  10. 10. STRATEGIES FOR GOOD CONVERSATION Good conversation largely depends on our ability to adjust to other people and our positive attitude. Most students cannot converse well and face difficulties in talking to their teachers, colleagues, and even friends. Conversation skills can be improved by following some basic tips regarding good conversation and learning effective conversation techniques. 11
  11. 11. Conversation Techniques Be an Active Listener Be a good Speaker Speak with Clarity Use Pauses Do not Argue Be Interested Be Simple Be Polite Be Friendly Be Positive 12 Be flexible Be Tactful Effective conversation requires clarity, simplicity, politeness, flexibility, tact, good manners, and positive attitude.
  12. 12. Body Language (Kinesics) Which does not involve words or speech. It is also called as one of the non verbal communications. It includes - Facial expressions - Eye contact - Gestures - Body shape and posture - Appearance 13
  13. 13. Why Body Language is important? Body language plays a big role in intuition as it gives us messages about the other person, that we can interpret at an intuitive level. The pressure of body language can especially be felt in emotional situations. 1438% 7% 55%
  14. 14. Facial Expressions 15
  15. 15. Facial expression anger fear joy sorrow contemptsurprise disgust
  16. 16. Eye Contact Good or positive eye contact improves the effectiveness of a verbal message during oral interaction. Direct eye contact of more than 10 seconds can create discomfort and anxiety. Averted eyes show anger, hurt feelings. Looking at somebody for a long time shows the intensity of our interest in him/her. 17
  17. 17. Eye contact It’s mine! Hey, sweet heart. No,it’s mine!
  18. 18. Gestures A gesture refers to the use of fingers, hands, and arms for expressions. Emblems: - Patting the stomach – I’m full of food. - Nodding the head up and down – yes - Yawning – I’m bored. - Waving – hello Illustrators Regulators Displays 19
  19. 19. Gestures Positive -Leaning a little towards the speaker. - Tilting the head. - Eye contact with the speaker. - Gently nodding the head in agreement. 20 Negative - Hands in the pocket - Covering the mouth with the hand while speaking - Scratching - Drumming fingers. - Tapping feet - Sitting on the edge of the chair - Clicking the pen
  20. 20. 21 In any face-to-face communication or meeting or interview the way we hold our head, body shape and posture is very important.
  21. 21. Tips to Improve Body Language  Don’t cross your arms or legs  Have eye contact, but don’t stare  Don’t be afraid to take up some space  Relax your shoulders  Nod when they are talking  Don’t slouch; sit up straight  Lean, but not too much  Smile and laugh 22 Don’t touch your face Keep your head up Slow down a bit Don’t fidget /move restlessly Use your hands more confidently Don’t stand too close Keep a good attitude
  22. 22. Generally, people retain 10% of what they READ 20% of what they HEAR 30% of what they SEE 50% of what they SEE and HEAR 70% of what they SAY 90% of what they SAY and DO 23
  23. 23. Some of the useful expressions These expressions in their variety are meant to help you enrich your spoken and Written language. Gradually those expressions become yours and you will use them normally The more you practice them, the better you master them. Take it for granted that The language is first and foremost a means of communication. The more you practice it the More you become perfect. Finally, remember that the world would understand and appreciate What you say if you said it in the right way. 24
  24. 24. 25 For speaking only I mean.... You see.... Well, let me see... Look! Listen! If you see what I mean! Do you see what I mean? Let’s get this into perspective. Watch it! Picture this. Look here! All right! Is that clear enough?
  25. 25. 26 Asking for Opinion I was wondering where you stood on the question of immigration? What's your position on global warming? What's your opinion of my cooking? What do you think of love? How do you feel about building a space prison for criminals?
  26. 26. 27 Giving Opinion In my opinion the consequences of global warming will be fatal. As far as I'm concerned love is the noblest feeling. From my point of view, poverty could be fought with solidarity.
  27. 27. 28 As I see it, you are getting better. I think / reckon / presume / gather it will get worse with time. It would seem to me that technologies will control us sooner or later. It seems to me that democracy is the solution for developing countries.
  28. 28. 29 I believe politics should be more human... I figure that we are doomed to protect our planet before it is too late. To my mind cloning should be restricted. According to me Euthanasia should be banned. What I think / mean / believe is that developed countries are selfish. I mean that they don't try to help poor countries. I may venture that they are extremely sadist. As for me they like to be at top of the world.
  29. 29. 30 Agreeing with an opinion My view about this is positive. I agree with this idea. I agree completely with this idea. I can't agree more. I agree. This idea is absolutely right. I couldn't agree more on this. I think this idea is perfect.
  30. 30. 31 I agree partially with this idea. This idea is partially right. I see what you mean, but some ……... That's one way of looking at it, but …. I see your point, but technology…. I agree with you, but developing countries …. I think this idea is possible, but rich countries ….. I'm not sure you're right there. I'm not sure that I agree with this idea. The project is feasible, but it needs some more efforts.
  31. 31. 32 I think it is a bad idea. I'm afraid I can't agree with this idea. I'm afraid I entirely disagree with you. I think this idea is impossible. I guess this idea is impractical. I see that this idea is bad. I think it is a bad idea. I don't agree with this idea. I suppose this idea cannot be implemented.
  32. 32. 33 Random Examples If I were you, I wouldn’t buy this old computer. Why don't you stay at home and watch TV? You'd better go to bed early. You ought to revise your lessons regularly. If you take my advice, you'll tell your parents the truth. You should drive slowly in town. It might be a good idea to put on your coat. It's cold outside. You should consider taking the keys before you leave.
  33. 33. 34 I don't know what to advise, I'm afraid. I wish I could suggest something, but I can't. I wish I could help. I'm afraid I can't really help you. I have the same problem myself.
  34. 34. 35 Making suggestions Let’s revise our lessons. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your mother to our party? Shall we have…..? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think …. Does it matter if we use your car?
  35. 35. 36 Accepting Suggestions Ok. Yes, let's. Yes, I'd like to Yes, I'd love to. What a good idea! Why not? Yes, with pleasure. Yes, I feel like taking a walk.
  36. 36. 37 Disagreeing No, let's not. No, I'd rather not. I don't feel like it. I dislike doing homework. What an awful idea!
  37. 37. 38 Making Offers: Can I help you? What shall I do for you? Would you like me to check this computer for errors? Shall I bring you a glass of water? I'll buy you a coke. Shall I? What/ Where/ Which ... Would you like me to...? Do you want me to post that letter for you? I’ll be glad to help?
  38. 38. 39 Accepting an offer: How kind of you! Thank you very much. That’s very good of you! That’s terribly kind,. Thank you very much. Yes, please do. What a good idea! Yes, please. Thanks. That would be excellent. Yes.
  39. 39. 40 Refusing or rejecting an offer: It’s all right thanks. I can manage that alone! No, thank you. But I am very grateful That’s awfully kind, but there’s no need. No, please don't bother. No, thank you.
  40. 40. 41 Inviting I was wondering whether you would stay for dinner. I'm going to my uncle's wedding party next Sunday. Would you like to come, too? Come along! Why don't you come? Will you come, too? You must come over? You must pay us a visit. You must come back some time. We must get in touch... I'll give you a call and fix something. Look me up next time you are around (here).
  41. 41. 42 Accepting the invitation Ok. I'd like to! Well, I'm free then. Thank you. I'd like to come. Well, I'm not doing anything then. I'll come. Thanks. I am not doing anything special then. Thank you. I'd like to come. Ok!
  42. 42. 43 Refusing the invitation I'm afraid I can't. I'm busy then. I'm sorry but I can't. I'm going somewhere that day. I'm sorry I have a headache.
  43. 43. 44 Making a Complaint I have a complaint to make. ......... I'm sorry to say this but........ I want to complain about........... I'm afraid I've got a complaint about.... I'm angry about....
  44. 44. 45 Responding to a complaint I'm so sorry, but this will never occur again. I'm sorry, I promise never to... I'm really sorry; I'll do my utmost / best not to...........
  45. 45. 46