• is a projective test consisting of a
series of pictures in which the
examinee is requested to create a
story about the picture.
• method of revealing to the trained
interpreter some of the dominant
drives, emotions, sentiments,
complexes and conflicts of
• Apperception – refer to the process of
projecting fantasy imaginary onto an
was conceptualized by Henry Murray
and Christina Morgan on 1935.
• Henry Murray
– was born on May 13, 1893 into a wealthy
– Has a good relationship with his father but
poor one with his mother, that result him to
- Born in Boston on October 6, 1887
- Had a lot of health problems.
- Drowned herself on March 14, 1967 at the
• Morgan – Murray Thematic apperception
– the original name of the TAT but later on
Murray is given primary credit for the test,
along with the staff of Harvard Psychological
• 1938 the year that Tat was established in
Harvard Psychological Clinic
• Explorations in Personality in which the
description of TAT was included.
• Murray’s Theory of Personality
The TAT is so integrally involved
with Murray’s concept of personality
that a survey and knowledge of his
basic theoretical components is
important. In constructing the theory,
Murray emphasizes the biological
basis as well as the social and
environmental determinants of
behavior. He is also consistently
aware of how individuals interact with
• 1960 – Mrs. Uma Coudhary
developed Indian Adoption of TAT
• Human Potential Movement
– encouraged psychologists to use TAT to
help their clients understand themselves
better and stimulate personal growth.
• to be administered in an interpersonal
• Indian version of TAT materials
consists of 13 cards on which
ambiguous pictures are presented.
• During administration, the subject
should be seated beside the
examiner with his or her chair turned
• The examiner will show some pictures
one at a time, and the subject will be
making up as dramatic a story as
he/she can for each picture card. 50
minutes for 10 pictures. The following
story structure must be obtained:
a) current situation ; what is
happening at the moment?
b) thoughts and feelings of the
character (s); what the characters
are feeling and thinking?
c) preceding events; what has led
up to the event shown in the
d) outcome ; what was the
time measured should begin when the picture is
first presented and end when the subject begins
his or her story.
a subject’s complete responses should be
recorded, along with any noteworthy behavioral
observations: exclamation, stuttering, pauses,
blushing, degree of involvement , and change
in voice inflection.
• QUESTIONING and INQUIRY
to produce an unhampered and
free-flow of the subject’s fantasy
• ORDER OF PRESENTATION
usually, the cards should be
administered according to their
sequential numbering system.
The Psychological Corporation
For each of the scoring categories,
practitioners should abbreviate their observations
about the person. In some sections, practitioners
are asked to indicate the levels of importance or
strength for the per by putting one check (mere
presence of characteristics), two checks
(moderate) or three checks (strong). The entire
scoring and interpretation procedure typically
takes a half-hour.
• H.A Murray, 1943 scoring the TAT involves
evaluating the following five different aspects of the
The Hero. Scoring for the hero involves identifying who
is central character(s) in the story
Need of the Hero. For Murray, it was also critical to
identify the needs, motives and desire of the hero.
Identifying the presses. A press refer to any important
environmental factor that may influence or interfere with
the need of the hero.
Example: (parents or boss), (the lock on the door is
Scoring for themes. Scoring for themes in TAT
stories involves noting the nature of the interplay
and conflict between the needs and presses, the
types of emotion elicited by this conflict, and the
way the conflict is resolved.
Scoring for outcome. Scoring for the outcome of
the story involves analyzing how the stories end
by noting a happy versus unhappy ending and
assessing the extent to which the ending is
controlled by the strengths of the hero and forces in
• Nomethetic and Idiogrphic.
1. Nomothethic Interpretation refers to the
practice of establishing norms for answer from
subjects in specific age, gender, racial, or
educational level groups and then measuring a
given subject’s responses against those norms.
2. Idiographic Interpretation refers to evaluating
the unique features of the subject’s view of the
world and relationships.
Most psychologists would classify the TAT is better
suited to idiographic than nomothethic interpretations
• In interpreting the responses of the TAT, the
examiners typically focus their attention on one of
the three (3) areas:
•The content of the stories that the subject tells;
•The feeling or the tone of the stories;
•The subject’s behavior apart from responses.
These behavior may include: Verbal Remarks (e.g.
comments about feeling stressed by situation or
not being good story teller) as well as Nonverbal
Actions or Signs (e.g. blushing stammering,
fidgeting in the chair, difficulties making an eye
contact with the examiner, etc.)
• The story content usually reveals the
subject’s attitudes, fantasies, wishes, inner
conflicts, and view of the outside world.
• The story structure typically reflects the
subject’s feelings, assumptions about the
world, and an underlying attitude of
optimism or pessimism.
The 3 Levels of Interpretations suggest by Bellak
& Abram, 1997 are:
•Descriptive Level- it is the mere repeat of
•Interpretative Level- It extends the
descriptive level by an alteration of it [if one
does the X, then the outcome will be Y.].
•Diagnostic Level- It is the further extension
I that an interference is made about the
• In Example Given:
– Descriptive level (the boy is
practicing to increase his
– Interpretative level (If one
practice, then he or she will
– Diagnostic level (The client
has a high need for
achievement with a high level
of self- efficacy.
• The results of the TAT must be
interpreted in the context of the
subject’s personal history, age, sex,
level of education, occupation,
racial or ethnic identification first
language, and other characteristics
that may be important.
• The results of the Thematic
Apperception Test are difficult to
generalize. The results are often
subjective and do not use any formal
type of scoring system. However, a
close analysis of the stories told by the
subject normally gives the tester a
decent idea of the traits mentioned
above (personality, emotional control,
and attitudes towards aspects of
– Thematic Apperception Tests are less
beneficial to individuals. However,
individuals can use the results to
determine if an industry or company is
right for them. The results can also help
the person understand their unconscious
self, which can help them find ways to
successfully increase their productivity
and efficacy on the job. A true
understanding of one self can provide
over your co-workers and competitors.
Thematic Apperception Test
A boy is sitting and
looking at a Tanpura
placed in front of
• As per description of the subject following
traits may be traced
– Imagination ability
Picture 2 : Country scene with a woman
working in the foreground. In the
background, a man is working in a field
while a woman watches.
This is the card in the series that
presents the group scene and gives
information relating to how the
individual deals with the challenge of
people living together.
• As per description of the subject following
traits may be traced
– Imagination power
– Nature loving
– Aesthetic sense
– Attitude towards life of different workers
Picture 3: : An older man is looking at a
• This card is extremely useful in obtaining
information about the authority figures
and, more specifically the subjects own
father. The picture deals with hierarchical
Personal relationships and usually takes
the form of an older, more experienced
man interacting with the younger, less
experienced one.. Thus, the card can
clearly show how the subject deals with
external demands and attitudes toward
Picture 4 : A young girl is seated on a couch
and is holding a doll in her hands. Behind
her is an older woman.
The intention here is to bring out the style and
manner of mother-child interaction. When the
older women are the subjects, the picture often
elicits feelings and attitudes toward children.
Because both figures are looking away, either
figure is sometimes perceived as rejecting the other.
This, the card draws out negative feeling and
interactions, and it is important to note how these
feelings are resolved, expressed, or avoided.
Sometimes the older woman is described as reading
a fairy story to the younger girl.
Picture 5 : A woman is standing in front of of
a man .
• This picture typically elicits a good deal of
information relating to the feelings and
attitudes surrounding male-female
• Attitude towards male – female relationship
• Attitude of male towards female and vice
• Capacity for mutual respect
Picture 6 : An woman is standing in front of a
man in opposite face
• Attitude towards male – female relationship
• Information about Emotional aspects
• Information about Social relationship
Picture 7 : A woman has her hands around
the throat of another woman. In the
background is a flight of stairs.
The manner in which the subject handles aggressive,
hostile relationships with the other women is primary type
of information this picture elicits. Particular note should
be made of what types of events trigger this
aggressiveness, and of the manner in which the conflict is
or is not resolved
Picture 8 : A beautiful scenario of the village.
No human figures are present.
• The picture is describing the nature
and so it is good test of the subjects’
Picture 9 : One person is holding his or her
head against another person’s shoulder.
One woman is looking from window.
One Young man is
a close relation
with one women.
• This card often gives useful information
regarding how the subject perceives male-female
relationship, particularly those
involving some degree of closeness and
intimacy. It might be helpful to notice the
relative degree of comfort or discomfort
evoked by emotional closeness. A story of
departure or of termination of the
relationship may be reflective of either
overt or denied hostility on the part of the
• These card also deals with female
peer relations and is important in
elaborating on the issues such as
conflict resolution, jealousy, sibling
rivalry, and competitiveness.
Picture 11 : A Woman in front of a broken
The picture often elicits information
regarding a subject’s attitudes toward
loneliness, darkness, and uncertainty. Fears
may be stated explicitly through gangster
stories. As with Picture, the method of
handling these fears and the examinee’s
response to physical danger should be
• With suicidal or depressed subjects, there
may be an elaboration of feelings of
abandonment and isolation), for example:
someone has been lost or has been fallen
from a boat. More stable and adjusted
subjects are likely to discuss the peace of
being alone in the woods and perhaps of
fishing or having gone fishing further down
Picture 12 : A young man is standing in the
foreground with his head in his arms. In
the background is a woman lying in a
This picture is often helpful in revealing sexual
conflicts. In a general way, it provides information on
the subject’s attitudes and feelings toward his or her
partner, in particularly attitudes just before and
immediately following the sexual relation. Stories in
which there are overt expressions of aggression or
revulsion are significant variations and should be
noted as relatively unusual. In particular, the relation
between a subject’s aggressive and sexual feelings
is frequently portrayed.
Picture 13 : A person is standing against a
• If a subject’s presenting problem is depression, especially
if there is evidence of suicidal ideation, this card along
with Picture . This type of subject often describes the
figure in the picture and, more importantly discusses the
events, feeling, and attitudes that led up to the current self-destructive
behavior. It becomes important to investigate,
during the inquiry phase of examination, the particular
methods and styles of problem solving that the story
character has attempted or is attempting
This picture may also reveal the subject’s aesthetics
interest and personal philosophical beliefs or wish