Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells

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Revision from AS OCR Biology (F212)

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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells

  1. 1. Eukaryotic Cells
  2. 2. Nucleus - Largest organelle - Contains chromosomes  make most of DNA - Chromatin  heterochromatin and euchromatin - mRNA exits through pores (for proteinsynthesis) - Nucleolus forms ribosomes
  3. 3. Cell Membrane - Boundary  controls what molecules enter and exit a cell - Phospholipid bilayer structure - Permeable to O2 and CO2 - Impermeable to H2O and charged molecules
  4. 4. Cytoskeleton - Maintains the structure and shape of the cell - Allows motion and helps transport organelles within the cell - Made of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
  5. 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER - Ribosomes (protein+RNA) on surface  proteinsynthesis occurs - Transports proteins from ribosomes to the golgi apparatus Smooth ER - No ribosomes on surface - Lipid synthesis
  6. 6. Mitochondrion - Smooth outer membrane - Folded inner membrane - Aerobic respiration
  7. 7. Lysosomes - Membrane bound vesicles - Contain digestive enzymes (proteins) - Digest engulfed bacteria/virus/waste - Formed from golgi apparatus
  8. 8. Golgi Apparatus - Flattened sacs - Stacks of membranes - Process & Packages proteins  glycosylated; adding sugars)
  9. 9. Prokaryotic Cells
  10. 10. Structures Pilli Circular DNA Ribosomes Flagellum Cell wall Cytoplasm Mesosome
  11. 11. Functions - Movement from  flagella - Proteinsynthesis from  ribosomes - Attachment/DNA transfer  pilli - Enzymes for metabolism  cytoplasm - Entry and exit  plasma membrane
  12. 12. Prokaryote Eukaryote Small; unicellular Larger; multi or unicellular No nucleus; circular DNA Nucleus; linear DNA Small ribosomes (70s) Large ribosomes (80s) No mitochondria- respiration in mesosomes and cell membrane Mitochondria for aerobic respiration Binary fission- division Meiosis/Mitosis- division Asexual reproduction Sexual and asexual reproduction

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