Biology 12 - Cell Organelles

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Biology 12 Cell Organelle Powerpoint
Structure & Function
Phillips

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Biology 12 - Cell Organelles

  1. 1. Cell Organelles Structures and Functions Provincial exam diagram
  2. 3. Cell Membrane <ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Contains cholesterol, glycoprotiens </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Provides protection </li></ul><ul><li>Selective permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Cell recognition & receptor proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Import & Export (endo/exocytosis) </li></ul>
  3. 6. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>protein filaments & microtubules found throughout the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>maintains cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>transport within the cell - movement of vesicles and organelles </li></ul>
  4. 8. Mitochondria <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>double membrane bound organelle </li></ul><ul><li>matrix (inner space) & cristae (convolutions of inner membrane) </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>production of ATP (site of cellular respiration) </li></ul>
  5. 9. Mitochondria Structure
  6. 12. Provincial exam diagram!
  7. 13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Network of tubules, extension of nuclear membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack ribosomes </li></ul>
  8. 14. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Package proteins for transport within cell </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of membrane phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize lipids, triglycerides, steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Large surface area for chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxify drugs in liver cells </li></ul>
  9. 15. Diagram: Smooth ER
  10. 17. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Network of tubules (membranous) </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes on surface </li></ul>
  11. 18. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Production of proteins at ribosomes- enzymes & hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to smooth ER for modifications & packaging </li></ul>
  12. 19. Provincial Exam Diagram!
  13. 22. RIBOSOMES <ul><li>Made of rRNA & protein - 2 subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Found free (floating in cytoplasm) or bound (attached to ER) </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Site of protein synthesis – polypeptides, enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Reads RNA code, translates into amino acid sequence - protein </li></ul>
  14. 23. Ribosome Structure
  15. 24. Liver Cell Polyribosomes
  16. 25. Polyribosomes Structure: Many ribosomes grouped together, ribosome cluster Functions: Work together to read one strand of RNA - increases speed & # of proteins produced
  17. 26. Polyribosomes
  18. 27. GOLGI BODIES <ul><li>Stacked flat sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Accept vesicles on one side and produce vesicles on the other </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of proteins and lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and packaging of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>POST OFFICE OF CELL </li></ul>
  19. 28. Golgi Apparatus
  20. 32. Vesicles <ul><li>Membrane bound sac, liquid filled </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from pinching off of membrane of ER, Golgi body, cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain proteins, lipids </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping containers – transport of materials around or out of cell </li></ul>
  21. 33. Vacuoles <ul><li>Membrane bound sac </li></ul><ul><li>Contains liquids or solids </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than vesicles </li></ul>
  22. 34. Vacuole <ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells – large fluid filled vacuoles maintain structure </li></ul><ul><li>Storage within cell </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Contractile vacuoles </li></ul>
  23. 36. Lysosomes <ul><li>Membrane bound sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured by the Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown bacteria entering cell, worn out organelles, intracellular digestion </li></ul>                 
  24. 37. Nucleus <ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Bound by a double porous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chromatin: DNA & proteins wound together </li></ul><ul><li>Contains RNA </li></ul>
  25. 38. Nucleus <ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Stores genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Controls cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Directs functioning of cell (provides template for RNA - protein synthesis) </li></ul>
  26. 42. Nucleolus <ul><li>Found within the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ribosomes </li></ul>
  27. 43. Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>Double membrane (4 phospholipid layers) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of nuclear contents </li></ul><ul><li>Allows communication with cell via RNA molecules (through nuclear pores) </li></ul>
  28. 44. Chromosomes <ul><li>Double stranded DNA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Found in nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic blueprint in bases </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division (mitosis), RNA transcription </li></ul>
  29. 46. Plant Cells
  30. 47. Cell Wall Structure: Composed of cellulose Located outside of cell membrane Function: Provides structure, protection, rigidity to plant cells (not found in animal cells) Permeable
  31. 48. Cell Wall
  32. 49. Chloroplast Structure: Double membrane bound organelle Stroma: space within chloroplast Thylakoid stacks: where reactions occur - contain chlorophyll Function: Site of PHOTOSYNTHESIS within plant cells (produces glucose)
  33. 50. Chloroplast
  34. 51. Chloroplast

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