Introduction Fire-fighting is a dangerous profession that requires specialized equipment to effectively and safely mitigate a fire emergency. Fire-fighters must wear heavy protective clothing having personal protective equipment (PPE). The suit should be comfortable in nature. Ease of donning and doffing.
So far…… Fire-fighter suit was first invented by Zachary Hansen in the 1600’s. Early fire-fighter suits were made-up of leather. This coat had felt or wool liners provided. Later we can also find the use of canvas & rubber in mid seventeenth century. Those previous interface of coat left a large gap of protection against fire.
components Invention Spam Invention of FFS Seventeenth century Fire fighter boots Late Seventeenth century Helmets In the year of 1730 Respiratory Protection In the year of 1863 Proximity suit In the year of 1930 Aluminised suit In the year of 1937 Turnout gear In the year of 1971Smart Suit(having electrical sensors) In the year of 2003 Thermal imaging cameras In the year of 2005-06
A firefighter suit must protect the wearer from The radiant heat (upto 65-90%). A flashover situation. The conductive heat. Absorbed heat.
Other requirements of clothing: Thermally insulated Water repellent Breathable Flexible in nature Light in weight WP treatment durable to several washing High impact, puncture and tear resistance.
Fire-fighter UniformMain Accessories are:- Coat & pants Helmet Boots Gloves Breathing apparatus Goggles Flap that covers the ears and neck A whistle Personal alert safety system (PASS) According to Henry Gratacaps invention
Double wall fitted construction & adjustable sleevesleeve Easy acted zipper with Velcro enclosure Radio pocket with Velcro attachmentTurn out gear
Boots Fire-fighter turnout boots are usually sized as a regular shoe. Boots are made of rubber or leather with a Boron Steel toe insert. The boots are slipped inside the legs of the trousers to maintain a barrier from the heat. Puncture-resistant soles are incorporated.
GlovesGloves are so produced that could withstand Flame Heat Vapour Liquids Sharp objects Electrical current. Gloves also typically made from Advanced Nomex / Kevlar blend coated with Rubber, PVC etc.
Helmets Jacobus Turck, is credited with inventing the first fire helmet in the 1730s. It was leather, with a high crown and wide brim.The components of turn-out helmets(1971’s) are- Helmet shell:- Made up of composite material. Impact ring:- Rubber Impact Ring to absorb impact energy Helmet liner:- High Density plastic liner. Chin strap:- made of nylon with Velcro attachment.
Respiratory ProtectionThe first self-contained breathing apparatus came in 1863,& invented by James Braidwood .It consists of- Two canvas bags together lined with rubber Airtight sac Compressed breathing air Shoulder straps and a waist belt.Two rubber hoses connected to a mouthpiece allowed the wearer to inhale fresh air.“Smoke mask" worn by the fire fighter to protect well from carbonmonoxide, and in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
Proximity suit Fire proximity suit is a heat-reflecting metallic finished fabric, used in outer layer of fire-fighting applications. It is manufactured from vacuum-deposited aluminized material. It can be exposed in extreme heat such as aircraft fires and some chemical fires. Aluminised fire proximity suit are designed for rescue operations and places at a temperature ranging 6000F. The outer layer of these suit being aluminized helps to reflect about 90% heat. 1930’s 1937-43’s modern 1930’s 1937-43’s modern
Complete proximity protection for FFrequires:- Aluminized hood or helmet cover with neck shroud. Aluminized jacket and pants equipped with vapour barrier & insulated liner. Aluminized gloves Aluminized proximity boots Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
suit:- The outer surface of the proximity suit is made by a mirrorpolished aluminised finish.Collar:- The collar is designed to be twice the height in the rear as in thefront.Sleeves:- The sleeves of the coat are designed to act as zippered ventopening in pit.Front fastener:- The coat is opened and closed by both a backwayzipper covered by a Velcro closure.
There are three basic types of proximity suits:- Approach suit—used for work in the general area of high temperatures such as steel mills. (Ambient heat protection up to ~200 °F ) Rescue suit—used for aircraft rescue and fire fighting (AR-FF) & for kiln work. (Kiln suit ambient protection upto 700 °F) Entry suit—used for entry into extreme heat and situations requiring protection from total flame engulfment. Most commonly made of ”Zetex” and not aluminized. Entry suit ambient protection ~700 °F for short duration and prolonged radiant heat up to 600 °F .
Material that used for proximity suits proximity suits are made-up of fire resistant fibres mainly aramids such as Nomex and Kevlar, Polybenzimidazol (PBI) fibres(<10 microns). Outer layer of flame-resistant fabric would not be destroyed easily through charring or melting . The fireretardency will last at-least few seconds in a flashover situation before catching the fire . Further, it is self –extinguishing.
3-layers of the equipment Outer Shell: Advanced Nomex / Kevlar blend in a "Rip stop Weave", having aluminised finish & also having puncture resistance. Thermal and Moisture barrier:- Thermal Layer (protects us from heat), and the Moisture Barrier (keeps most moisture out), & usually made from PTFE film & TRIPROTECH membrane(Pores 0.01 to <1micron) containing 1.4 billion tiny holes per square centimeter. . Inner layer:- Thermal linear face cloth made up of wool. This Laminated fabrics allows water vapour to diffuse through but prevent penetration of liquid water . This suit weighs just 2.5 kg, and is 60% more effective in preventing second- and third-degree burns.
Thermal resistance & vapour permeability The objective of this is to decrease the potential for burns caused by heat transfer from flame to suit. Prevent the body from steam burns. moisture, present in fire-fighter turnout systems, has a complex influence on heat transmission and potential for skin burn injuries.
Primary Aspects: The heat flow rate is proportional to the temperature difference QH is heat flux passing through the system (W) A is diffusion area (m2) T is diffusion time (s) ∆C is the temperature difference (˚C) RT is the thermal resistance (m2˚C/W)The water vapor transmission rate is proportional to the vaporconcentration difference. Q is mass of water vapor passing through the system (g) A is diffusion area (m2) T is diffusion time (s) ∆P is the water vapor pressure gradient (kPa) Ret is the evaporative resistance (m2 kPa/W) λ is the heat of vaporization of water at the plate surface temperature(J/g)
The other types of PS are:- 700 series proximity suits: Made from aluminized glass fibre cloth. OSX -1000 Fire Protective Clothing 5000 series proximity suits:- These items of heat protective garments are manufactured from High Texturized Silica Fabric.
5000 series proximity suits This consist of six silicone-encapsulated heat sensors just under the outer shell. Sensors are located at the shoulder, back, and chest of the turnout smart suit. The equipment when being introduced that has an internal alarm to alert the wearer when the external temperature exceeds the set limit.
Thermal Imaging cameras Thermal imaging cameras can detect the slightest variations in thermal energy The use of thermal imaging cameras may improve the ability of the future fire fighter to navigate in a smoke-filled room to find potential victims. It can be used to pinpoint areas in the walls or floors that may have been weakened by the fire.