Developements in cutting & sewing technologies in garment industries

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India’s textiles and clothing industry is one of the mainstays of the national Economy. It is also one of the largest contributing sectors of India’s exports worldwide, whereas in garment industry there are two major departments which are concider as a heart of garment industry i. e. Cutting & Sewing Department. In this paper you are going see all the aspects regarding cutting & Sewing technologies and their developements. Thank You.

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  • If anyone has any fashion design or fashion illustration or sewing books i would be so grateful if they can upload them. I am a fashion design student and would love to have access to boos/resources i cannot afford.
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Developements in cutting & sewing technologies in garment industries

  1. 1. Final Year Textile Technology Page 1 DEVELOPMENTS OF CUTTING & SEWING TECHNOLOGIES IN GARMENT INDUSTRY By, Mr. Prashant G. Khandalkar Final Year Textile technology D. K. T. E. TEXTILE AND ENGINEERING INSTITUTE ICHALKARANJI. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE GARMENT INDUTRY: India’s textiles and clothing industry is one of the mainstays of the national Economy. It is also one of the largest contributing sectors of India’s exports worldwide. Part of the growth is due to the growing development of the country, where more citizens have access to the internet each day; and not to mention the growth of population in India. As the growth in population and in ecommerce preference is so rapid, there is a high demand for apparel online, which keeps the retailers stocking the shelves and offering new styles on a more than regular basis, also prompting more sales. By the end of 2013, the country’s top ecommerce retailers are expecting for their sales to double. A study conducted by experts revealed that in India; a piece of clothing is purchased approximately every 40 seconds. There is just a high demand for clothing on the ecommerce market right now, and many e-shops are springing up as a result. According to Deepa Thomas, an eBay specialist of India’s eBay commerce, 41% of sales are taken by the lifestyle category, while clothing ranked above it. It is evident that this industry is currently very lucrative, and that entrepreneurs would be smart to take advantage of the growth in India. With retailers expecting their sales
  2. 2. Final Year Textile Technology Page 2 to double by the end of 2013, if all processes remain the same, there is not telling how much the increase will be by the end of 2014. 1.1 Milestones  Exports of textiles and clothing products from India have increased steadily over the last few years, particularly after 2004 when textiles exports quota stood discontinued.  India’s Textiles & Clothing (T&C) exports registered a robust growth of 25% in 2005-06, recording a growth of US$ 3.5 billion over 2004-05 in value terms thereby reaching a level of US$ 17.52 billion and the growth continued in 2006-07 with T&C exports of US$19.15 billion recording a increase of 9.28% over the previous year and reached USD 22.15 billion in 2007- 08 denoting an increase of 15.7% but declined by over 5% in 2008-09. Exports of Textiles & Clothing grew from USD 21.22 billion in 2008-09 to USD 22.41 billion in 2009-10 and have touched USD 27.47 billion in 2010-11. In the financial year 2011-12, exports of textiles and clothing, has grown by 20.05% over the financial year 2010-11 to touch USD 33.31 billion.  During the year 2012-13, Readymade Garments account for almost 39% of the total textiles exports. Apparel and cotton textiles products together contribute nearly 74% of the total textiles exports.
  3. 3. Final Year Textile Technology Page 3 1.2 PREPARATION OF GARMENT IN INDUSTRY This is a process of converting raw materials into finished products. It will be difficult to maintain the industry if production is not, up to the mark if the preproduction phase of preparation of material is not properly carried out. Steps involved in preparation of garment in Industry; Description of above process is as follows; Laying: Lying of paper pattern helps one to plan the placement of the pattern pieces in a tentative manner. It is very economical in laying the pattern and cutting. Even a small amount of material saved in a single lay will help to bring about a large saving of money as hundreds of layers of fabric will be laid and cut simultaneously. Marking: This can be done manually or with computerised technique. The marker planner uses full size patterns and arranges them in an economical manner on marker paper. This is a specially printed paper having symbols on it which enable the marker planner LAYING MARKING CUTTING STITCHING CHECKING FUSING PRESSING
  4. 4. Final Year Textile Technology Page 4 to visually control the positioning of components according to specified grain lines. Computerized Marker Making has been around for over thirty years. The method requires an experienced marker maker to place the patterns correctly in the marker. The marker maker works at a computer monitor rather than with full sets of hard paper patterns, and the entire pattern. Cutting: This is the major operation of the cutting room when they spread and cut into garments. Of all the operations in the cutting room this is the most decisive, because once the fabric has been cut, very little can be done to rectify serious defects. Stitching: It is done after the cut pieces are bundled according to size, colour and quantities determined by the sewing room. The central process in the manufacture of clothing is the joining together of components. Stitching is done as per the specification given by the buyer. Checking: It is realistic to assume that however well checking or quality control procedures operate within a factory there will always be a certain percentage of garments rejected for some reason or other. Fusing and Pressing: Finishing and pressing are two processes which have the greatest influence on the finished look of a garment. Fusing creates the foundation and pressing puts the final seal of quality on the garment.
  5. 5. Final Year Textile Technology Page 5 2. METHOD’S AND FURTHAR DEVELOPMENT’S IN CUTTING TECHNOLOGY: Hand shears can be used to cut from single or double ply up to a maximum of 10 plies. The lower blade of the shears passes under the plies but the subsequent distortion of fabric is only temporary and accuracy can be achieved with practice. Left-handed shears are also available for left-handed persons. The disadvantage of this method lies in the time it consumes and the consequent high labour cost but it is appropriate for made-to-measure garments. Types of Hand Shears are as follows; Bent-Handle Shears: They are 8 to 10 inches long. They are used for cutting all types of fabrics. Shears differ from scissors in that they have one small ring handle for the thumb and a large ring handle for the second, third and fourth fingers. Fig. 2a Bent handle shear Scissors: They are 5 to 6 inches long. They are used for light cutting, Trimming, clipping corners, and cutting curves. These have round handles for both the blades. They are designed for snipping threads and trimming seams. They should be held so that the wider blade is above the narrower blade. Fig. 2b Scissor
  6. 6. Final Year Textile Technology Page 6 Pinking Shears: They are 9 to 10 inches long. They produce a notched cutting line (zigzag) which gives a neat appearance to the inside of garments. Fig. 2c Pinking shear Button Hole Scissors: These can be adjusted so as to cut button holes in any size required. They are useful if one needs to make many button holes. Fig. 2d Buttonhole scissor Electric Scissor these are used in most sample rooms. They are ideal for cutting silk, nylon, and soft, hard-to-cut fabric. Fig. 2e Electric scissor
  7. 7. Final Year Textile Technology Page 7 2.1 Further Development's in cutting Technology: As the year passes there are different types of cutting methods were developed which helps to enhance the quality of the product as well as time requires for cutting process is reduced. Modern Developments in Cutting machines are as follows; 2.2 Straight Knife cutting machine The line of straight knife machines cut denim or silk, cotton or knits, sailcloth or synthetics, fibreglass and technical textiles, easily and without effort. Most cutting rooms which have sufficient garments in bulk but not such as to justify the use of computer-controlled cutters will have straight knives. The straight knife consists of a base plate, on which four rollers are fitted which can glide easily on the glazed paper fixed on the base of the cutting table below the bottom ply. They require operator power as well as machine power to cut the lay. The operator can move the machine with the help of the handle provided below the motor while the motor gives reciprocating action to the blade and drives the knife through the lay. A low profile, polished, streamlined base plate is designed to reduce friction and distortion in the lay regardless of the number of plies. They are designed to provide optimal performance whether cutting intricate jobs with small radius cuts or patterns that have long, clean cuts. Some exclusive Micro Fog machines ensure maximum heat reduction for cutting highly fusible materials. The Micro Fog device sends a mist of coolant / lubricant behind the knife and out through a specially slotted knife-slide to penetrate every layer or material and to eliminate the conditions that cause fusing. The Micro Fog straight knife requires 90-120 psi (6.2-8.3 bars) compressed air.
  8. 8. Final Year Textile Technology Page 8 Technical features of straight knife cutting machine:  It is having a special gravity feed moistening attachment to eliminate fusing.  A Coolant flow exactly metered to achieve the desired degree of lubrication and cooling required.  The blades of the straight knife are made of carbon steel, coated with Teflon, have wavy edges, rounded or angled tip. The blade height varies from 4 inches to 13 inches. Their stroke varies from 1 inch to 1 ½ inch. There is a sharpening mechanism for blades which uses either an emery belt or emery stone for sharpening.  Straight Knife cutting machines weight is in the range of 12-18 kg’s.  The power requires for the machine varies from model to model from 0.55 hp to 1.25 hp. 2.3 Round Knife Cutting Machine These types of cutting machine is ideally suited for cutting large radius curves, straight lines and are applicable for a wide range of difficult to cut materials. The smallest model provides lightweight manoeuvrability with power to cut low lays of wool, cotton, silk, synthetics, and technical textiles. The elements of round knife are same as straight knife, the only difference in blade which is octagonal or circular. The Heavy Duty machine offers a heavy duty motor to provide increased torque and blade speed making it ideal for most general purpose cutting of canvas, burlap, cotton, cotton batting, woollens, and knits.
  9. 9. Final Year Textile Technology Page 9 The Heavy Duty and Super Duty round knife machines can easily cut through high duro meter rubber as well as plastic sheeting and dense fabrics that require a more powerful motor and greater height capacity. Each of these special Cardinal round knife machines may be supplied with a high speed, low speed, or dual speed motor for the broadest range of applications. Both models may be fitted with an optional Plastic Master lubricator. Technical Features of Round Knife Cutting Machine  Blade which is octagonal or circular here which have a diameter between 2 to 8 inches. Round Knife Cutting machines have Vertical Cutting Stroke Velocity (VCSV).  The blades of the round knife are made of carbon steel, Teflon coated, slotted and grooved.  The speed of the motor varies from 1500 rpm to 3000 rpm.  Power of machines is between 0.20 hp to 1.25 hp.  Their weight varies from 7 kg’s. To 16 kg’s.  The blade size and the respective cutting capacity can be understood with the help of the following table: Blade Size Cutting Capacity 4 inch 2.125 inch 5.25 inch 3.125 inch 6 inch 3.25 inch 2.4 Band Knife cutting Machine A band knife machine comprises a series of three or more pulleys, powered by an electric motor, with a continuously rotating steel blade mounted on them. One edge of the blade is sharpened. The blade of the band knife passes through a slot in the table in a fixed position and the section of the lay to be cut is moved past it. The material is moved onto the blade instead of the blade moved onto the material. Band knives are used when a higher standard of cutting accuracy is required. Space must be left around garment parts when planning the marker so that they can be sectioned out using a straight knife and
  10. 10. Final Year Textile Technology Page 10 then cut exactly using the band knife. When small parts such as cuffs, collars and pockets are to be cut, a template of metal or fibre in the shape of the pattern piece may be clamped to the section of lay on top of the marker which is then drawn past the band knife, cutting exactly along the hard edge. A band knife workplace may be so arranged that the operator either pushes or pulls the section of lay towards the knife. The latter is most common in Britain. The band knife runs absolutely vibration free and delivers very good cutting quality. Adjustable band-knife speed by frequency control allows optimal adaption of the band knife speed to the materials and ply height being cut, while operating at a very low noise level. The band knife has an air-floatation table which has small rollers placed onto it which give ease of movement to the material being cut and also suck the material slightly with high pressure to achieve minimum distortion while cutting. The quality and quantity of cutting with a band-knife machine depends directly upon the operator stress level. The SUPER SILENT 1250 S band-knife machine provides optimal and ergonomic working conditions for operators and thus allows maximum production output.
  11. 11. Final Year Textile Technology Page 11 Technical Features of Band Knife cutting Machine  Automatically set band knife guard.  Warning light indicates band knife running.  All panels are safety switch protected.  Dove-tail guided band knife sharpening unit.  Band knife blade made of high grade steel.  Adjustable speed from 400 to 2000 rpm, allows cutting all types of fabrics.  Knife wheels diameter 39 cm, 3 cm wide.
  12. 12. Final Year Textile Technology Page 12 2.5 Rotary Shears or Small Round Knife They are same as round knife machines but the lightweight rotary shears are the best solution for cutting intricate markers, one-of-a- kind patterns, samples, reworks, and plastic or rubber sheeting. Offering the ultimate in manoeuvrability, rotary shears are the answer for short run cutting jobs common in the industry. Small round knife machines set the standard for the cutting industry by providing agility, power, and versatility. Each small round knife has a low profile base plate which allows for virtually no distortion when cutting through low lays, or single thickness, of material. Technical Features of Small Round Knife  2 ¼” (5.72 cm) round blade for general use or hexagon blade for sheer or difficult to cut cloth.  Cutting capacity is 25% greater than competitive models.  Built-in sharpener.  Ergonomically designed.  Three different base plates and cutting tips can be selected  Stabilizer Shoe: the “standard” foot attachment, a utility feature that lends itself well to all cutting and slitting operations.
  13. 13. Final Year Textile Technology Page 13 2.6 End Cutters End cutters are used to cut the end of every lay spread on the table for starting a new end of the fabric. They provide fast and perfectly straight end cutting as a requirement of marker planning. Technical Features of End Cutter  Perma-Field Motor for more cutting torque with less heat build- up.  Precision engineered profile and interior reinforcing ribs keeps track rigid even at lengths over 72”.  Clamping bracket allows the machine to be attached to any type of cutting table in seconds.  Standard 40” (1.02m) length handles for use on tables up to 72” (1.83m) wide, with longer handles available.  Other handle options include a push handle, a dual push/pull handle for extremely wide cuts requiring more than one operator, and a swivel handle for limited space applications.  Patented Uni-Safe Terminal Block and Attachment Plug allow the operator to engage the power supply to the cutter with one hand.
  14. 14. Final Year Textile Technology Page 14 3. HISORY OF SEWING MACHINE:  In olden days when sewing machines were not there Sewing were carried out by stitching together animal hides for clothing and for shelter, for example, they used sinew from caribou for thread and needles made of bones.  The democratization of fashion began with the invention of the sewing machine, which turned a handicraft into an industry. The sewing machine made the mass production of clothing possible. In 1829, a French tailor named Thimmonier patented a wooden chain-stitch sewing machine, but all existing models were destroyed by rioting tailors who feared for their jobs.  Walter Hunt, an American, developed a sewing machine in 1832 but failed to patent it. Thus, the man who is usually credited with its invention is Elias Howe, who patented his in 1846. All of Howe’s machines were run by hand.  In 1859, Isaac Singer, whose name has become a household word because of his mass production of the sewing machine. He developed the foot treadle, an improvement that left the hands free to guide the fabric, and mass-produced these machines. Singer spent $1 million a year on sales promotion and, by 1867, was producing a thousand machines per day (Electrically powered models were not available until 1921). To save time and to keep control over production, Entrepreneurs brought workers and machinery together in factories. This caused many people in search of work to move to the cities where the factories were located.
  15. 15. Final Year Textile Technology Page 15  In 1849, when the Gold Rush attracted thousands of men in California in search of gold, a 20- year old Bavarian immigrant by the name of Levi Strauss opened a dry goods store in San Francisco.  In 1873 he began to manufacture long-wearing pants with riveted pockets, using a tough cotton fabric called serge de Nimes. (Loomed in Nimes, France), later shortened to denim.  They are an item another early use for sewing machines was to make Civil War uniforms. The Union army recorded the chest and height measurements of more than a million soldiers to come up with the first standardization of sizes. After the war, sewing machines and uniform sizing promoted the mass production of everyday men’s wear.  The first electric machines were developed by Singer Sewing Co. and introduced in 1889.
  16. 16. Final Year Textile Technology Page 16 3.1 Parts of sewing machine
  17. 17. Final Year Textile Technology Page 17 4. MODERN DEVELOPMENT’S IN SEWING MACHINE: When the automatic sewing machine was developed all the stitching activities were carried out on single machine which were a bit problematic thing for mass production in industries. This problem is solved by using same principle of stitching just additional advancements carried out in that machine and use for sewing different parts of single garment. Some of Modern sewing machines are as follows; 4.1 Single Needle Lock Stitch Machine It is used for attaching pocket, front and back joining, side seam etc. different tension and pressure can be given. Model DDL 5530 N M/C Manufacturer JUKI Bed Type Flat Bed Belt Type V-Belt Feed Mechanism Drop Feed Voltage 220 Volts Dimensions of Bed 18.625inch* 6.75inch Power 250W Motor RPM 5000-8000
  18. 18. Final Year Textile Technology Page 18 4.2 Double Needle Lock Stitch Machine When two stitches are required parallel simultaneously then DNLS machine is used like bottom hemming, yoke preparation, cuff sleeve joining etc. Model LH3168 M/C Manufacturer JUKI Bed Type Flat Bed Belt Type V-Belt Feed Mechanism Drop Feed Voltage 220 Volts Dimensions of Bed 20inch* 7inch Power 250W Motor RPM 5000-8000
  19. 19. Final Year Textile Technology Page 19 4.3 Over Lock machine It is used for locking the edges to avoid fraises at the edges. It also provides strength. It is used for over locking parts like inside seam, sleeve body attachment etc. Model M 06704S M/C Manufacturer Pegasus Bed Type Raised Bed Belt Type V-Belt Feed Mechanism Drop Feed Voltage 220 Volts Dimensions of Bed 8.5 inch* 4.75 inch Power 250W Motor RPM 5000-8000
  20. 20. Final Year Textile Technology Page 20 4.4 Feed of the Arm Machine It is used to join both edges of the sleeve with each other attaching with the side seam. Model FS 613 M/C Manufacturer Pegasus OSAKA APAN Bed Type Cylinder Bed Belt Type V-Belt Feed Mechanism Drop Feed Voltage 220 Volts Dimensions of Bed 7 inch* 9 inch Power 250W Motor Clutch
  21. 21. Final Year Textile Technology Page 21 5. CONCLUTION:  The initial effects of developments on Sewing & Cutting machines on workers were both positive and negative, however in the long run the negative effects decreased.  Developments in these technology reduces the time for making a shirt from an hour to just 15mins. This reduces the labor cost.  The movement to large-scale factories also resulted in a decrease the amount of time clothing production took, which causes the price for clothing to drop significantly. This is because manufacturers were able to decrease the number of workers needed to produce the same amount of clothing, resulting in reduction in cost. 6. REFRENCES: Books: Garment Making By I. Rajitha, The Fashion Manufacturing Process By Kahn, Cohen and Soto, Garment Construction By Mrs P. M. Geetha, Sewing Machine Operations Mannual Web Pages: Fibre to Fashion.com www.wikipedia.com

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