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Teaching learning-approaches-v1-final


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For details: - Barbara Bray worked with focus groups from all over the world on this chart. Teachers had questions about missing Whole Class on the PDI (Personalization vs. Differentiation vs. Individualization) chart. They wanted to know why Personalization was first, what was the difference between personal and personalization, and much more.

Bray is sharing this chart so teachers are able to identify the different teaching and learning approaches that may be used in an activity, lesson, or project. Some teachers use this with a lesson and circle what areas they are addressing or not addressing for their own professional learning.

Please let Barbara know how this is working for you and your learners and leave a comment here or share on social media.

You can reach Barbara at and on her website: and use her Twitter handle @bbray27

Check out the post that provides more details about the chart:

All comments are welcome!!

Published in: Education
  • I welcome you to download and use the Teaching and Learning Approaches chart. Please let me know what you think and if it helps you realize that maybe there is a place for whole class instruction or any of the approaches to help empower your students to take more ownership of their learning. Thanks!
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Teaching learning-approaches-v1-final

  1. 1. Teaching  and  Learning  Approaches  Chart  (v1)         Whole  Class   Differentiation   Individualization   Personalization   Instruction   The  whole  class  receives  the  same   instruction.   Groups  of  learners  receive  different   instruction.     Individual  learners  have  one-­‐to-­‐one   instruction.   Learners  choose  instruction  that  best   supports  their  learning  with  teacher.   Connecting   Learning     Curriculum  is  used  as  is  or  is   adapted  for  the  whole  class.   Curriculum  is  adjusted  based  on   different  groups  of  learners.   Curriculum  is  connected  to  prior   knowledge  of  individual  learners.   Learners  drive  learning  by  connecting  to   interests,  talents,  aspirations,  and  passions.   Instructional   Design   Instructional  design  is  based  on   the  curriculum  and  learning  needs   of  the  whole  class.   Instructional  design  is  based  on  the   learning  needs  of  different  groups   of  learners.   Instructional  design  is  based  on  the   learning  needs  of  individual  learners.   Instructional  design  is  around  multiple   learning  paths  co-­‐constructed  by  learners   and  the  teacher.     Responsibility   The  teacher  is  responsible  and   accountable  for  delivering   curriculum  to  the  whole  class.     The  teacher  is  responsible  for  a   variety  of  instructional  methods  for   different  groups  of  learners.   The  teacher  is  responsible  for   modifying  instruction  based  on  the   needs  of  the  individual  learner.   Learners  have  a  voice  and  choice  in  how   they  learn  and  take  responsibility  for  what   they  learn  with  the  teacher.   Goals  and   Objectives   Learning  objectives  are  identified   in  the  curriculum  with  the  whole   class.   Learning  objectives  are  identified   and  addressed  with  different  groups   of  learners.   Specific  objectives  are  identified  and   addressed  with  individuals  who   receive  one-­‐on-­‐one  support.   Learners  set,  monitor,  and  meet  goals  and   benchmarks  along  their  learning  path  with   guidance  from  the  teacher.   Tools  and   Resources   Tools  and  resources  selected  by   the  teacher  to  support  learning   needs  of  the  whole  class.   Tools  and  resources  are  selected  by   teacher  to  support  learning  needs  of   different  groups  of  learners.   Tools  and  resources  are  selected  by   teacher  to  support  the  learning   needs  of  the  individual  learner.   Learners  acquire  the  skills  to  select  and  use   tools  and  resources  to  enhance  their   learning  with  guidance  from  the  teacher.   Support   All  the  learners  in  the  class  refer  to   the  teacher  for  their  learning.     Different  groups  of  learners  refer  to   the  teacher  for  their  learning.   Individual  learners  work  one-­‐on-­‐one   with  teacher  to  support  learning.   Learners  build  a  network  of  teachers,  peers,   mentors,  and  advisors  to  support  learning.   Mastery   Mastery  of  content  and  skill   development  is  based  on  grade   level,  grades,  and  evidence  of   learning  from  the  whole  class.   Mastery  of  content  and  skill   development  is  based  on  grade  level   grades,  and  evidence  of  learning   from  different  groups  of  learners.   Mastery  of  content  and  skill   development  is  based  on  grade  level,   grades,  and  evidence  of  learning   from  the  individual  learner.   Learners  demonstrate  evidence  of  learning,   mastery  of  content,  and  develop  skills  in  a   competency-­‐based  system  for  an  authentic   audience  with  support  of  the  teacher.   Assessment   and  Data   The  same  assessments  and  data   are  used  for  the  whole  class  to   measure  if  there  is  or  is  not   improvement  in  learning  to  modify   instruction.     Multiple  assessments  and  data  are   used  to  monitor  progress  and   measure  if  there  is  or  is  not   improvement  to  modify  instruction   for  different  groups  of  learners.   Specific  assessments  and  data  are   used  to  monitor  progress  and  to   measure  if  there  is  or  is  not   improvement  in  learning  to  modify   instruction  for  the  individual  learner.   Learners  co-­‐design  assessments  and  refer   to  data  with  the  teacher  to  monitor   progress.  They  reflect  on  evidence  of   learning  and  develop  skills  needed  to   become  self-­‐directed  learners  with  agency.   Teaching  and  Learning  Approaches  Chart  (v1)  by  Barbara  Bray  (2018)  is  licensed  under  a  Creative  CommonsAttribution-­‐NonCommercial-­‐NoDerivs   3.0  Unported  License.  For  permission  to  use  chart  in  a  publication  or  to  make  changes  to  chart,  please  contact  Barbara  at