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Topics Skill & A bility Motivation & A r ousal Infor mation Pr ocessing Lear ning Theor ies Memor y Reinfor cement Reaction Time Phases of Lear ning Feedback Pr actice Motor Pr ogr ammes & Schema Guidance Loop Contr ol Tr ansfer
Skill & A bility Skill – characteristics The le a rne d a bility to bring a bo ut p re -d e te rm ine d re s ults with m a x im um c e rta inty o fte n with th Skill Classifications A bility – characteristics Gr oss Motor Psychomotor
Characteristics explained! Aesthetic - Graceful gymnastics routine Fluent - Movements ease into each other Technical Model - Resembles a technique Goal Directed - Understanding what needs to be done! Learnt - Tennis player is taught a serve & practices Consistent - Performance is repeated with regularity Controlled - Performance is under control of performer
Skill Classifications Open / Closed / High / Low Organisation / Continuity Continuum / / Gross / Fine / Pacing Continuum /
Environmental FactorsOpen Closed Skill is affected by Skill is not affected the environment by the environment (weather/opposition Skill is self paced ) Skill is habitual Skill is externally Fixed Practice paced method Performer is reactive
Organisation Classification High Low Closely linked Subroutines can be subroutines separated Not easily broken Skill is easily broken down down into parts Practiced as a whole Examples Examples Cartwheel Running Swimming Triple Jump
Continuity Continuum Discr ete Ser ial Continuous Obvious Discrete No clear start and elements beginning or end to the linked end to the movement together skill Example Diving Example Example Tr iple Jump Cycling
Muscles Used Gr oss Fine Large muscle Small muscle groups used. groups used. Large movements Small/fine Examples movements Running Examples Kicking Pistol shooting Darts
Pacing Continuum Exter nal Self Action is controlled Action is controlled by external factors. by performer Performer is not in Performer is in control of the rate control of the rate of the action of the action Often open skills Often closed skills Examples Examples Tackle Rafting Tennis Serve Golf shot
Characteristics of A bility Ability is……… Genetic Comes from our parents Stable We don’t lose it! Foundation for skill Base for learning skills
Psychomotor A bility Psycho - Processing information Motor - Movement Therefore ; processing information then moving. Eg – a fielder in cricket throwing the ball at the stumps. P – Where am I in relation to the stumps? M – Throwing the ball at the stumps!
Gross Motor A bility Movement using large muscle groups. Types include; Speed Strength Stamina Balance Flexibility Co-ordination
Basic Model BASIC MODEL I N PU T D ECI SI O N FEED BACK M AKI N G O U TPU T
Schmidt’s Model •STIMULUS STIM ULUS - this is the input from the ( in p u t ) environment / surroundings STIM ULUS ID EN TIFICATIO N •STIMULUS IDENTIFICA TION refers to the reception and RESPO N SE REACTIO N TIM E interpretation of sensory SELECTIO N information •RESPONSE SELECTION RESPO N SE PRO GRAM M IN G is responsible for decision making M OVEM EN T •RESPONSE PROGRA MMING (o utpu t) concerned with the sending of movement information via the nerves
Welfor d’s Model DISPLA Y refers to the range of actions and things that are happening in the D ISPLAY surrounding environment of the performer STI M ULI SEN SO RY IN FO RM ATIO N PERCEPTUA L MECHA NISM the part of the brain which PER CEPTU AL M ECH AN ISM perceives the surroundings DECISION MECHA NISM IN TRIN SIC FEED BACK the part of the brain which makes D ECISIO N M ECH AN ISM decisions EFFECTOR MECHA NISM M USCU LAR SYSTEM EFFECTO R M ECH AN I SM the part of the brain which carries out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and parts RESPON SE of the body which act out the relevant skill M OVEM EN T INTRINSIC FEEDBA CK (o u tp u t) feedback as to what actually happens to the body via the proprioceptors which inform the brain about balance, muscle tensions, limb positions and angles EX TRINSIC FEEDBA CK
Whiting’s Model RECEPTOR SY STEMS •r efer s to the sense or gans which r eceive information PERCEPTUA L MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which per ceives the sur r oundings and gives them meaning TRA NSLA TORY MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which makes decisions and sorts out and pr ocesses the few r elevant bits of information fr om the many inputs fr om the surr oundings EFFECTOR MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which car r ies out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and par ts of the body via the nervous system
Key Terms Display – The physical environment in which the person is performing. (eg – display would be team-mates, where are the opposition, the ball, the pitch etc etc) Per ceptual mechanisms – Interpretation of the information received by the senses. Effector Mechanisms – Motor programmes or schemas are selected and developed. (what and how am I going to do it!) Muscular System – Muscles receive relevant motor programme or plan of action and a movement is initiated. Input – information received from the environment via the sense organs – easier with a stronger stimulus (ie loud, bright, unusual) Visual (see), A uditor y (hear), Pr opr ioception (how our body is orientated and the extent to which muscles are contracted or joints extended) 3 par ts to Pr opr ioception Touch (feel – pain, temperature, pressure) Equilibrium (sense that tells the brain when your body is balanced and when it is tipping, turning or inverting)
MemoryShor t Ter m Selective Shor t Ter m Long Ter mSensor y A ttention Memor y Memor yStor e (STM) (LTM) Info from STM is encoded to LTM Motor Plan Info from LTM is retrieved by recall, imagery and recognition.
Shor t Term Sensor y Store Gets all the information from the display (environment) Almost limitless Retains information for 0.5-1 second Moves onto Selective attention part of the process.
Selective A ttention The filtering system of the process. Decides on the relevant from the irrelevant Relevant information passes into the Short Term Memory Irrelevant is discarded. This prevents the STM from being overloaded.
Shor t Term Memory Holds between 7(+-2) pieces of information For 30 seconds Motor plan is initiated by one decision Capacity is increased by “chunking” information together
Long Term Memor y Almost limitless Information is encoded from STM Information is retrieved from LTM to STM in order to initiate movement.
Retention strategies for LTM Practice, Overlearning, Repetition Link information to that already stored/relate to past experiences Make information meaningful/relevant Experience is enjoyable/novel/interesting Use of visual imagery/mental rehearsal Reward and reinforce success Chunk/group information together Intensify the stimulus Make information unique/unusual
Definitions Reaction Time Simple (one stimulus/one response) Choice (one or more stimulus/more responses) Movement Time (time from start of movement to its completion) Response Time = Reaction Time + Movement Time RUN!!!Reaction Time : Movement Time………………….--------------------------RESPONSE
Hicks LawChoiceReaction TimeA s the number of stimuli incr eases so does RT.
Factors affecting RT Age RT deteriorates with time Sex males are generally faster than females Predictability of stimulus Anticipation correct anticipation decreases RT and incorrect increases RT. Intensity of stimulus Psychological Refractory Period presentation of a 2nd stimulus to react to.How can Experience coaches improve response
Improving Response time Practice eg practicing sprint starts Mental Attending to the correct cues Rehearsal Similar to practice – awareness of a Experience stimulus occurring S-R Normal responses to a stimulus will compatibility decrease RT Warm Up Preparation of body for activity Arousal Optimum level of arousal Levels Focussing on the relevant information Selective available attention Improving it! Fitness Analysing opponents behaviour and Cue detection anticipating future events
Psychological Refractory Period Or…………….. S1 – Ronaldo taking a free kick R1 – Petr Cech moving to his left to save it S2 – Ball deflects off the wall to the right R2 – Cech trying to go right to save it.
PRP continued Psychological Refractory Period or PRP is the delay caused because of an increase in processing time when the first stimulus is closely followed by a second stimulus e.g. an attacker pretends to go one way by dropping their shoulder (first stimulus) then pushes off on the other leg (second stimulus) and goes in a different direction. This explains why a "dummy" or "fake" is so successful. The time delay this causes is the Psychological refractory period. The time it takes you to change your mind.
A nticipation This is the ability to predict future events from early signals or past experience. It relies on experience to recognise stimuli and cues that allow the performer to process information before an event occurs e.g. an experienced batsman would watch the bowlers hand and arm action to guess the type of delivery. A novice would watch the ball bounce before deciding which shot to play. Benefits of anticipation - reduces your reaction time, leaving you in greater control. Costs of anticipation - if you are wrong in your anticipation, you have to cancel the first response and reprocess. This increases your reach in time. How to prevent someone anticipating your action: - be unpredictable
Intrinsic Comes from within. The “feel” of the movement Eg balancing during a headstand Via proprioceptors and Kinaesthesis Mainly used in Autonomous phase of learning Difficult for Cognitive stage of learning people – novices.
Extrinsic From external sources – coaches/teachers etc Very important for beginners as they have not got the experiences to use intrinsic feedback
Functions To ....................... reinforce correct actions To ....................... correct faults To ....................... strengthen S-R bond To ....................... prevent bad habits To ....................... increase confidence
Motor Programmes/Schema Motor Programmes Schema Theory
Motor Programmes Are a set of movements that are stored in long term memory. They contain subroutines The plan is updated after the skill is performed Practical example of a tennis serve
Motor Programme example Tennis Ser ve Ball FollowGr ip Stance Swing Contact Toss thr ough
Schema Theory Used to explain how we can “pick up” new skills that have never been attempted before. A general schema is developed and modifies for different scenarios. Eg – A schema for throwing. Allows for javelin throwing, darts, bowling, throwing etc.
Schema cntd 4 Par ameter s to the schema theor y (explained using a football pass) Initial Conditions – What are the conditions I am in? What is the weather conditions like? Where are the opposition? Recal Where are my team-mates? l Response Specifications – What am I going to have to do? Which direction am I going to pass the ball? Sche How hard am I going to pass? What height is the ball going to go? ma Sensor y Consequences – What did it feel like? How did the pass “feel” (Kinaesthesis) Recognit Was it off the “sweet spot” of the foot? ion Was it not connected with properly? Movement Outcomes – Was it successful? Schema Did the pass reach my team-mate? Was it intercepted? Did the pass allow us to attack?
Open Loop Control Performer receives feedback but it does not affect the skill until after the movement has finished This is because the skill is too fast/ballistic Eg – a golf swing. More likely with closed skills Level 1 control
Closed Loop Control This is where feedback can be used to alter the skill dur ing the performance Eg balancing on a beam – information is being received and the body can adapt based on that information. Changes that happen are from the effector mechanism Comparison between current performance and memory trace Level 2 control - subconscious
Motivation/A rousal Intrinsic Drive Theory Extrinsic Inverted U Theory Drive Reduction Theory
Intrinsic Intrinsic motivation comes from within Performing for its own sake The enjoyment and self achievement of an activity Intangible rewards
Extrinsic This type of motivation comes from an outside source Eg trophies, money, awards Extremely useful for those in the cognitive stage of learning. Needs to be kept in check so it does not undermine intrinsic motivation
Drive Theor y As arousal increases so does performance. Novice – performance will suffer because dominant habit is incorrect Skilled – performance will be enhanced because dominant habit is correct
Inver ted U Theory As arousal increases so does performance. up to an optimum point (zone of optimum arousal) Before that performance decreases due to under arosual
Drive Reduction Theory Shows how new tasks or goals are used to re-motivate the performer Firstly there must be a dr ive to lear n Then the skill is pr acticed Dr ive is r educed when skill is learnt Too much pr actice leads to bor edom A new task/goal must be introduced to recreate a…
S-R Bonds S-R bonds. S = stimulus R = response A S-R bond is the link between a stimulus and a response. Example S = A starters gun in athletics R = GO!!!!
Thorndikes Laws Law of exercise PRA CTICE. The more a skill is practiced the stronger the S-R bond. A performer practices the tennis serve. Law of Effect SA TISFIER/INHIBITOR If the performance receives a satisfier (praise for example) it strengthens the S-R bond. (a rugby player sees the kick going over) If the performance receives an inhibitor (criticism for example) it weakens the S-R bond. (a golfer misses the green) Law if Readiness PHYSICA LLY/MENTA LLY CA PA BLE Performer needs to be physically able to lift weights! Performer must be mentally capable to process the
Operant conditioning The process of shaping behaviour Done by performer using trial and error Done by the coach manipulating the environment (eg – you can only hit it to the back of the court) Praise helps learning
Cognitive Theories Intervening Variables Mental processes occurring between receiving the stimulus and the response Insight learning Using memory to solve a problem Perception Interpreting the information on offer Past experiences Past schema’s or motor programmes can be used in the situation Whole learning The skill is best seen as a whole and not in parts
Social Learning Theory Attention Amount of notice given to the demonstration The higher the status of the model, the more notice given Retention A mental picture of the demo needs to be created in order for the performer to remember the skill Easier if the demo is novel/relevant/meaningful Reproduction Learner must be physically capable to perform the skill following the demo Demo’s must link to the competence levels of the performers
Positive Any action or reward to increases the chance of the behaviour r eoccur r ing. Eg Giving some extrinsic reward when a long badminton serve is correct.
Negative Used to ensure that undesirable responses are not repeated Not to be done with beginners, will de motivate. Performers in the autonomous stage of learning would be more suited to accept criticism
Phases of lear ning Cognitive Associative Autonomous
Cognitive First stage of learning where many mistakes occur Trial and error Movement pattern maybe very jerky and lacking fluency The performer has to think about the skill Beginners need accurate demo’s Mental Rehearsal occurs from the demo Performers needs extrinsic feedback as they do not know the skill. Performer requires positive feedback
A ssociative Practicing is important at this stage Smoother actions, less mistakes than Cognitive stage Kinaesthetic feedback can be used, but extrinsic feedback is still important The performer has to think less about the action and motor programmes formed
A utonomous Movement is fluent/efficient - can be performed automatically Performer can now focus on tactics/strategies Performer can refer back to previous stage if needed Expert can use intrinsic feedback and knowledge of performance
Massed Practice sessions with no breaks Repeated attempts at a skill, grooving of a skill More physical work is possible in one session Good for developing Kinaesthesis Allows the learner to experience the flow of the skill
Distributed Practice sessions with breaks involved Good for beginners or less experienced performers. Or if the task is dangerous/complex/physically demanding Mental rehearsal can take place in the breaks Allows sessions to be increasingly demanding
Varied Good to experience a wide range of experience Helps build up schema Good for open skills
Whole learning Teaching a skill as a whole, not in parts [Cognitive theory of learning]Benefits of teaching the skill as a whole Insight of whole skill gained/overview Kinaesthetic feel for skill Skill more fluent/cant be broken down Takes less time Transfer to full/game situation easier
Whole/Part/Whole whole par t whole method A BCD --> A --> B --> C --> D --> A BCD Skill is tried as a whole, then the bits are practiced Then put together again for the whole skill
Progressive Part Teach first subroutine - eg run up in triple jump [A] Teach second – take off [B] Third subroutine – landing; and add it to the first [C] Teach final skill as a whole – [A]-[B]- [AB]-[C]-[ABC] Subroutines are chained
Guidance Visual - demonstration (teacher/pupil/video etc) Very important in COGNITIVE STAGE demos must be accurate as modelling occurs Verbal - often accompanies visual guidance used with more component performers not too much – overload of information Can be used to condition a response Manual - Use of physical support Useful for giving confidence Useful for safety reasons eg – supporting a gymnast Mechanical - Using a mechanical aid Gives confidence and safety eg – stabilisers of a bike Gives an idea of kinaesthetic sense of movement not to be overdone – performer may become reliant
Transfer of Learning Types 1 Types 2 Why negative transfer occurs How can positive transfer occur?
Learning transferThe influence of one skill on another . Positive Where one skill helps the learning of another skill [over arm throw – badminton clear] Negative Where one skill hinders the learning of another skill [badminton wrist action – tennis wrist] Zero Where the two skills have no interrelation
Transfer of Learning cntd Bilateral Transferring from one limb to another [using weaker foot for kicking a football from preferred foot] Proactive The influence of a skill already learnt for one in the future [tennis forehand – tennis forehand topspin] Retroactive The influence of a skill being learnt on one already done [hockey flick – to lifting a hockey push pass]
Why may negative transferoccur? 1) The performer doesn’t understand the task requirements 2) First skill isnt learnt very well 3) Lack of motivation 4) Familiar stimulus is followed by an unfamiliar response S-R Bond. 5) Coach doesn’t draw attention to the differences!
How can a teacher ensurepositive tr ansfer? Emphasise the transferable elements Environmental conditions need to be similar Tactics/Strategies/Information processing elements need to be similar Similar skills Previous skills need to be well learned The more similar S-R characteristics the greater chance of transfer Positive previous experiences/positive values assist transfer Reinforcement/Positive feedback/praise