Skill A cquisition           A ll you need to know!
Instr uctionsClick a pictur e for that topic Clicking on             will take you to the topics   page Clicking on     ...
Topics   Skill & A bility                                     Motivation & A r ousal   Infor mation Pr ocessing        ...
Skill & A bility   Skill – characteristics    The le a rne d a bility to bring a bo ut p re -d e te rm ine d re s ults wi...
Skilful CharacteristicsLearnt              Goal Directed     Aesthetic                  SKILLCo-ordinated  Technical      ...
Characteristics explained!   Aesthetic         -      Graceful gymnastics routine   Fluent            -      Movements e...
Skill Classifications   Open / Closed             /   High / Low Organisation       /   Continuity Continuum           ...
Environmental FactorsOpen                                         Closed   Skill is affected by      Skill is not affect...
Organisation Classification            High                           Low   Closely linked             Subroutines can b...
Continuity Continuum     Discr ete          Ser ial         Continuous   Obvious         Discrete          No clear    ...
Muscles Used         Gr oss                 Fine   Large muscle         Small muscle    groups used.          groups use...
Pacing Continuum         Exter nal                    Self   Action is controlled      Action is controlled    by extern...
Characteristics of A bility   Ability is………       Genetic             Comes from our parents       Stable            ...
Psychomotor A bility   Psycho       -   Processing    information   Motor -      Movement   Therefore ; processing info...
Gross Motor A bility   Movement using large muscle groups.   Types include;       Speed       Strength       Stamina ...
Information Pr ocessing   Basic   Schmidt’s Model   Welfords Model   Whiting’s Model   Key Terms
Basic Model   BASIC MODEL                 I N PU T            D ECI SI O N                            FEED BACK           ...
Schmidt’s Model •STIMULUS                         STIM ULUS                            - this is the input from the       ...
Welfor d’s Model                                                         DISPLA Y                                         ...
Whiting’s Model            RECEPTOR SY STEMS            •r efer s to the sense or gans which r eceive            informati...
Key Terms   Display – The physical environment in which the person is    performing. (eg – display would be team-mates, w...
MemoryShor t Ter m   Selective    Shor t Ter m       Long Ter mSensor y       A ttention   Memor y            Memor yStor ...
Shor t Term Sensor y Store   Gets all the information from the    display (environment)   Almost limitless   Retains in...
Selective A ttention   The filtering system of the process.   Decides on the relevant from the    irrelevant   Relevant...
Shor t Term Memory   Holds between 7(+-2) pieces of    information   For 30 seconds   Motor plan is initiated by one de...
Long Term Memor y   Almost limitless   Information is encoded from STM   Information is retrieved from LTM to    STM in...
Retention strategies for LTM   Practice, Overlearning, Repetition   Link information to that already stored/relate to   ...
Reaction Time   Reaction/Movement/Response Time   Hicks Law   Factors affecting RT   PRP   Anticipation
Definitions   Reaction Time       Simple (one stimulus/one response)       Choice (one or more stimulus/more responses)...
Hicks LawChoiceReaction TimeA s the number of stimuli incr eases so does RT.
Factors affecting RT   Age       RT deteriorates with time   Sex       males are generally faster than females   Pred...
Improving Response time   Practice         eg practicing sprint starts   Mental           Attending to the correct cue...
Psychological Refractory    Period   Or……………..       S1 – Ronaldo taking a free kick       R1 – Petr Cech moving to his...
PRP continued   Psychological Refractory Period or PRP is the    delay caused because of an increase in    processing tim...
A nticipation   This is the ability to predict future events from early    signals or past experience.   It relies on ex...
Feedback   Intrinsic   Extrinsic   Functions
Intrinsic   Comes from within.   The “feel” of the movement       Eg balancing during a headstand   Via proprioceptors...
Extrinsic   From external sources –    coaches/teachers etc   Very important for beginners as they    have not got the e...
Functions   To ....................... reinforce correct    actions   To ....................... correct faults   To .....
Motor Programmes/Schema   Motor Programmes   Schema Theory
Motor Programmes   Are a set of movements that are stored    in long term memory.   They contain subroutines   The plan...
Motor Programme example                        Tennis                         Ser ve                 Ball                 ...
Schema Theory   Used to explain how we can “pick up”    new skills that have never been    attempted before.   A general...
Schema cntd   4 Par ameter s to the schema theor y (explained using a football    pass)   Initial Conditions – What are ...
Loop Control   Open Loop   Closed Loop
Open Loop Control   Performer receives feedback but it    does not affect the skill until after the    movement has finis...
Closed Loop Control   This is where feedback can be used to alter    the skill dur ing the performance       Eg balancin...
Motivation/A rousal   Intrinsic      Drive Theory   Extrinsic      Inverted U Theory                   Drive Reductio...
Intrinsic   Intrinsic motivation comes from within   Performing for its own sake   The enjoyment and self achievement  ...
Extrinsic   This type of motivation comes from an    outside source       Eg trophies, money, awards   Extremely useful...
Drive Theor y   As arousal increases so does    performance.            Novice –                            performance w...
Inver ted U Theory   As arousal increases so does performance.   up to an optimum point (zone of optimum    arousal)   ...
Drive Reduction Theory   Shows how new tasks or goals are    used to re-motivate the performer       Firstly there must ...
Learning Theor ies   S-R bonds                 Cognitive theories   Thorndikes Laws          Social Learning   Operan...
S-R Bonds   S-R bonds.       S = stimulus       R = response   A S-R bond is the link between a    stimulus and a resp...
Thorndikes Laws   Law of exercise       PRA CTICE.           The more a skill is practiced the stronger the S-R        ...
Operant conditioning   The process of shaping behaviour   Done by performer using trial and error   Done by the coach m...
Cognitive Theories   Intervening Variables       Mental processes occurring between receiving        the stimulus and th...
Social Learning Theory   Attention       Amount of notice given to the demonstration       The higher the status of the...
Reinforcement   Positive   Negative
Positive   Any action or reward to increases the    chance of the behaviour r eoccur r ing.       Eg       Giving some ...
Negative   Used to ensure that undesirable    responses are not repeated   Not to be done with beginners, will de    mot...
Phases of lear ning   Cognitive   Associative   Autonomous
Cognitive   First stage of learning where many mistakes    occur   Trial and error   Movement pattern maybe very jerky ...
A ssociative   Practicing is important at this stage   Smoother actions, less mistakes than    Cognitive stage   Kinaes...
A utonomous   Movement is fluent/efficient - can be    performed automatically   Performer can now focus on    tactics/s...
Practice   Massed           Whole   Distributed      Whole/Part/Whole   Varied           Progressive Part
Massed   Practice sessions with no breaks   Repeated attempts at a skill, grooving    of a skill   More physical work i...
Distributed   Practice sessions with breaks involved   Good for beginners or less    experienced performers. Or if the t...
Varied   Good to experience a wide range of    experience   Helps build up schema   Good for open skills
Whole learning Teaching a skill as a whole, not in parts  [Cognitive theory of learning]Benefits of teaching the skill as...
Whole/Part/Whole       whole par t whole method       A BCD --> A --> B --> C --> D -->       A BCD   Skill is tried as a...
Progressive Part   Teach first subroutine - eg run up in    triple jump [A]   Teach second – take off [B]   Third subro...
Guidance   Visual - demonstration (teacher/pupil/video etc)       Very important in COGNITIVE STAGE       demos must be...
Transfer of Learning   Types 1   Types 2   Why negative transfer occurs   How can positive transfer occur?
Learning transferThe influence of one skill on another . Positive       Where one skill helps the learning of        ano...
Transfer of Learning cntd   Bilateral       Transferring from one limb to another                       [using weaker fo...
Why may negative transferoccur?   1) The performer doesn’t understand    the task requirements   2) First skill isnt lea...
How can a teacher ensurepositive tr ansfer?   Emphasise the transferable elements   Environmental conditions need to be ...
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Skill acquisition

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Skill acquisition

  1. 1. Skill A cquisition A ll you need to know!
  2. 2. Instr uctionsClick a pictur e for that topic Clicking on will take you to the topics page Clicking on will take you back a slide Clicking on will take you for war d a slide Clicking on will take you back to the individual topics slide Clicking on will take you to the questions Clicking on will take you to the answer s Clicking on will take you back to the content of that topic
  3. 3. Topics Skill & A bility  Motivation & A r ousal Infor mation Pr ocessing  Lear ning Theor ies Memor y  Reinfor cement Reaction Time  Phases of Lear ning Feedback  Pr actice Motor Pr ogr ammes & Schema  Guidance Loop Contr ol  Tr ansfer
  4. 4. Skill & A bility Skill – characteristics The le a rne d a bility to bring a bo ut p re -d e te rm ine d re s ults with m a x im um c e rta inty o fte n with th Skill Classifications A bility – characteristics Gr oss Motor Psychomotor
  5. 5. Skilful CharacteristicsLearnt Goal Directed Aesthetic SKILLCo-ordinated Technical modelControlled Consistent
  6. 6. Characteristics explained! Aesthetic - Graceful gymnastics routine Fluent - Movements ease into each other Technical Model - Resembles a technique Goal Directed - Understanding what needs to be done! Learnt - Tennis player is taught a serve & practices Consistent - Performance is repeated with regularity Controlled - Performance is under control of performer
  7. 7. Skill Classifications Open / Closed / High / Low Organisation / Continuity Continuum / / Gross / Fine / Pacing Continuum /
  8. 8. Environmental FactorsOpen Closed Skill is affected by  Skill is not affected the environment by the environment (weather/opposition  Skill is self paced )  Skill is habitual Skill is externally  Fixed Practice paced method Performer is reactive
  9. 9. Organisation Classification High Low Closely linked  Subroutines can be subroutines separated Not easily broken  Skill is easily broken down down into parts Practiced as a whole  Examples  Examples Cartwheel Running Swimming Triple Jump
  10. 10. Continuity Continuum Discr ete Ser ial Continuous Obvious  Discrete  No clear start and elements beginning or end to the linked end to the movement together skill  Example Diving  Example  Example Tr iple Jump Cycling
  11. 11. Muscles Used Gr oss Fine Large muscle  Small muscle groups used. groups used. Large movements  Small/fine  Examples movements Running  Examples Kicking Pistol shooting Darts
  12. 12. Pacing Continuum Exter nal Self Action is controlled  Action is controlled by external factors. by performer Performer is not in  Performer is in control of the rate control of the rate of the action of the action Often open skills  Often closed skills  Examples  Examples Tackle Rafting Tennis Serve Golf shot
  13. 13. Characteristics of A bility Ability is………  Genetic  Comes from our parents  Stable  We don’t lose it!  Foundation for skill  Base for learning skills
  14. 14. Psychomotor A bility Psycho - Processing information Motor - Movement Therefore ; processing information then moving.  Eg – a fielder in cricket throwing the ball at the stumps.  P – Where am I in relation to the stumps? M – Throwing the ball at the stumps!
  15. 15. Gross Motor A bility Movement using large muscle groups. Types include;  Speed  Strength  Stamina  Balance  Flexibility  Co-ordination
  16. 16. Information Pr ocessing Basic Schmidt’s Model Welfords Model Whiting’s Model Key Terms
  17. 17. Basic Model BASIC MODEL I N PU T D ECI SI O N FEED BACK M AKI N G O U TPU T
  18. 18. Schmidt’s Model •STIMULUS STIM ULUS - this is the input from the ( in p u t ) environment / surroundings STIM ULUS ID EN TIFICATIO N •STIMULUS IDENTIFICA TION refers to the reception and RESPO N SE REACTIO N TIM E interpretation of sensory SELECTIO N information •RESPONSE SELECTION RESPO N SE PRO GRAM M IN G is responsible for decision making M OVEM EN T •RESPONSE PROGRA MMING (o utpu t) concerned with the sending of movement information via the nerves
  19. 19. Welfor d’s Model DISPLA Y refers to the range of actions and things that are happening in the D ISPLAY surrounding environment of the performer STI M ULI SEN SO RY IN FO RM ATIO N PERCEPTUA L MECHA NISM the part of the brain which PER CEPTU AL M ECH AN ISM perceives the surroundings DECISION MECHA NISM IN TRIN SIC FEED BACK the part of the brain which makes D ECISIO N M ECH AN ISM decisions EFFECTOR MECHA NISM M USCU LAR SYSTEM EFFECTO R M ECH AN I SM the part of the brain which carries out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and parts RESPON SE of the body which act out the relevant skill M OVEM EN T INTRINSIC FEEDBA CK (o u tp u t) feedback as to what actually happens to the body via the proprioceptors which inform the brain about balance, muscle tensions, limb positions and angles EX TRINSIC FEEDBA CK
  20. 20. Whiting’s Model RECEPTOR SY STEMS •r efer s to the sense or gans which r eceive information PERCEPTUA L MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which per ceives the sur r oundings and gives them meaning TRA NSLA TORY MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which makes decisions and sorts out and pr ocesses the few r elevant bits of information fr om the many inputs fr om the surr oundings EFFECTOR MECHA NISM •the par t of the brain which car r ies out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and par ts of the body via the nervous system
  21. 21. Key Terms Display – The physical environment in which the person is performing. (eg – display would be team-mates, where are the opposition, the ball, the pitch etc etc) Per ceptual mechanisms – Interpretation of the information received by the senses. Effector Mechanisms – Motor programmes or schemas are selected and developed. (what and how am I going to do it!) Muscular System – Muscles receive relevant motor programme or plan of action and a movement is initiated. Input – information received from the environment via the sense organs – easier with a stronger stimulus (ie loud, bright, unusual) Visual (see), A uditor y (hear), Pr opr ioception (how our body is orientated and the extent to which muscles are contracted or joints extended) 3 par ts to Pr opr ioception  Touch (feel – pain, temperature, pressure)  Equilibrium (sense that tells the brain when your body is balanced and when it is tipping, turning or inverting)
  22. 22. MemoryShor t Ter m Selective Shor t Ter m Long Ter mSensor y A ttention Memor y Memor yStor e (STM) (LTM) Info from STM is encoded to LTM Motor Plan Info from LTM is retrieved by recall, imagery and recognition.
  23. 23. Shor t Term Sensor y Store Gets all the information from the display (environment) Almost limitless Retains information for 0.5-1 second Moves onto Selective attention part of the process.
  24. 24. Selective A ttention The filtering system of the process. Decides on the relevant from the irrelevant Relevant information passes into the Short Term Memory Irrelevant is discarded. This prevents the STM from being overloaded.
  25. 25. Shor t Term Memory Holds between 7(+-2) pieces of information For 30 seconds Motor plan is initiated by one decision Capacity is increased by “chunking” information together
  26. 26. Long Term Memor y Almost limitless Information is encoded from STM Information is retrieved from LTM to STM in order to initiate movement.
  27. 27. Retention strategies for LTM Practice, Overlearning, Repetition Link information to that already stored/relate to past experiences Make information meaningful/relevant Experience is enjoyable/novel/interesting Use of visual imagery/mental rehearsal Reward and reinforce success Chunk/group information together Intensify the stimulus Make information unique/unusual
  28. 28. Reaction Time Reaction/Movement/Response Time Hicks Law Factors affecting RT PRP Anticipation
  29. 29. Definitions Reaction Time  Simple (one stimulus/one response)  Choice (one or more stimulus/more responses) Movement Time (time from start of movement to its completion) Response Time = Reaction Time + Movement Time RUN!!!Reaction Time : Movement Time………………….--------------------------RESPONSE
  30. 30. Hicks LawChoiceReaction TimeA s the number of stimuli incr eases so does RT.
  31. 31. Factors affecting RT Age  RT deteriorates with time Sex  males are generally faster than females Predictability of stimulus Anticipation  correct anticipation decreases RT and incorrect increases RT. Intensity of stimulus Psychological Refractory Period  presentation of a 2nd stimulus to react to.How can Experience coaches improve response
  32. 32. Improving Response time Practice  eg practicing sprint starts Mental  Attending to the correct cues Rehearsal  Similar to practice – awareness of a Experience stimulus occurring S-R  Normal responses to a stimulus will compatibility decrease RT Warm Up  Preparation of body for activity Arousal  Optimum level of arousal Levels  Focussing on the relevant information Selective available attention  Improving it! Fitness  Analysing opponents behaviour and Cue detection anticipating future events
  33. 33. Psychological Refractory Period Or……………..  S1 – Ronaldo taking a free kick  R1 – Petr Cech moving to his left to save it  S2 – Ball deflects off the wall to the right  R2 – Cech trying to go right to save it.
  34. 34. PRP continued Psychological Refractory Period or PRP is the delay caused because of an increase in processing time when the first stimulus is closely followed by a second stimulus e.g. an attacker pretends to go one way by dropping their shoulder (first stimulus) then pushes off on the other leg (second stimulus) and goes in a different direction. This explains why a "dummy" or "fake" is so successful. The time delay this causes is the Psychological refractory period. The time it takes you to change your mind.
  35. 35. A nticipation This is the ability to predict future events from early signals or past experience. It relies on experience to recognise stimuli and cues that allow the performer to process information before an event occurs e.g. an experienced batsman would watch the bowlers hand and arm action to guess the type of delivery. A novice would watch the ball bounce before deciding which shot to play. Benefits of anticipation - reduces your reaction time, leaving you in greater control. Costs of anticipation - if you are wrong in your anticipation, you have to cancel the first response and reprocess. This increases your reach in time. How to prevent someone anticipating your action: - be unpredictable
  36. 36. Feedback Intrinsic Extrinsic Functions
  37. 37. Intrinsic Comes from within. The “feel” of the movement  Eg balancing during a headstand Via proprioceptors and Kinaesthesis Mainly used in Autonomous phase of learning Difficult for Cognitive stage of learning people – novices.
  38. 38. Extrinsic From external sources – coaches/teachers etc Very important for beginners as they have not got the experiences to use intrinsic feedback
  39. 39. Functions To ....................... reinforce correct actions To ....................... correct faults To ....................... strengthen S-R bond To ....................... prevent bad habits To ....................... increase confidence
  40. 40. Motor Programmes/Schema Motor Programmes Schema Theory
  41. 41. Motor Programmes Are a set of movements that are stored in long term memory. They contain subroutines The plan is updated after the skill is performed Practical example of a tennis serve
  42. 42. Motor Programme example Tennis Ser ve Ball FollowGr ip Stance Swing Contact Toss thr ough
  43. 43. Schema Theory Used to explain how we can “pick up” new skills that have never been attempted before. A general schema is developed and modifies for different scenarios. Eg – A schema for throwing. Allows for javelin throwing, darts, bowling, throwing etc.
  44. 44. Schema cntd 4 Par ameter s to the schema theor y (explained using a football pass) Initial Conditions – What are the conditions I am in?  What is the weather conditions like?  Where are the opposition? Recal  Where are my team-mates? l Response Specifications – What am I going to have to do? Which direction am I going to pass the ball? Sche   How hard am I going to pass?  What height is the ball going to go? ma Sensor y Consequences – What did it feel like?  How did the pass “feel” (Kinaesthesis) Recognit  Was it off the “sweet spot” of the foot? ion  Was it not connected with properly? Movement Outcomes – Was it successful? Schema  Did the pass reach my team-mate?  Was it intercepted?  Did the pass allow us to attack?
  45. 45. Loop Control Open Loop Closed Loop
  46. 46. Open Loop Control Performer receives feedback but it does not affect the skill until after the movement has finished This is because the skill is too fast/ballistic  Eg – a golf swing. More likely with closed skills Level 1 control
  47. 47. Closed Loop Control This is where feedback can be used to alter the skill dur ing the performance  Eg balancing on a beam – information is being received and the body can adapt based on that information. Changes that happen are from the effector mechanism Comparison between current performance and memory trace Level 2 control - subconscious
  48. 48. Motivation/A rousal Intrinsic  Drive Theory Extrinsic  Inverted U Theory  Drive Reduction Theory
  49. 49. Intrinsic Intrinsic motivation comes from within Performing for its own sake The enjoyment and self achievement of an activity Intangible rewards
  50. 50. Extrinsic This type of motivation comes from an outside source  Eg trophies, money, awards Extremely useful for those in the cognitive stage of learning. Needs to be kept in check so it does not undermine intrinsic motivation
  51. 51. Drive Theor y As arousal increases so does performance. Novice – performance will suffer because dominant habit is incorrect Skilled – performance will be enhanced because dominant habit is correct
  52. 52. Inver ted U Theory As arousal increases so does performance. up to an optimum point (zone of optimum arousal) Before that performance decreases due to under arosual
  53. 53. Drive Reduction Theory Shows how new tasks or goals are used to re-motivate the performer  Firstly there must be a dr ive to lear n  Then the skill is pr acticed  Dr ive is r educed when skill is learnt  Too much pr actice leads to bor edom  A new task/goal must be introduced to recreate a…
  54. 54. Learning Theor ies S-R bonds  Cognitive theories Thorndikes Laws  Social Learning Operant Conditioning
  55. 55. S-R Bonds S-R bonds.  S = stimulus  R = response A S-R bond is the link between a stimulus and a response. Example  S = A starters gun in athletics  R = GO!!!!
  56. 56. Thorndikes Laws Law of exercise  PRA CTICE.  The more a skill is practiced the stronger the S-R bond.  A performer practices the tennis serve. Law of Effect  SA TISFIER/INHIBITOR  If the performance receives a satisfier (praise for example) it strengthens the S-R bond. (a rugby player sees the kick going over)  If the performance receives an inhibitor (criticism for example) it weakens the S-R bond. (a golfer misses the green) Law if Readiness  PHYSICA LLY/MENTA LLY CA PA BLE  Performer needs to be physically able to lift weights!  Performer must be mentally capable to process the
  57. 57. Operant conditioning The process of shaping behaviour Done by performer using trial and error Done by the coach manipulating the environment  (eg – you can only hit it to the back of the court) Praise helps learning
  58. 58. Cognitive Theories Intervening Variables  Mental processes occurring between receiving the stimulus and the response Insight learning  Using memory to solve a problem Perception  Interpreting the information on offer Past experiences  Past schema’s or motor programmes can be used in the situation Whole learning  The skill is best seen as a whole and not in parts
  59. 59. Social Learning Theory Attention  Amount of notice given to the demonstration  The higher the status of the model, the more notice given Retention  A mental picture of the demo needs to be created in order for the performer to remember the skill  Easier if the demo is novel/relevant/meaningful Reproduction  Learner must be physically capable to perform the skill following the demo  Demo’s must link to the competence levels of the performers
  60. 60. Reinforcement Positive Negative
  61. 61. Positive Any action or reward to increases the chance of the behaviour r eoccur r ing.  Eg  Giving some extrinsic reward when a long badminton serve is correct.
  62. 62. Negative Used to ensure that undesirable responses are not repeated Not to be done with beginners, will de motivate. Performers in the autonomous stage of learning would be more suited to accept criticism
  63. 63. Phases of lear ning Cognitive Associative Autonomous
  64. 64. Cognitive First stage of learning where many mistakes occur Trial and error Movement pattern maybe very jerky and lacking fluency The performer has to think about the skill Beginners need accurate demo’s Mental Rehearsal occurs from the demo Performers needs extrinsic feedback as they do not know the skill. Performer requires positive feedback
  65. 65. A ssociative Practicing is important at this stage Smoother actions, less mistakes than Cognitive stage Kinaesthetic feedback can be used, but extrinsic feedback is still important The performer has to think less about the action and motor programmes formed
  66. 66. A utonomous Movement is fluent/efficient - can be performed automatically Performer can now focus on tactics/strategies Performer can refer back to previous stage if needed Expert can use intrinsic feedback and knowledge of performance
  67. 67. Practice Massed  Whole Distributed  Whole/Part/Whole Varied  Progressive Part
  68. 68. Massed Practice sessions with no breaks Repeated attempts at a skill, grooving of a skill More physical work is possible in one session Good for developing Kinaesthesis Allows the learner to experience the flow of the skill
  69. 69. Distributed Practice sessions with breaks involved Good for beginners or less experienced performers. Or if the task is dangerous/complex/physically demanding Mental rehearsal can take place in the breaks Allows sessions to be increasingly demanding
  70. 70. Varied Good to experience a wide range of experience Helps build up schema Good for open skills
  71. 71. Whole learning Teaching a skill as a whole, not in parts [Cognitive theory of learning]Benefits of teaching the skill as a whole Insight of whole skill gained/overview Kinaesthetic feel for skill Skill more fluent/cant be broken down Takes less time Transfer to full/game situation easier
  72. 72. Whole/Part/Whole whole par t whole method A BCD --> A --> B --> C --> D --> A BCD Skill is tried as a whole, then the bits are practiced Then put together again for the whole skill
  73. 73. Progressive Part Teach first subroutine - eg run up in triple jump [A] Teach second – take off [B] Third subroutine – landing; and add it to the first [C] Teach final skill as a whole – [A]-[B]- [AB]-[C]-[ABC] Subroutines are chained
  74. 74. Guidance Visual - demonstration (teacher/pupil/video etc)  Very important in COGNITIVE STAGE  demos must be accurate as modelling occurs Verbal - often accompanies visual guidance  used with more component performers  not too much – overload of information  Can be used to condition a response Manual - Use of physical support  Useful for giving confidence  Useful for safety reasons  eg – supporting a gymnast Mechanical - Using a mechanical aid  Gives confidence and safety  eg – stabilisers of a bike  Gives an idea of kinaesthetic sense of movement  not to be overdone – performer may become reliant
  75. 75. Transfer of Learning Types 1 Types 2 Why negative transfer occurs How can positive transfer occur?
  76. 76. Learning transferThe influence of one skill on another . Positive  Where one skill helps the learning of another skill [over arm throw – badminton clear] Negative  Where one skill hinders the learning of another skill [badminton wrist action – tennis wrist] Zero  Where the two skills have no interrelation
  77. 77. Transfer of Learning cntd Bilateral  Transferring from one limb to another [using weaker foot for kicking a football from preferred foot] Proactive  The influence of a skill already learnt for one in the future [tennis forehand – tennis forehand topspin] Retroactive  The influence of a skill being learnt on one already done [hockey flick – to lifting a hockey push pass]
  78. 78. Why may negative transferoccur? 1) The performer doesn’t understand the task requirements 2) First skill isnt learnt very well 3) Lack of motivation 4) Familiar stimulus is followed by an unfamiliar response S-R Bond. 5) Coach doesn’t draw attention to the differences!
  79. 79. How can a teacher ensurepositive tr ansfer? Emphasise the transferable elements Environmental conditions need to be similar Tactics/Strategies/Information processing elements need to be similar Similar skills Previous skills need to be well learned The more similar S-R characteristics the greater chance of transfer Positive previous experiences/positive values assist transfer Reinforcement/Positive feedback/praise

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