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Theories of Motor Learning
Dr. Maheshwari H
M.P.TH (Neurosciences)
Asst. Professor
DVVPF College of Physiotherapy,
Ahmednagar
Objectives
04/11/18Motor learning2
What is motor learning
Theories of Motor learning
How it will be apply on patients
Contents
04/11/18Motor learning3
Define motor learning and learning
Procedural learning
Declarative and associated learning
Adam’s theory
Schmidt’s theory
Ecological theory
Motor learning occurs in stages
Measuring learning outcomes
Transfer of learning
Feedback and giving augmented
feedback
Practice conditions
Definition
04/11/18Motor learning4
Motor learning is the understanding of
acquisition and/or modification of
movement.
As applied to patients, motor learning
involves the reacquisition of previously
learned movement skills that are lost due
to pathology or sensory, motor, or
cognitive impairments. This process is
often referred to as recovery of function.
Learning vs. Motor Learning
04/11/18Motor learning5
Learning is a process of acquiring
knowledge about the world.
Motor learning: a set of processes
associated with practice leading to a
relatively permanent change in the
capacity for skilled actions.
Concepts of Motor Learning
04/11/18Motor learning6
Learning is a process of acquiring the
capacity for skilled action
Learning results from experience or
practice
Learning cannot be measured or observed
directly; it is inferred from behavior
Learning produces relatively permanent
changes in behavior; short term change is
not learning)
Motor Performance ≠ Motor
Learning
04/11/18Motor learning7
Motor Performance is the temporary
change in motor behavior seen during a
practice session
e. g. A patient learns how to shift
more body weight over the weaker leg
at the end of the therapy session.
However, the patient still bears more
weight on the unaffected leg at the
next visit to PT. Learning has not
occurred.
Motor Performance ≠ Motor
Learning
04/11/18Motor learning8
Performance may be influenced by
many other variables, e.g. fatigue, level
of learning/skills, anxiety, motivation,
cues or manual guidance given to the
learner
Motor Learning is a relatively
permanent change in motor behaviors
that are measured after a retention
period and only result from practice.
Forms of motor learning
04/11/18Motor learning9
04/11/18Motor learning10
Nondeclarative (Implicit)
Learning:
Non-Associative Learning
04/11/18Motor learning11
A single stimulus is given repeatedly and
the nervous system learns about the
characteristics of the stimulus
Habituation
↓ response to the stimulus, e.g.
exercises to treat dizziness in patients
Sensitization
↑ response to the stimulus, e.g. training
to enhance awareness of loss of balance
Nondeclarative (Implicit)
Learning: Associative Learning
04/11/18Motor learning12
Classical Conditioning
learn to predict relationships between
two stimuli
e.g. before learning: verbal cues +
manual guidance  stand up; after
learning: verbal cue  stand up
patients are more likely to learn if the
associations are relevant and meaningful
04/11/18Motor learning13
Nondeclarative (Implicit)
Learning: Associative Learning
04/11/18Motor learning14
Operant Conditioning
learn to associate a certain response,
from among many that we have, with a
consequence; trial and error learning
e.g. relearn stability limits after ankle
sprain; verbal praise from PT
behaviors that are beneficial and
rewarded tend to be repeated
04/11/18Motor learning15
Procedural Learning
04/11/18Motor learning16
Does NOT require attention,
awareness, or other higher cognitive
processes
One automatically learns the rules for
moving, i.e. movement schema
Learning requires repeating a
movement continuously under a variety
of situations
Patients with damage to cortex (e.g.
TBI, dementia, aphasia) can still ↑
Declarative (Explicit) Learning
04/11/18Motor learning17
Require attention, awareness, and
reflection
Results in knowledge or facts (e.g.
objects, places, events) that can be
consciously recalled and expressed in
declarative sentences, e.g. “1st
I move to
the edge of chair. 2nd
I lean forward and
stand up”; instruction from PT; mental
rehearsal; motor imagery
Declarative (Explicit) Learning
04/11/18Motor learning18
Practice can transform declarative into
procedural or nondeclarative knowledge
e.g. a patient first learns to stand up may
verbally repeat the instruction; after
repeated practice, the patient may be able
to stand up without instruction
Processes of declarative learning:
encoding  consolidation storage
retrieval
Theories of motor learning
04/11/18Motor learning19
Adams Closed-Loop Theory
04/11/18Motor learning20
In motor learning, sensory feedback
from the ongoing movements is
compared with the stored memory of the
intended movement
Memory trace selects and initiates a
movement
Perceptual trace, built-up over practice,
is the internal reference of correctness
04/11/18Motor learning21
Adams Closed-Loop Theory
04/11/18Motor learning22
Clinical Implications
Accuracy of a movement is
proportional to the strength of the
perceptual trace
Patient must practice the movement
repeatedly to ↑ the perceptual trace
Limitations
Cannot explain open loop movement.
Schmidt Schema Theory
04/11/18Motor learning23
Emphasizes open-loop control processes
and generalized motor program
“Schema” is a generalized set of rules for
producing movements that can be applied
to a variety of contexts
Equivalent to motor programming theory
of motor control
Schmidt Schema Theory
04/11/18Motor learning24
Information stored in short-term memory
after a movement is produced
1.Initial movement conditions, e.g. body
position, weight of an object, step height
2.Parameters of a generalized motor
program
3.Outcome of the movement, in terms of
knowledge of results
4.Intrinsic sensory feedback of the
movement
Schmidt Schema Theory
04/11/18Motor learning25
Information stored in short-term
memory is converted into two schemas
1.Recall schema selects a specific
response and contains rules for
producing a movement
2.Recognition schema evaluates the
response correctness and informs the
learner about the errors of a movement
04/11/18Motor learning26
Schmidt Schema Theory
04/11/18Motor learning27
Clinical Implication
Variability of practice↑ learning and
generalized motor program rules
Limitations
Vague; no consistent research finding in
support of variable practice
Cannot account for one-trial learning (In
the absence of a schema)
Ecological Theory
04/11/18Motor learning28
Learning involves the exploration the
perceptual and motor workspace
1.Identify critical perceptual variables, i.e.
regulatory cues
2.Explore the optimal or most efficient
movements for the task
3.Incorporate the relevant perceptual cues
and optimal movement strategies for a
specific task
04/11/18Motor learning29
Ecological Theory
04/11/18Motor learning30
Clinical Implications
Patients learn to identify relevant
perceptual cues that are important for
developing appropriate motor responses,
e.g. identify relevant perceptual cues for
reaching and lifting a heavy glass:
weight, size, or surface of the glass vs.
its color?
Theories of Motor Learning
continue…….
Dr. Maheshwari H
M.P.TH (Neurosciences)
Fitts and Posner Three Stage
Model: Cognitive stage
04/11/18Motor learning32
Learner activities
Learn what to do
Learn about the task and goals
Require high degree of attention
Select among alternative strategies
Performance may be more variable
Fast improvement in performance
Develop a motor program
Fitts and Posner Three Stage
Model: Associative Stage
04/11/18Motor learning33
Learner activities
Refine the skills
Refine a particular movement strategy
Performance is less variable and
more consistent
Cognitive monitoring decreases
Improve the organization of the motor
program
Fitts and Posner Three Stage
Model: Autonomous Stage
04/11/18Motor learning34
Learner activities
Become proficient, save energy
Attention demands are greatly
reduced
Movements and sensory analysis
begin to become automatic
Able to perform multiple tasks, scan
the environment
Ability to detect own errors improves
Implications for PT
04/11/18Motor learning35
Motor learning probably occurs in
stages
Activities of the patient are different in
the different stages
Activities of the therapist should be
different in the different stages
Systems Three-Stage Model
04/11/18Motor learning36
Learners initially restrict degrees of
freedom (DOF) and gradually release
the DOF as the task is learned and the
skills improve
Novice Stage
Simplify movement by constraining
joints and ↓DOF, e.g. muscles co-
contraction
Less energy efficient
Systems Three-Stage Model
04/11/18Motor learning37
Advanced Stage
Gradual release of additional DOF
More adaptive to different contexts
Expert Stage
All DOF released
Efficient and coordinated movements
Exploit the mechanical and inertial
properties of the limbs and the
environment
Gentile’s Two Stage Model
04/11/18Motor learning38
Early stage
Understand the task goals, develop
movement strategies, recognize
regulatory features of the environment
Late stage
Refine the movement, consistent and
efficient performance
Closed skills become fixation/consistent
Opened skills become diversification/
adaptive
04/11/18Motor learning39
Think-Pair-Share
04/11/18Motor learning40
A patient is learning to use a walker. What
would the patient be able to do at each stage of
learning?
Cognitive stage (early)-
Association stage (late)-
Automatic stage (late)-
Application of motor learning
theories
04/11/18Motor learning41
How to Measure Learning?
04/11/18Motor learning42
To separate the relatively permanent
effects of learning from the transient effect
of practice, learning can be measured
using retention or transfer designs.
1.Test the subject after a retention interval,
typically >= 24 hr
2.Choose the same task (retention test) or a
variation of the task (transfer test)(e.g.
different speed or lighting conditions for
walking)
Practice Level: How Much?
PRACTICE, PRACTICE,
PRACTICE
04/11/18Motor learning43
Animal Studies
9,600 retrievals over 4 week period
(Nudo, 1996)
7,000 trials of food catching in 5
weeks (Pavlides, 1993)
Feedback (FB)
04/11/18Motor learning44
FB is all the sensory information that is
available as a results of a movement
Types by mode of delivery
Intrinsic (e.g. proprioception)
Extrinsic (e.g. instruction from PT)
Types of FB by information provided
Knowledge of results (KR)
Knowledge of performance (KP)
Knowledge of Performance
(KP)
04/11/18Motor learning45
Information about the movement
patterns
Usually intrinsic but can also be
extrinsic
Proprioception, Biofeedback, video
recording, verbal instruction (e.g. “Your
elbow was /is in flexed.”)
Knowledge of Results (KR)
04/11/18Motor learning46
Information about the result or outcome
of the movement in terms of the goal
Verbal instruction - proprioception (e.g.
feeling loss of balance during a fall)
Characteristics of Good
Feedback
04/11/18Motor learning47
Timing
Allow some time to reflect between trials
Summary FB
Summary FB after a few trials works
better than after every trial
Give more frequent summary feedback
(e.g. after every 5 trials) for complex
tasks than for simple tasks
Characteristics of Good
Feedback
04/11/18Motor learning48
Accuracy
Positively reinforce correct performance
Augmented (extrinsic) Feedback
Video/visual of movement patterns alone
does not help; need to provide error-
correcting cues as well
AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT
Can be given concurrently or afterwards
Characteristics of Good
Feedback
04/11/18Motor learning49
Frequency and Fading Schedule
More impaired patients may require
more frequent FB.
Avoid giving FB every trial.
Decrease the amount of FB given
across learning stages so the patients
won’t become dependent on FB.
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning50
Massed vs. Distributed Practice Schedule
Distributed in early stage (e.g. 20 min X
3 days) to avoid fatigue and massed in
later stage (e.g. 60 min in one day)
Constant vs. Variable Practice
Usually variable practice (walk at
different speeds) results in better
learning outcomes than constant practice
(walk at the same speed) in health adults
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning51
Random vs. Blocked Practice
Random practice (practice multiple tasks
in 15 min) results in better learning than
blocked practice (practice one task in 15
min) in healthy adults but not necessarily
patients
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning52
Whole- vs. Part-Task Practice
Task specificity says the best practice
is the task itself
If utilizing a part technique, the part
(e.g. hip and knee flexion, extension)
must be a naturally occurring
component of the whole (e.g. walking)
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning53
Transfer
Amount of transfer is determined by the
similarity between the two tasks or the
two environments
The more closely the practice
environment resemble those in the
performance environment, the better the
transfer
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning54
Mental Practice
The same neural circuits producing
the movement are also active during
mental practice
Can produce large positive effects on
performance of the task (Rawlings
1972)
Physical + mental practice produces
the best learning outcome
Practice Conditions
04/11/18Motor learning55
Mental Practice
The same neural circuits producing
the movement are also active during
mental practice
Can produce large positive effects on
performance of the task (Rawlings
1972)
Physical + mental practice produces
the best learning outcome
Summary
04/11/18Motor learning56
Def’n of Learning & Motor Learning
Theories of Motor learning
Forms of Motor Learning
Three stage model
Application on patient’s
Questions
04/11/18Motor learning57
Enlist the name of theories of motor
learning. - 3M
Write down any three theories of motor
learning - 7M
Theories of motor learning
- 15M
04/11/18Motor learning58
THANK U……..

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Theories of motor learning

  • 1. Theories of Motor Learning Dr. Maheshwari H M.P.TH (Neurosciences) Asst. Professor DVVPF College of Physiotherapy, Ahmednagar
  • 2. Objectives 04/11/18Motor learning2 What is motor learning Theories of Motor learning How it will be apply on patients
  • 3. Contents 04/11/18Motor learning3 Define motor learning and learning Procedural learning Declarative and associated learning Adam’s theory Schmidt’s theory Ecological theory Motor learning occurs in stages Measuring learning outcomes Transfer of learning Feedback and giving augmented feedback Practice conditions
  • 4. Definition 04/11/18Motor learning4 Motor learning is the understanding of acquisition and/or modification of movement. As applied to patients, motor learning involves the reacquisition of previously learned movement skills that are lost due to pathology or sensory, motor, or cognitive impairments. This process is often referred to as recovery of function.
  • 5. Learning vs. Motor Learning 04/11/18Motor learning5 Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge about the world. Motor learning: a set of processes associated with practice leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity for skilled actions.
  • 6. Concepts of Motor Learning 04/11/18Motor learning6 Learning is a process of acquiring the capacity for skilled action Learning results from experience or practice Learning cannot be measured or observed directly; it is inferred from behavior Learning produces relatively permanent changes in behavior; short term change is not learning)
  • 7. Motor Performance ≠ Motor Learning 04/11/18Motor learning7 Motor Performance is the temporary change in motor behavior seen during a practice session e. g. A patient learns how to shift more body weight over the weaker leg at the end of the therapy session. However, the patient still bears more weight on the unaffected leg at the next visit to PT. Learning has not occurred.
  • 8. Motor Performance ≠ Motor Learning 04/11/18Motor learning8 Performance may be influenced by many other variables, e.g. fatigue, level of learning/skills, anxiety, motivation, cues or manual guidance given to the learner Motor Learning is a relatively permanent change in motor behaviors that are measured after a retention period and only result from practice.
  • 9. Forms of motor learning 04/11/18Motor learning9
  • 11. Nondeclarative (Implicit) Learning: Non-Associative Learning 04/11/18Motor learning11 A single stimulus is given repeatedly and the nervous system learns about the characteristics of the stimulus Habituation ↓ response to the stimulus, e.g. exercises to treat dizziness in patients Sensitization ↑ response to the stimulus, e.g. training to enhance awareness of loss of balance
  • 12. Nondeclarative (Implicit) Learning: Associative Learning 04/11/18Motor learning12 Classical Conditioning learn to predict relationships between two stimuli e.g. before learning: verbal cues + manual guidance  stand up; after learning: verbal cue  stand up patients are more likely to learn if the associations are relevant and meaningful
  • 14. Nondeclarative (Implicit) Learning: Associative Learning 04/11/18Motor learning14 Operant Conditioning learn to associate a certain response, from among many that we have, with a consequence; trial and error learning e.g. relearn stability limits after ankle sprain; verbal praise from PT behaviors that are beneficial and rewarded tend to be repeated
  • 16. Procedural Learning 04/11/18Motor learning16 Does NOT require attention, awareness, or other higher cognitive processes One automatically learns the rules for moving, i.e. movement schema Learning requires repeating a movement continuously under a variety of situations Patients with damage to cortex (e.g. TBI, dementia, aphasia) can still ↑
  • 17. Declarative (Explicit) Learning 04/11/18Motor learning17 Require attention, awareness, and reflection Results in knowledge or facts (e.g. objects, places, events) that can be consciously recalled and expressed in declarative sentences, e.g. “1st I move to the edge of chair. 2nd I lean forward and stand up”; instruction from PT; mental rehearsal; motor imagery
  • 18. Declarative (Explicit) Learning 04/11/18Motor learning18 Practice can transform declarative into procedural or nondeclarative knowledge e.g. a patient first learns to stand up may verbally repeat the instruction; after repeated practice, the patient may be able to stand up without instruction Processes of declarative learning: encoding  consolidation storage retrieval
  • 19. Theories of motor learning 04/11/18Motor learning19
  • 20. Adams Closed-Loop Theory 04/11/18Motor learning20 In motor learning, sensory feedback from the ongoing movements is compared with the stored memory of the intended movement Memory trace selects and initiates a movement Perceptual trace, built-up over practice, is the internal reference of correctness
  • 22. Adams Closed-Loop Theory 04/11/18Motor learning22 Clinical Implications Accuracy of a movement is proportional to the strength of the perceptual trace Patient must practice the movement repeatedly to ↑ the perceptual trace Limitations Cannot explain open loop movement.
  • 23. Schmidt Schema Theory 04/11/18Motor learning23 Emphasizes open-loop control processes and generalized motor program “Schema” is a generalized set of rules for producing movements that can be applied to a variety of contexts Equivalent to motor programming theory of motor control
  • 24. Schmidt Schema Theory 04/11/18Motor learning24 Information stored in short-term memory after a movement is produced 1.Initial movement conditions, e.g. body position, weight of an object, step height 2.Parameters of a generalized motor program 3.Outcome of the movement, in terms of knowledge of results 4.Intrinsic sensory feedback of the movement
  • 25. Schmidt Schema Theory 04/11/18Motor learning25 Information stored in short-term memory is converted into two schemas 1.Recall schema selects a specific response and contains rules for producing a movement 2.Recognition schema evaluates the response correctness and informs the learner about the errors of a movement
  • 27. Schmidt Schema Theory 04/11/18Motor learning27 Clinical Implication Variability of practice↑ learning and generalized motor program rules Limitations Vague; no consistent research finding in support of variable practice Cannot account for one-trial learning (In the absence of a schema)
  • 28. Ecological Theory 04/11/18Motor learning28 Learning involves the exploration the perceptual and motor workspace 1.Identify critical perceptual variables, i.e. regulatory cues 2.Explore the optimal or most efficient movements for the task 3.Incorporate the relevant perceptual cues and optimal movement strategies for a specific task
  • 30. Ecological Theory 04/11/18Motor learning30 Clinical Implications Patients learn to identify relevant perceptual cues that are important for developing appropriate motor responses, e.g. identify relevant perceptual cues for reaching and lifting a heavy glass: weight, size, or surface of the glass vs. its color?
  • 31. Theories of Motor Learning continue……. Dr. Maheshwari H M.P.TH (Neurosciences)
  • 32. Fitts and Posner Three Stage Model: Cognitive stage 04/11/18Motor learning32 Learner activities Learn what to do Learn about the task and goals Require high degree of attention Select among alternative strategies Performance may be more variable Fast improvement in performance Develop a motor program
  • 33. Fitts and Posner Three Stage Model: Associative Stage 04/11/18Motor learning33 Learner activities Refine the skills Refine a particular movement strategy Performance is less variable and more consistent Cognitive monitoring decreases Improve the organization of the motor program
  • 34. Fitts and Posner Three Stage Model: Autonomous Stage 04/11/18Motor learning34 Learner activities Become proficient, save energy Attention demands are greatly reduced Movements and sensory analysis begin to become automatic Able to perform multiple tasks, scan the environment Ability to detect own errors improves
  • 35. Implications for PT 04/11/18Motor learning35 Motor learning probably occurs in stages Activities of the patient are different in the different stages Activities of the therapist should be different in the different stages
  • 36. Systems Three-Stage Model 04/11/18Motor learning36 Learners initially restrict degrees of freedom (DOF) and gradually release the DOF as the task is learned and the skills improve Novice Stage Simplify movement by constraining joints and ↓DOF, e.g. muscles co- contraction Less energy efficient
  • 37. Systems Three-Stage Model 04/11/18Motor learning37 Advanced Stage Gradual release of additional DOF More adaptive to different contexts Expert Stage All DOF released Efficient and coordinated movements Exploit the mechanical and inertial properties of the limbs and the environment
  • 38. Gentile’s Two Stage Model 04/11/18Motor learning38 Early stage Understand the task goals, develop movement strategies, recognize regulatory features of the environment Late stage Refine the movement, consistent and efficient performance Closed skills become fixation/consistent Opened skills become diversification/ adaptive
  • 40. Think-Pair-Share 04/11/18Motor learning40 A patient is learning to use a walker. What would the patient be able to do at each stage of learning? Cognitive stage (early)- Association stage (late)- Automatic stage (late)-
  • 41. Application of motor learning theories 04/11/18Motor learning41
  • 42. How to Measure Learning? 04/11/18Motor learning42 To separate the relatively permanent effects of learning from the transient effect of practice, learning can be measured using retention or transfer designs. 1.Test the subject after a retention interval, typically >= 24 hr 2.Choose the same task (retention test) or a variation of the task (transfer test)(e.g. different speed or lighting conditions for walking)
  • 43. Practice Level: How Much? PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE 04/11/18Motor learning43 Animal Studies 9,600 retrievals over 4 week period (Nudo, 1996) 7,000 trials of food catching in 5 weeks (Pavlides, 1993)
  • 44. Feedback (FB) 04/11/18Motor learning44 FB is all the sensory information that is available as a results of a movement Types by mode of delivery Intrinsic (e.g. proprioception) Extrinsic (e.g. instruction from PT) Types of FB by information provided Knowledge of results (KR) Knowledge of performance (KP)
  • 45. Knowledge of Performance (KP) 04/11/18Motor learning45 Information about the movement patterns Usually intrinsic but can also be extrinsic Proprioception, Biofeedback, video recording, verbal instruction (e.g. “Your elbow was /is in flexed.”)
  • 46. Knowledge of Results (KR) 04/11/18Motor learning46 Information about the result or outcome of the movement in terms of the goal Verbal instruction - proprioception (e.g. feeling loss of balance during a fall)
  • 47. Characteristics of Good Feedback 04/11/18Motor learning47 Timing Allow some time to reflect between trials Summary FB Summary FB after a few trials works better than after every trial Give more frequent summary feedback (e.g. after every 5 trials) for complex tasks than for simple tasks
  • 48. Characteristics of Good Feedback 04/11/18Motor learning48 Accuracy Positively reinforce correct performance Augmented (extrinsic) Feedback Video/visual of movement patterns alone does not help; need to provide error- correcting cues as well AVOID VERBAL BOMBARDMENT Can be given concurrently or afterwards
  • 49. Characteristics of Good Feedback 04/11/18Motor learning49 Frequency and Fading Schedule More impaired patients may require more frequent FB. Avoid giving FB every trial. Decrease the amount of FB given across learning stages so the patients won’t become dependent on FB.
  • 50. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning50 Massed vs. Distributed Practice Schedule Distributed in early stage (e.g. 20 min X 3 days) to avoid fatigue and massed in later stage (e.g. 60 min in one day) Constant vs. Variable Practice Usually variable practice (walk at different speeds) results in better learning outcomes than constant practice (walk at the same speed) in health adults
  • 51. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning51 Random vs. Blocked Practice Random practice (practice multiple tasks in 15 min) results in better learning than blocked practice (practice one task in 15 min) in healthy adults but not necessarily patients
  • 52. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning52 Whole- vs. Part-Task Practice Task specificity says the best practice is the task itself If utilizing a part technique, the part (e.g. hip and knee flexion, extension) must be a naturally occurring component of the whole (e.g. walking)
  • 53. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning53 Transfer Amount of transfer is determined by the similarity between the two tasks or the two environments The more closely the practice environment resemble those in the performance environment, the better the transfer
  • 54. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning54 Mental Practice The same neural circuits producing the movement are also active during mental practice Can produce large positive effects on performance of the task (Rawlings 1972) Physical + mental practice produces the best learning outcome
  • 55. Practice Conditions 04/11/18Motor learning55 Mental Practice The same neural circuits producing the movement are also active during mental practice Can produce large positive effects on performance of the task (Rawlings 1972) Physical + mental practice produces the best learning outcome
  • 56. Summary 04/11/18Motor learning56 Def’n of Learning & Motor Learning Theories of Motor learning Forms of Motor Learning Three stage model Application on patient’s
  • 57. Questions 04/11/18Motor learning57 Enlist the name of theories of motor learning. - 3M Write down any three theories of motor learning - 7M Theories of motor learning - 15M

Editor's Notes

  1. Occurs when a single stimulus is given repeatedly and the nervous system learns about the characteristics of the stimulus. Habituation is a decrease in responsiveness that occurs as a result of repeated exposure to a non-painful stimulus. Sensitization: An enhanced response to many different stimuli after experiencing an intense or noxious one. For example, an animal responds more vigorously to a tone of lesser intensity once a painfully loud tone has been played. Here we say that the animal is sensitized.
  2. Explore the world to identify the relationships between one’s body and the environment is a critical task for patients with movement problems. Associating a weak, ineffective (unconditioned-U) stimulus with a strong, effective (conditioned-C) stimulus to produce a desired response (R) e.g. Verbal cues (U) coupled with manual guidance (C) to help a patient make the movement (R) Patients are more likely to learn if the associations are relevant and meaningful to them
  3. Predict one’s behavior with the consequence Therapists use positive feedback(“Good job!”) to reinforce the successful accomplishment of a task Neural circuits involved in operant conditioning Cerebellum for movements Amygdala for emotions Premotor areas for associating sensory events with a specific movement (“Mirror Neurons”)
  4. e.g. some of the rules for performing a sit to stand Shifting the weight over to a new base of support Produce extensor force in the hips and legs against the body weight Learning under a variety of contexts enables the successful performance of action in variable environments. A patient who had a TBI and cannot verbalize the sequence of use of an assistive gait device may still be able to learn the movement sequence.Neural structure involved cerebellum striatum of the basal ganglia
  5. With declarative learning, motor tasks can be practiced in a different way, e.g. athlet mental rehearsal before the competition Neural circuits involved in declarative learning Sensory association cortices Medial temporal lobe Hippocampus
  6. Encoding requires attention: encoding is affected by motivation and attention to the information, and ability to associate it with stored memory. Consolidation convert the memory into long term memory. It involves structural changes of neurons. Storage involves the retention of long term memory. Retrieval is the recall of information and different long term storage. It is subject to distortion since an individual reconstructs the memories from a combination of different sites. Retrieval is most accurate when the context is similar or the same to the context it is created. Declarative memory is stored in the cortex (likely in temporal cortex), not hippocampus!
  7. Recall schema ~similar to Adams memory trace Recognition schema ~similar to Adams perceptual trace
  8. Note that Shumway-Cook’s borrowed from Schmidt’s book on this section but she might have missed the point? It was not clear from what she stated in the book. I looked up Schmidt’s original text and this is what he stated. Schmidt and Lee, 2005. Motor Control and Learning, 4th edition. Human Kinetics.
  9. Note that Shumway-Cook’s borrowed from Schmidt’s book on this section but she might have missed the point? It was not clear from what she stated in the book. I looked up Schmidt’s original text and this is what he stated. Schmidt and Lee, 2005. Motor Control and Learning, 4th edition. Human Kinetics.
  10. Study of 4 TBI patients with memory deficits (Haring, 2002) 2 patients who received feedback on 75% of movement attempts were more successful in learning a 7-step supine  stand transfer task than 2 patients who received feedback on 25% of movement attempts
  11. Blocked Practice Practice all of one movement at one time and then practice all of another movement Better for performance, but less efficient for learning Random Practice Continuously change the task being practiced Better for learning Forces learner to reconstruct motor program with each movement (active learning process)
  12. Movements requiring “whole” practice Cyclic movements, e.g. gait Multi-joint movements where timing of movement components is linked, e.g. reaching for a cup to pick up Okay to practice “parts” if: Task is easily broken down into parts Muscle strengthening is desired outcome – be sure to link strengthening type exercise to ultimate task being learning (task specificity) Practicing dorsiflexion while in sitting and expecting carry-over into gait does not work. Gait depends on central pattern generators and many postural synergies where muscles are activated together. Picking up a cup involves the transport task of the arm and the grasp task of the hand. The timing of the grasp is such that the hand will open to prepare to grasp the cup before it reaches the cup
  13. Thinking about how a movement is done can facilitate learning Cognitively try out different strategies for achieving a motor task, e.g. floor  WC transfers SMA is active when doing mental practice of sequence movements
  14. Thinking about how a movement is done can facilitate learning Cognitively try out different strategies for achieving a motor task, e.g. floor  WC transfers SMA is active when doing mental practice of sequence movements