Fatigue management and recovery strategies for athletes


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Fatigue management and recovery strategies for athletes

  1. 1. <ul><li>Fatigue Management and Recovery Strategies for Athletes </li></ul>  Taisuke Kinugasa, PhD Sports Physiologist Sports Science Academy Singapore Sports School
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview </li></ul>  What is fatigue? Fatigue management What is recovery? Recovery strategies Planning recovery-based training
  3. 3. What is Fatigue ? An inability to perform at a level that was once possible recently
  4. 4. Positive Fatigue Fatigue Super- compensation Tr Load Time + - Recovery Tr Load Recovery 0 Performance Performance Readiness after sufficient recovery lead to performance improvement
  5. 5. Negative Fatigue Tr Load Time + - Re Tr Load Re 0 Performance Performance Readiness Tr Load may lead to chronic fatigue (eg overtraining, overuse)
  6. 6. The Continuum of Training Optimal Training Under Training Over- reaching Over- training Training load Performance Optimal Recovery Over Recovery Under Recovery Serious Under Recovery
  7. 7. Major Causes of Fatigue Metabolic factors insufficient energy Neural factors (central and peripheral nervous systems) fatigued brain; accumulated muscle fatigue Environmental factors imbalanced homeostasis due to travel, whether etc Psychological factors emotional and social stressors
  8. 8. = Sports Life Management Training Eating Sleeping Studying Entertaining Socializing Fatigue Management
  9. 9. What is Recovery ? The activities that might reduce fatigue to restore a status of performance readiness (eg physiological and psychological) Sleep Nutrition Psychological skills Physical therapy Hydro-recovery Active rest
  10. 10. Sleep <ul><ul><li>Sleep is the most important recovery modality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night sleep: adults 7 – 9 hr; kids 9 - 10 hr (Carskadon, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day nap: 15 - 20 min (Takahashi et al, 1998; Hayashi et al, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too much or too little sleep can affect performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only quantity but also quality of sleep is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sleep (75-80%): growth and repair (Hudson-Walters, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep (20-25%): neural function (Calder, 1995) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sleeping Tips: Things to DO <ul><ul><li>Practice relaxation techniques before going to bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(eg soft music and muscle relaxation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie down to sleep ONLY when you are sleepy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t fall asleep within 30 min after turning out the light, get up and do some relaxation again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you wake up in the night and can’t get back to sleep, get up and do some relaxation again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get up at the same time every day </li></ul></ul>Calder, 2004
  12. 12. Sleeping Tips: Thing NOT to Do <ul><ul><li>Caffeine (eg coffee, tea, and coke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to disturb sleep patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High protein and large meal </li></ul></ul>Calder, 2004
  13. 13. Nutrition <ul><ul><li>Fluid: c ontinue re-hydrating until urine colour is clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports drink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygenated water eg OxyShot (Piantadosi, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate milk: carbohydrate + protein (Karp et al, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel: immediately after (30 min to 2 hr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate: 1 g/kg/hr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycemic index (GI): glucose and insulin ↑ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> perhaps consumed every 15-30 min </li></ul><ul><li>Boiled potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery bars </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Breads </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar, jam, and honey </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical fruits </li></ul><ul><li>(IOC, 2003) </li></ul>   ?  
  14. 14. Urine Check for Hydration
  15. 15. Psychological Skills <ul><ul><li>Emotional recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood-lifting activities (eg music, movie ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> should be individualized (Crust and Clough, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meditation , visualization, flotation </li></ul></ul> ?
  16. 16. Physical Therapy <ul><ul><li>Stretching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance enhancement (Shrier, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% fewer injury rate (Hartig and Henderson, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports massage: 2 reviews (Moraska, 2005; Weerapong et al, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological benefits (eg muscle relaxation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice massage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1RM (Howatson and Van Someren, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOMS (Howatson and Van Someren, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acupuncture and acupressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↑ vagal activity (Zengyoung et al, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression garments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ↑ lactate clearance (Barry, 1991; Sparrow, 1995; Melchior, 1996; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayberry, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ DOMS (Kraemer, 2001) </li></ul></ul>   ?    
  17. 17. Hydro-recovery <ul><ul><li>Pool recovery (aqua exercise): 15 - 40 min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spa (water jet massage) : 20 min </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps muscle recovery, ↑ jump P ( Viitasalo et al, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shower: within 5 – 10 min after training or competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hot bath: can improve quality of sleep (Kanda et al, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sauna (90 °C ): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ rowing P after 2 days (Creasy et al, 2003); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↑ time to exhaustion after 11-14 sessions (Scoon et al, 2006) </li></ul></ul> ? ? ?  ?
  18. 18. Use of Contrast Baths <ul><ul><li>Contrast baths are getting very popular among football codes and cricket teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(eg NZ rugby team, England rugby team, South Africa cricket team, and Bolton football team) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method: hot (38 - 40°C) x 60 sec + cold (10 - 12 °C ) x 30 – 60 sec, 3-5 sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, there is only limited evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast bath: 2 study ( Coffey et al , 2004; Morton, 2006) ; </li></ul><ul><li>1 review ( Cochrane, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ice bath: 7 studies (eg Eston and Peters, 1999; </li></ul><ul><li>Schniepp et al, 2002; Lane and Wenger, 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot bath: 1 study ( Viitasalo et al, 1995 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological mechanisms unclear </li></ul> ?
  19. 19. Portable Plunge Pool for Ice Bath iCool © Portacovery Australia www.portacovery.com AIS has more than 8 of this model and SSC purchased one recently Automatic cooling system Suitable for overseas competitions and training camps
  20. 20. Ice bath Contrast temperature shower SSS Hydro-recovery Protocol Less body fat More body fat Very tired Not so tired 60 sec hot 30 sec cold ( ) + X 3 38°C 15°C 30 sec cold ( ) X 3 12°C 60 sec cold ( ) X 3 12°C
  21. 21. Active Rest <ul><ul><li>Mode: sport-specific (eg soccer: jogging; cyclist: cycle ergometer); cross training: activate unused muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity: moderate = below AT level, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 % of VO 2 max (Weltman et al, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume: 15 min (Monedero and Donne, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ peak power after repeated cycle sprints (Spencer et al, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be detrimental to rapid glycogen resynthesis (Barnett, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all sports require active rest (eg golf, sailing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined modalities may be beneficial (Monedero and Donne, 2000) </li></ul></ul> ?
  22. 22. 3 Levels of Recovery Level 1: Passive recovery Level 2: Active recovery Level 3: Enhance recovery through training
  23. 23. Tapering A progressive, nonlinear reduction of the training load during a variable period of time, in an attempt to reduce the physiological and psychological stress of daily training and enhance performance. (Mujika and Padilla, 2000) Maintain training intensity, reduce volume by 60-90%, maintain frequency at > 80% Individualize taper period between 4 to 28 days Expected performance enhacement ≈ 3% (Mujika and Padilla, 2003)
  24. 24. Sleep Psychological skills Physical Therapy Nutrition Recovery Strategies Hydro- recovery Active Rest Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Passive Active Training Efficiency of Movements Tapering
  25. 25. Management of Recovery Plan Recovery- based training session Monitoring Feedback
  26. 26. Planning Recovery-Based Training <ul><ul><li>From work-based training to recovery-based training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally at least one day per week should be a non-training day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be proactive with recovery to avoid overtraining </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 3 Monitoring Recovery Tools <ul><ul><li>1. Daily self-monitoring log (Kinugasa et al, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. TQR (Kennta, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. RESTQ-Sport (Kellmann et al, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Daily Log Kinugasa, 2004
  29. 29. Total Quality of Recovery (TQR)
  30. 30. RESTQ-Sport To monitor recovery and stress 77 questions (12 general + 7 specific) Moderately to highly correlated with POMS (Kellmann et al, 2001)
  31. 31. 4 Responses to Recovery Performance Readiness Physical: feeling “in shape” Physiological: restored energy, balanced homeostasis Psychological: refresh and relaxed Medical: recovered from rehabilitation
  32. 32. SSS Recovery Centre <ul><li>Hydro-recovery (1 hot + 1 cold with jet massage) </li></ul><ul><li>Active rest area (jogging and cycling) </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching area </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation (eg lightning, aroma, color, temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization (eg motivational video) </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Winning Formula Train hard + recovery well = Enhanced performance = Win
  34. 34. Athlete Centred Coach Driven Sports Scientist Supported Think Globally Act Locally [email_address]